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Europe :: Netherlands Print
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NETHERLANDS
  • Introduction :: Netherlands
  • Background field listing

    The Dutch United Provinces declared their independence from Spain in 1579; during the 17th century, they became a leading seafaring and commercial power, with settlements and colonies around the world. After a 20-year French occupation, a Kingdom of the Netherlands was formed in 1815. In 1830, Belgium seceded and formed a separate kingdom. The Netherlands remained neutral in World War I, but suffered German invasion and occupation in World War II. A modern, industrialized nation, the Netherlands is also a large exporter of agricultural products. The country was a founding member of NATO and the EEC (now the EU) and participated in the introduction of the euro in 1999. In October 2010, the former Netherlands Antilles was dissolved and the three smallest islands - Bonaire, Sint Eustatius, and Saba - became special municipalities in the Netherlands administrative structure. The larger islands of Sint Maarten and Curacao joined the Netherlands and Aruba as constituent countries forming the Kingdom of the Netherlands.

    In February 2018, the Sint Eustatius island council (governing body) was dissolved and replaced by a government commissioner to restore the integrity of public administration. According to the Dutch Government, the intervention will be as "short as possible and as long as needed."

  • Geography :: Netherlands
  • Location field listing
    Western Europe, bordering the North Sea, between Belgium and Germany
    Geographic coordinates field listing
    52 30 N, 5 45 E
    Map references field listing
    Europe
    Area field listing
    total: 41,543 sq km
    land: 33,893 sq km
    water: 7,650 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 135
    Area - comparative field listing
    slightly less than twice the size of New Jersey
    Land boundaries field listing
    total: 1,053 km
    border countries (2): Belgium 478 km, Germany 575 km
    Coastline field listing
    451 km
    Maritime claims field listing
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    contiguous zone: 24 nm
    exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
    Climate field listing
    temperate; marine; cool summers and mild winters
    Terrain field listing
    mostly coastal lowland and reclaimed land (polders); some hills in southeast
    Elevation field listing
    mean elevation: 30 m
    elevation extremes: -7 m lowest point: Zuidplaspolder
    862 highest point: Mount Scenery (on the island of Saba in the Caribbean, now considered an integral part of the Netherlands following the dissolution of the Netherlands Antilles)

    note: the highest point on continental Netherlands is Vaalserberg at 322 m

    Natural resources field listing
    natural gas, petroleum, peat, limestone, salt, sand and gravel, arable land
    Land use field listing
    agricultural land: 55.1% (2011 est.)
    arable land: 29.8% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 1.1% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 24.2% (2011 est.)
    forest: 10.8% (2011 est.)
    other: 34.1% (2011 est.)
    Irrigated land field listing
    4,860 sq km (2012)
    Population distribution field listing
    an area known as the Randstad, anchored by the cities of Amsterdam, Rotterdam, the Hague, and Utrecht, is the most densely populated region; the north tends to be less dense, though sizeable communities can be found throughout the entire country
    Natural hazards field listing

    flooding

    volcanism: Mount Scenery (887 m), located on the island of Saba in the Caribbean, last erupted in 1640;; Round Hill (601 m), a dormant volcano also known as The Quill, is located on the island of St. Eustatius in the Caribbean;; these islands are at the northern end of the volcanic island arc of the Lesser Antilles that extends south to Grenada

    Environment - current issues field listing
    water and air pollution are significant environmental problems; pollution of the country's rivers from industrial and agricultural chemicals, including heavy metals, organic compounds, nitrates, and phosphates; air pollution from vehicles and refining activities
    Environment - international agreements field listing
    party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    Geography - note field listing
    located at mouths of three major European rivers (Rhine, Maas or Meuse, and Schelde); about a quarter of the country lies below sea level and only about half of the land exceeds one meter above sea level
  • People and Society :: Netherlands
  • Population field listing
    17,151,228 (July 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 66
    Nationality field listing
    noun: Dutchman(men), Dutchwoman(women)
    adjective: Dutch
    Ethnic groups field listing
    Dutch 76.9%, EU 6.4%, Turkish 2.4%, Moroccan 2.3%, Indonesian 2.1%, German 2.1%, Surinamese 2%, Polish 1%, other 4.8% (2018 est.)
    Languages field listing
    Dutch (official)

    note: Frisian is an official language in Fryslan province; Frisian, Low Saxon, Limburgish, Romani, and Yiddish have protected status under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages; Dutch is the official language of the three special municipalities of the Caribbean Netherlands; English is a recognized regional language on Sint Eustatius and Saba; Papiamento is a recognized regional language on Bonaire

