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Europe :: Norway Print
Page last updated on August 10, 2020
  • Introduction :: Norway
  • Background field listing
    Two centuries of Viking raids into Europe tapered off following the adoption of Christianity by King Olav TRYGGVASON in 994; conversion of the Norwegian kingdom occurred over the next several decades. In 1397, Norway was absorbed into a union with Denmark that lasted more than four centuries. In 1814, Norwegians resisted the cession of their country to Sweden and adopted a new constitution. Sweden then invaded Norway but agreed to let Norway keep its constitution in return for accepting the union under a Swedish king. Rising nationalism throughout the 19th century led to a 1905 referendum granting Norway independence. Although Norway remained neutral in World War I, it suffered heavy losses to its shipping. Norway proclaimed its neutrality at the outset of World War II, but was nonetheless occupied for five years by Nazi Germany (1940-45). In 1949, Norway abandoned neutrality and became a member of NATO. Discovery of oil and gas in adjacent waters in the late 1960s boosted Norway's economic fortunes. In referenda held in 1972 and 1994, Norway rejected joining the EU. Key domestic issues include immigration and integration of ethnic minorities, maintaining the country's extensive social safety net with an aging population, and preserving economic competitiveness.
  • Geography :: Norway
  • Location field listing
    Northern Europe, bordering the North Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Sweden
    Geographic coordinates field listing
    62 00 N, 10 00 E
    Map references field listing
    Area field listing
    total: 323,802 sq km
    land: 304,282 sq km
    water: 19,520 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 69
    Area - comparative field listing
    slightly larger than twice the size of Georgia; slightly larger than New Mexico
    Area comparison map: Area comparison map
    Land boundaries field listing
    total: 2,566 km
    border countries (3): Finland 709 km, Sweden 1666 km, Russia 191 km
    Coastline field listing
    25,148 km (includes mainland 2,650 km, as well as long fjords, numerous small islands, and minor indentations 22,498 km; length of island coastlines 58,133 km)
    Maritime claims field listing
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    contiguous zone: 10 nm
    continental shelf: 200 nm
    Climate field listing
    temperate along coast, modified by North Atlantic Current; colder interior with increased precipitation and colder summers; rainy year-round on west coast
    Terrain field listing
    glaciated; mostly high plateaus and rugged mountains broken by fertile valleys; small, scattered plains; coastline deeply indented by fjords; arctic tundra in north
    Elevation field listing
    mean elevation: 460 m
    lowest point: Norwegian Sea 0 m
    highest point: Galdhopiggen 2,469 m
    Natural resources field listing
    petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, titanium, pyrites, nickel, fish, timber, hydropower
    Land use field listing
    agricultural land: 2.7% (2011 est.)
    arable land: 2.2% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 0% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 0.5% (2011 est.)
    forest: 27.8% (2011 est.)
    other: 69.5% (2011 est.)
    Irrigated land field listing
    900 sq km (2012)
    Population distribution field listing
    most Norweigans live in the south where the climate is milder and there is better connectivity to mainland Europe; population clusters are found all along the North Sea coast in the southwest, and Skaggerak in the southeast; the interior areas of the north remain sparsely populated
    Natural hazards field listing

    rockslides, avalanches

    volcanism: Beerenberg (2,227 m) on Jan Mayen Island in the Norwegian Sea is the country's only active volcano

    Environment - current issues field listing
    water pollution; acid rain damaging forests and adversely affecting lakes, threatening fish stocks; air pollution from vehicle emissions
    Environment - international agreements field listing
    party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    Geography - note field listing
    about two-thirds mountains; some 50,000 islands off its much-indented coastline; strategic location adjacent to sea lanes and air routes in North Atlantic; one of the most rugged and longest coastlines in the world
  • People and Society :: Norway
  • Population field listing
    5,467,439 (July 2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 119
    Nationality field listing
    noun: Norwegian(s)
    adjective: Norwegian
    Ethnic groups field listing
    Norwegian 83.2% (includes about 60,000 Sami), other European 8.3%, other 8.5% (2017 est.)
    Languages field listing
    Bokmal Norwegian (official), Nynorsk Norwegian (official), small Sami- and Finnish-speaking minorities

    note: Sami has three dialects: Lule, North Sami, and South Sami; Sami is an official language in nine municipalities in Norway's three northernmost counties: Finnmark, Nordland, and Troms