    Religions field listing
    Roman Catholic 23.6%, Protestant 14.9% (includes Dutch Reformed 6.4%, Protestant Church of The Netherlands 5.6%, Calvinist 2.9%), Islam 5.1%, other 5.6% (includes Hindu, Buddhist, Jewish), none 50.7% (2017 est.)
    Age structure field listing
    0-14 years: 16.28% (male 1,428,837 /female 1,362,686)
    15-24 years: 12.03% (male 1,052,357 /female 1,011,710)
    25-54 years: 39.18% (male 3,371,698 /female 3,348,595)
    55-64 years: 13.41% (male 1,143,824 /female 1,155,751)
    65 years and over: 19.1% (male 1,487,278 /female 1,788,492) (2018 est.)
    population pyramid: population pyramid
    Dependency ratios field listing
    total dependency ratio: 53.1 (2015 est.)
    youth dependency ratio: 25.6 (2015 est.)
    elderly dependency ratio: 27.4 (2015 est.)
    potential support ratio: 3.6 (2015 est.)
    Median age field listing
    total: 42.7 years
    male: 41.6 years
    female: 43.8 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 26
    Population growth rate field listing
    0.38% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 164
    Birth rate field listing
    10.9 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 181
    Death rate field listing
    9 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 62
    Net migration rate field listing
    1.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 49
    Population distribution field listing
    an area known as the Randstad, anchored by the cities of Amsterdam, Rotterdam, the Hague, and Utrecht, is the most densely populated region; the north tends to be less dense, though sizeable communities can be found throughout the entire country
    Urbanization field listing
    urban population: 91.5% of total population (2018)
    rate of urbanization: 0.74% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    Major urban areas - population field listing
    1.132 million AMSTERDAM (capital), 1.008 million Rotterdam (2018)
    Sex ratio field listing
    at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    25-54 years: 1.01 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    55-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    Mother's mean age at first birth field listing
    29.6 years (2015 est.)
    Maternal mortality rate field listing
    7 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 164
    Infant mortality rate field listing
    total: 3.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    male: 3.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    female: 3.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 199
    Life expectancy at birth field listing
    total population: 81.5 years (2018 est.)
    male: 79.3 years (2018 est.)
    female: 83.8 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 27
    Total fertility rate field listing
    1.78 children born/woman (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 153
    Contraceptive prevalence rate field listing
    73% (2013)

    note: percent of women aged 18-45

    Health expenditures field listing
    10.9% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 15
    Physicians density field listing
    3.48 physicians/1,000 population (2015)
    Hospital bed density field listing
    4.7 beds/1,000 population (2009)
    Drinking water source field listing
    improved: urban: 100% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 100% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 100% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 0% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 0% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
    Sanitation facility access field listing
    improved: urban: 97.5% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 99.9% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 97.7% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 2.5% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 0.1% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 2.3% of population (2015 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate field listing
    0.2% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 101
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS field listing
    23,000 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 79
    HIV/AIDS - deaths field listing
    <500 (2017 est.)
    Obesity - adult prevalence rate field listing
    20.4% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 99
    Education expenditures field listing
    5.5% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 51
    School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education) field listing
    total: 18 years (2012)
    male: 18 years (2012)
    female: 18 years (2012)
    Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 field listing
    total: 10.8% (2016 est.)
    male: 11.4% (2016 est.)
    female: 10.3% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 117
  • Government :: Netherlands
  • Country name field listing
    conventional long form: Kingdom of the Netherlands
    conventional short form: Netherlands
    local long form: Koninkrijk der Nederlanden
    local short form: Nederland
    abbreviation: NL
    etymology: the country name literally means "the lowlands" and refers to the geographic features of the land being both flat and down river from higher areas (i.e., at the estuaries of the Scheldt, Meuse, and Rhine Rivers; only about half of the Netherlands is more than 1 meter above sea level)
    Government type field listing
    parliamentary constitutional monarchy; part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands
    Capital field listing
    name: Amsterdam; note - The Hague is the seat of government
    geographic coordinates: 52 21 N, 4 55 E
    time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

    note: time descriptions apply to the continental Netherlands only, for the constituent countries in the Caribbean, the time difference is UTC-4

    Administrative divisions field listing
    12 provinces (provincies, singular - provincie); Drenthe, Flevoland, Fryslan (Friesland), Gelderland, Groningen, Limburg, Noord-Brabant (North Brabant), Noord-Holland (North Holland), Overijssel, Utrecht, Zeeland (Zealand), Zuid-Holland (South Holland)

    note: the Netherlands is one of four constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; the other three, Aruba, Curacao, and Sint Maarten, are all islands in the Caribbean; while all four parts are considered equal partners, in practice, most of the Kingdom's affairs are administered by the Netherlands, which makes up about 98% of the Kingdom's total land area and population

    note: three other Caribbean islands, Bonaire, Sint Eustatius, and Saba, are considered to be special municipalities of the Netherlands proper

    Dependent areas field listing
    Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten
    Independence field listing
    23 January 1579 (the northern provinces of the Low Countries conclude the Union of Utrecht breaking with Spain; on 26 July 1581 they formally declared their independence with an Act of Abjuration; however, it was not until 30 January 1648 and the Peace of Westphalia that Spain recognized this independence)
    National holiday field listing
    King's Day (birthday of King WILLEM-ALEXANDER), 27 April (1967); note - King's or Queen's Day are observed on the ruling monarch's birthday; currently celebrated on 26 April if 27 April is a Sunday
    Constitution field listing
    history: previous 1597, 1798; latest adopted 24 August 1815 (substantially revised in 1848) (2016)
    amendments: proposed as an "Act of Parliament" by or on behalf of the king or by the Second Chamber of the States General; the Second Chamber is dissolved after its first reading of the "Act"; passage requires a second reading by both the First Chamber and newly elected Second Chamber, followed by at least two-thirds majority vote of both chambers, and ratification by the king; amended many times, last in 2010 (2016)
    International law organization participation field listing
    accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    Citizenship field listing
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of the Netherlands
    dual citizenship recognized: no
    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
    Suffrage field listing
    18 years of age; universal
    Executive branch field listing
    chief of state: King WILLEM-ALEXANDER (since 30 April 2013); Heir Apparent Princess Catharina-Amalia (daughter of King WILLEM-ALEXANDER, born 7 December 2003)
    head of government: Prime Minister Mark RUTTE (since 14 October 2010; Deputy Prime Ministers (since 26 October 2017) Hugo DE JONGE, Karin Kajsa OLLONGREN, and Carola SCHOUTEN (since 26 October 2017); note - Mark RUTTE heads his third cabinet put in place since 26 October 2017
    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the monarch
    elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; following Second Chamber elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the monarch; deputy prime ministers are appointed by the monarch
    Legislative branch field listing
    description: bicameral States General or Staten Generaal consists of:
    First Chamber or Eerste Kamer (75 seats; members indirectly elected by the country's 12 provincial council members by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)
    Second Chamber or Tweede Kamer (150 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve up to 4-year terms)
    elections:
    First Chamber - last held on 26 May 2015 (next to be held in May 2019)
    Second Chamber - last held on 15 March 2017 (next to be held 15 March 2021)
    election results:
    First Chamber - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - VVD 13, CDA 12, D66 10, PVV 9, SP 9, PvdA 8, GL 4, CU 3, other 7; composition - men 49, women 26, percent of women 34.7%
    Second Chamber - percent of vote by party - VVD 21.3%, PVV 13.1%, CDA 12.4%, D66 12.2%, GL 9.1%, SP 9.1%, PvdA 5.7%, CU 3.4%, PvdD 3.2%, 50 Plus 3.1%, other 7.4%; seats by party - VVD 33, PVV 20, CDA 19, D66 19, GL 14, SP 14, PvdA 9, CU 5, PvdD 5, 50 Plus 4, other 8; composition - men 96, women 54, percent of women 36%; note - total States General percent of women 35.6%