    Religions field listing
    Church of Norway (Evangelical Lutheran - official) 70.6%, Muslim 3.2%, Roman Catholic 3%, other Christian 3.7%, other 2.5%, unspecified 17% (2016 est.)
    Age structure field listing
    0-14 years: 17.96% (male 503,013/female 478,901)
    15-24 years: 12.02% (male 336,597/female 320,720)
    25-54 years: 40.75% (male 1,150,762/female 1,077,357)
    55-64 years: 11.84% (male 328,865/female 318,398)
    65 years and over: 17.43% (male 442,232/female 510,594) (2020 est.)
    population pyramid: population pyramid
    Dependency ratios field listing
    total dependency ratio: 53.3
    youth dependency ratio: 26.5
    elderly dependency ratio: 26.9
    potential support ratio: 3.7 (2020 est.)

    note: data include Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands

    Median age field listing
    total: 39.5 years
    male: 38.8 years
    female: 40.2 years (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 57
    Population growth rate field listing
    0.85% (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 123
    Birth rate field listing
    12.2 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 159
    Death rate field listing
    8.1 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 89
    Net migration rate field listing
    4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 29
    Population distribution field listing
    most Norweigans live in the south where the climate is milder and there is better connectivity to mainland Europe; population clusters are found all along the North Sea coast in the southwest, and Skaggerak in the southeast; the interior areas of the north remain sparsely populated
    Urbanization field listing
    urban population: 83% of total population (2020)
    rate of urbanization: 1.4% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)

    note: data include Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands

    Major urban areas - population field listing
    1.041 million OSLO (capital) (2020)
    Sex ratio field listing
    at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.87 male(s)/female
    total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
    Mother's mean age at first birth field listing
    28.9 years (2015 est.)