    Judicial branch field listing
    highest courts: Supreme Court or Hoge Raad (consists of 41 judges: the president, 6 vice presidents, 31 justices or raadsheren, and 3 justices in exceptional service, referred to as buitengewone dienst); the court is divided into criminal, civil, tax, and ombuds chambers
    judge selection and term of office: justices appointed by the monarch from a list provided by the Second Chamber of the States General; justices appointed for life or until mandatory retirement at age 70
    subordinate courts: courts of appeal; district courts, each with up to 5 subdistrict courts; note in mid-July 2017, legislation was proposed to establish a new commercial court for international trade disputes with the Netherlands
    Political parties and leaders field listing
    Christian Democratic Appeal or CDA [Sybrand VAN HAERSMA BUMA]
    Christian Union or CU [Gert-Jan SEGERS]
    Democrats 66 or D66 [Alexander PECHTOLD]
    Denk [Tunahan KUZU]
    50 Plus [Henk KROL]
    Forum for Democracy or FvD [Thierry BAUDET]
    Green Left or GL [Jesse KLAVER]
    Labor Party or PvdA [Lodewijk ASSCHER]
    Party for Freedom or PVV [Geert WILDERS]
    Party for the Animals or PvdD [Marianne THIEME]
    People's Party for Freedom and Democracy or VVD [Mark RUTTE]
    Reformed Political Party or SGP [Kees VAN DER STAAIJ]
    Socialist Party or SP [Lilian MARIJNISSEN]
    plus a few minor parties
    International organization participation field listing
    ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council (observer), Australia Group, Benelux, BIS, CBSS (observer), CD, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EITI (implementing country), EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club, PCA, Schengen Convention, SELEC (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMISS, UNRWA, UN Security Council (temporary), UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
    Diplomatic representation in the US field listing
    chief of mission: Ambassador Hendrik Jan Jurriaan SCHUWER (since 17 September 2015)
    chancery: 4200 Linnean Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 244-5300, [1] 877-388-2443
    FAX: [1] (202) 362-3430
    consulate(s) general: Chicago, Miami, New York, San Francisco
    Diplomatic representation from the US field listing
    chief of mission: Ambassador Peter HOEKSTRA (since 10 January 2018)
    embassy: John Adams Park 1, 2244 BZ Wassenaar
    mailing address: PSC 71, Box 1000, APO AE 09715
    telephone: [31] (70) 310-2209
    FAX: [31] (70) 310-2207
    consulate(s) general: Amsterdam
    Flag description field listing
    three equal horizontal bands of red (bright vermilion; top), white, and blue (cobalt); similar to the flag of Luxembourg, which uses a lighter blue and is longer; the colors were derived from those of WILLIAM I, Prince of Orange, who led the Dutch Revolt against Spanish sovereignty in the latter half of the 16th century; originally the upper band was orange, but because its dye tended to turn red over time, the red shade was eventually made the permanent color; the banner is perhaps the oldest tricolor in continuous use
    National symbol(s) field listing
    lion, tulip; national color: orange
    National anthem field listing
    name: "Het Wilhelmus" (The William)
    lyrics/music: Philips VAN MARNIX van Sint Aldegonde (presumed)/unknown

    note: adopted 1932, in use since the 17th century, making it the oldest national anthem in the world; also known as "Wilhelmus van Nassouwe" (William of Nassau), it is in the form of an acrostic, where the first letter of each stanza spells the name of the leader of the Dutch Revolt

  • Economy :: Netherlands
  • Economy - overview field listing

    The Netherlands, the sixth-largest economy in the European Union, plays an important role as a European transportation hub, with a consistently high trade surplus, stable industrial relations, and low unemployment. Industry focuses on food processing, chemicals, petroleum refining, and electrical machinery. A highly mechanized agricultural sector employs only 2% of the labor force but provides large surpluses for food-processing and underpins the country’s status as the world’s second largest agricultural exporter.

    The Netherlands is part of the euro zone, and as such, its monetary policy is controlled by the European Central Bank. The Dutch financial sector is highly concentrated, with four commercial banks possessing over 80% of banking assets, and is four times the size of Dutch GDP.

    In 2008, during the financial crisis, the government budget deficit hit 5.3% of GDP. Following a protracted recession from 2009 to 2013, during which unemployment doubled to 7.4% and household consumption contracted for four consecutive years, economic growth began inching forward in 2014. Since 2010, Prime Minister Mark RUTTE’s government has implemented significant austerity measures to improve public finances and has instituted broad structural reforms in key policy areas, including the labor market, the housing sector, the energy market, and the pension system. In 2017, the government budget returned to a surplus of 0.7% of GDP, with economic growth of 3.2%, and GDP per capita finally surpassed pre-crisis levels. The fiscal policy announced by the new government in the 2018-2021 coalition plans for increases in government consumption and public investment, fueling domestic demand and household consumption and investment. The new government’s policy also plans to increase demand for workers in the public and private sector, forecasting a further decline in the unemployment rate, which hit 4.8% in 2017.

    GDP (purchasing power parity) field listing
    $924.4 billion (2017 est.)
    $898.6 billion (2016 est.)
    $879.4 billion (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 27
    GDP (official exchange rate) field listing
    $832.2 billion (2017 est.) (2017 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate field listing
    2.9% (2017 est.)
    2.2% (2016 est.)
    2% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 118
    GDP - per capita (PPP) field listing
    $53,900 (2017 est.)
    $52,800 (2016 est.)
    $51,900 (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 23
    Gross national saving field listing
    31.2% of GDP (2017 est.)
    28.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
    28.8% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 28
    GDP - composition, by end use field listing
    household consumption: 44.3% (2017 est.)
    government consumption: 24.2% (2017 est.)
    investment in fixed capital: 20.5% (2017 est.)
    investment in inventories: 0.2% (2017 est.)
    exports of goods and services: 83% (2017 est.)
    imports of goods and services: -72.3% (2017 est.)
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin field listing
    agriculture: 1.6% (2017 est.)
    industry: 17.9% (2017 est.)
    services: 70.2% (2017 est.)
    Agriculture - products field listing
    vegetables, ornamentals, dairy, poultry and livestock products; propagation materials
    Industries field listing
    agroindustries, metal and engineering products, electrical machinery and equipment, chemicals, petroleum, construction, microelectronics, fishing
    Industrial production growth rate field listing
    3.3% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 96
    Labor force field listing
    7.969 million (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 63
    Labor force - by occupation field listing
    agriculture: 1.2%
    industry: 17.2%
    services: 81.6% (2015 est.)
    Unemployment rate field listing
    4.9% (2017 est.)
    6% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 69
    Population below poverty line field listing
    8.8% (2015 est.)
    Household income or consumption by percentage share field listing
    lowest 10%: 24.9% (2014 est.)
    highest 10%: 24.9% (2014 est.)
    Distribution of family income - Gini index field listing
    30.3 (2015 est.)
    25.1 (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 134
    Budget field listing
    revenues: 361.4 billion (2017 est.)
    expenditures: 352.4 billion (2017 est.)
    Taxes and other revenues field listing
    43.4% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 27
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) field listing
    1.1% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 32
    Public debt field listing
    56.5% of GDP (2017 est.)
    61.3% of GDP (2016 est.)

    note: data cover general government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment, debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions

    country comparison to the world: 78
    Fiscal year field listing
    calendar year
    Inflation rate (consumer prices) field listing
    1.3% (2017 est.)
    0.1% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 70
    Central bank discount rate field listing
    0% (31 December 2016)
    0.05% (31 December 2015)

    note: this is the European Central Bank's rate on the marginal lending facility, which offers overnight credit to banks in the euro area

    country comparison to the world: 158
    Commercial bank prime lending rate field listing
    1.33% (31 December 2017 est.)
    1.47% (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 192
    Stock of narrow money field listing
    $419 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $364.9 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

    note: see entry for the European Union for money supply for the entire euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 18 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money circulating within their own borders

    country comparison to the world: 13
    Stock of broad money field listing
    $419 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $364.9 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 13
    Stock of domestic credit field listing
    $1.687 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $1.547 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 14
    Market value of publicly traded shares field listing
    $652.7 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $735.1 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $675 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 17
    Current account balance field listing
    $87.46 billion (2017 est.)
    $62.92 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 4
    Exports field listing
    $839.7 million (2017 est.)
    $495.4 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 167
    Exports - partners field listing
    Germany 24.2%, Belgium 10.7%, UK 8.8%, France 8.8%, Italy 4.2% (2017)
    Exports - commodities field listing
    machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, mineral fuels; food and livestock, manufactured goods
    Imports field listing
    $453.8 billion (2017 est.)
    $402.9 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 10
    Imports - commodities field listing
    machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, fuels, foodstuffs, clothing
    Imports - partners field listing
    China 16.4%, Germany 15.3%, Belgium 8.5%, US 6.9%, UK 5.1%, Russia 4.3% (2017)
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold field listing
    $38.44 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $38.21 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 46
    Debt - external field listing
    $4.063 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
    $4.054 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 5
    Stock of direct foreign investment - at home field listing
    $5.499 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $4.759 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 1
    Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad field listing
    $6.579 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $5.623 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 1
    Exchange rates field listing
    euros (EUR) per US dollar -
    0.885 (2017 est.)
    0.903 (2016 est.)
    0.9214 (2015 est.)
    0.885 (2014 est.)
    0.7634 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: Netherlands
  • Electricity access field listing
    electrification - total population: 100% (2016)
    Electricity - production field listing
    109.3 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 33
    Electricity - consumption field listing
    108.8 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 32
    Electricity - exports field listing
    19.34 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 8
    Electricity - imports field listing
    24.26 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 7
    Electricity - installed generating capacity field listing
    34.17 million kW (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 29
    Electricity - from fossil fuels field listing
    75% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 95
    Electricity - from nuclear fuels field listing
    1% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 31
    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants field listing
    0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 189
    Electricity - from other renewable sources field listing
    23% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 32
    Crude oil - production field listing
    18,170 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 67
    Crude oil - exports field listing
    7,984 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 62
    Crude oil - imports field listing
    1.094 million bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 10
    Crude oil - proved reserves field listing
    81.13 million bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 72
    Refined petroleum products - production field listing
    1.282 million bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 17
    Refined petroleum products - consumption field listing
    954,500 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 23
    Refined petroleum products - exports field listing
    2.406 million bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 3
    Refined petroleum products - imports field listing
    2.148 million bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 3
    Natural gas - production field listing
    45.33 billion cu m (2017 est.)

    note: the Netherlands has curbed gas production due to seismic activity in the province of Groningen, largest source of gas reserves

    country comparison to the world: 17
    Natural gas - consumption field listing
    43.38 billion cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 21
    Natural gas - exports field listing
    51.25 billion cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 8
    Natural gas - imports field listing
    51 billion cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 7
    Natural gas - proved reserves field listing
    801.4 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 26
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy field listing
    250.2 million Mt (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 26
  • Communications :: Netherlands
  • Telephones - fixed lines field listing
    total subscriptions: 6.551 million (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 38 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 26
    Telephones - mobile cellular field listing
    total subscriptions: 20.532 million (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 120 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 55
    Telephone system field listing
    general assessment: highly developed and well maintained (2011)
    domestic: extensive fixed-line, fiber-optic network; large cellular telephone system with five major operators utilizing the third generation of the Global System for Mobile Communications technology; one in five households now use Voice over the Internet Protocol services (2011)
    international: country code - 31; submarine cables provide links to the US and Europe; satellite earth stations - 5 (3 Intelsat - 1 Indian Ocean and 2 Atlantic Ocean, 1 Eutelsat, and 1 Inmarsat (2011)
    Broadcast media field listing
    more than 90% of households are connected to cable or satellite TV systems that provide a wide range of domestic and foreign channels; public service broadcast system includes multiple broadcasters, 3 with a national reach and the remainder operating in regional and local markets; 2 major nationwide commercial television companies, each with 3 or more stations, and many commercial TV stations in regional and local markets; nearly 600 radio stations with a mix of public and private stations providing national or regional coverage (2008)
    Internet country code field listing
    .nl
    Internet users field listing
    total: 15,385,203 (July 2016 est.)
    percent of population: 90.4% (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 39
    Broadband - fixed subscriptions field listing
    total: 7,210,800 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 42 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 22
  • Transportation :: Netherlands
  • National air transport system field listing
    number of registered air carriers: 8 (2015)
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 244 (2015)
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 34,870,204 (2015)
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 5,292,794,685 mt-km (2015)
    Civil aircraft registration country code prefix field listing
    PH (2016)
    Airports field listing
    29 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 118
    Airports - with paved runways field listing
    total: 23 (2017)
    over 3,047 m: 3 (2017)
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 11 (2017)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2017)
    914 to 1,523 m: 6 (2017)
    under 914 m: 2 (2017)
    Airports - with unpaved runways field listing
    total: 6 (2013)
    914 to 1,523 m: 4 (2013)
    under 914 m: 2 (2013)
    Heliports field listing
    1 (2013)
    Pipelines field listing
    14000 km gas, 2500 km oil and refined products, 3000 km chemicals (2016)
    Railways field listing
    total: 3,058 km (2016)
    standard gauge: 3,058 km 1.435-m gauge (2,314 km electrified) (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 61
    Roadways field listing
    total: 139,124 km (includes 3,654 km of expressways) (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 37
    Waterways field listing
    6,237 km (navigable by ships up to 50 tons) (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 21
    Merchant marine field listing
    total: 1,244 (2017)
    by type: bulk carrier 11, container ship 42, general cargo 597, oil tanker 15, other 579 (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 23
    Ports and terminals field listing
    major seaport(s): IJmuiden, Vlissingen
    container port(s) (TEUs): Rotterdam (12,385,168) (2016)
    LNG terminal(s) (import): Rotterdam
    river port(s): Amsterdam (Nordsee Kanaal); Moerdijk (Hollands Diep River); Rotterdam (Rhine River); Terneuzen (Western Scheldt River)
  • Military and Security :: Netherlands
  • Military expenditures field listing
    1.17% of GDP (2017)
    1.17% of GDP (2016)
    1.16% of GDP (2015)
    country comparison to the world: 100
    Military branches field listing
    Royal Netherlands Army, Royal Netherlands Navy (includes Naval Air Service and Marine Corps), Royal Netherlands Air Force (Koninklijke Luchtmacht, KLu), Royal Marechaussee (Military Police) (2015)
    Military service age and obligation field listing
    17 years of age for an all-volunteer force (2014)
  • Transnational Issues :: Netherlands
  • Disputes - international field listing
    none
    Refugees and internally displaced persons field listing
    refugees (country of origin): 28,394 (Syria), 16,512 (Somalia), 13,488 (Eritrea), 12,740 (Iraq), 5,791 (Afghanistan) (2016)
    stateless persons: 1,951 (2017)
    Illicit drugs field listing
    major European producer of synthetic drugs, including ecstasy, and cannabis cultivator; important gateway for cocaine, heroin, and hashish entering Europe; major source of US-bound ecstasy and a significant consumer of ecstasy; a large financial sector vulnerable to money laundering