    note: data is calculated based on actual age at first births

    Maternal mortality rate field listing
    2 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 183
    Infant mortality rate field listing
    total: 2.5 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 2.8 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 2.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 223
    Life expectancy at birth field listing
    total population: 82.1 years
    male: 80 years
    female: 84.4 years (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 23
    Total fertility rate field listing
    1.84 children born/woman (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 141
    Drinking water source field listing
    improved: urban: 100% of population
    rural: 100% of population
    total: 100% of population
    unimproved: urban: 0% of population
    rural: 0% of population
    total: 0% of population (2017 est.)
    Current Health Expenditure field listing
    10.4% (2017)
    Physicians density field listing
    2.83 physicians/1,000 population (2017)
    Hospital bed density field listing
    3.6 beds/1,000 population (2017)
    Sanitation facility access field listing
    improved: urban: 98% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 98.3% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 98.1% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 2% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 1.7% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 1.9% of population (2015 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate field listing
    0.1% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 130
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS field listing
    5,800 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 117
    HIV/AIDS - deaths field listing
    <100 (2018 est.)
    Obesity - adult prevalence rate field listing
    23.1% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 68
    Education expenditures field listing
    8% of GDP (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 5
    School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education) field listing
    total: 18 years
    male: 17 years
    female: 19 years (2016)
    Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 field listing
    total: 9.7%
    male: 10.7%
    female: 8.6% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 127
  • Government :: Norway
  • Country name field listing
    conventional long form: Kingdom of Norway
    conventional short form: Norway
    local long form: Kongeriket Norge
    local short form: Norge
    etymology: derives from the Old Norse words "nordr" and "vegr" meaning "northern way" and refers to the long coastline of western Norway
    Government type field listing
    parliamentary constitutional monarchy
    Capital field listing
    name: Oslo
    geographic coordinates: 59 55 N, 10 45 E
    time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
    etymology: the medieval name was spelt "Aslo"; the "as" component refered either to the Ekeberg ridge southeast of the town ("as" in modern Norwegian), or to the Aesir (Norse gods); "lo" refered to "meadow," so the most likely interpretations would have been either "the meadow beneath the ridge" or "the meadow of the gods"; both explanations are considered equally plausible
    Administrative divisions field listing
    18 counties (fylker, singular - fylke); Akershus, Aust-Agder, Buskerud, Finnmark, Hedmark, Hordaland, More og Romsdal, Nordland, Oppland, Oslo, Ostfold, Rogaland, Sogn og Fjordane, Telemark, Troms, Trondelag, Vest-Agder, Vestfold
    Dependent areas field listing
    Bouvet Island, Jan Mayen, Svalbard
    Independence field listing
    7 June 1905 (declared the union with Sweden dissolved); 26 October 1905 (Sweden agreed to the repeal of the union); notable earlier dates: ca. 872 (traditional unification of petty Norwegian kingdoms by HARALD Fairhair); 1397 (Kalmar Union of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden); 1524 (Denmark-Norway); 17 May 1814 (Norwegian constitution adopted); 4 November 1814 (Sweden-Norway union confirmed)
    National holiday field listing
    Constitution Day, 17 May (1814)
    Constitution field listing
    history: drafted spring 1814, adopted 16 May 1814, signed by Constituent Assembly 17 May 1814
    amendments: proposals submitted by members of Parliament or by the government within the first three years of Parliament's four-year term; passage requires two-thirds majority vote of a two-thirds quorum in the next elected Parliament; amended over 400 times, last in 2018 (2018)
    International law organization participation field listing
    accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    Citizenship field listing
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Norway
    dual citizenship recognized: no
    residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years
    Suffrage field listing
    18 years of age; universal
    Executive branch field listing
    chief of state: King HARALD V (since 17 January 1991); Heir Apparent Crown Prince HAAKON MAGNUS (son of the monarch, born 20 July 1973)
    head of government: Prime Minister Erna SOLBERG (since 16 October 2013)
    cabinet: Council  of State appointed by the monarch, approved by Parliament
    elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; following parliamentary elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the monarch with the approval of the parliament
    Legislative branch field listing
    description: unicameral Parliament or Storting (169 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)
    elections: last held on 11 September 2017 (next to be held in September 2021)
    election results: percent of vote by party - Ap 27.4%, H 25%, FrP 15.2%, SP 10.3%, SV 6%, V 4.4%, KrF 4.2%, MDG 3.2%, R 2.4%, other/invalid 1.9%; seats by party - Ap 49, H 45, FrP 27, SP 19, SV 11, V 8, KrF 8, MDG 1, R 1; composition - men 99, women 70, percent of women 41.4%
    Judicial branch field listing
    highest courts: Supreme Court or Hoyesterett (consists of the chief justice and 18 associate justices)
    judge selection and term of office: justices appointed by the monarch (King in Council) upon the recommendation of the Judicial Appointments Board; justices can serve until mandatory retirement at age 70
    subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal or Lagmennsrett; regional and district courts; Conciliation Boards; ordinary and special courts; note - in addition to professionally trained judges, elected lay judges sit on the bench with professional judges in the Courts of Appeal and district courts
    Political parties and leaders field listing
    Center Party or Sp [Trygve Slagsvold VEDUM]
    Christian Democratic Party or KrF [Kjell Ingolf ROPSTADT]
    Conservative Party or H [Erna SOLBERG]
    Green Party or MDG [Rasmus HANSSON and Une Aina BASTHOLM]
    Labor Party or Ap [Jonas Gahr STORE]
    Liberal Party or V [Trine SKEI GRANDE]
    Progress Party or FrP [Siv JENSEN]
    Red Party or R [Bionar MOXNES]
    Socialist Left Party or SV [Audun LYSBAKKEN]
    International organization participation field listing
    ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CD, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EFTA, EITI (implementing country), ESA, FAO, FATF, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, NATO, NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMISS, UNRWA, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
    Diplomatic representation in the US field listing
    Ambassador Kare Reidar AAS (since 17 September 2013)
    chancery: 2720 34th Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 333-6000
    FAX: [1] (202) 469-3990
    consulate(s) general: Houston, New York, San Francisco
    Diplomatic representation from the US field listing
    chief of mission: Ambassador Kenneth BRAITHWAITE (since 8 February 2018)
    telephone: [47] 21-30-85-40
    embassy: Morgedalsvegen 36, 0378 Oslo
    mailing address: PO Box 4075 AMB 0244 Oslo
    FAX: [47] 22-44-33-63, 22-56-27-51
    Flag description field listing
    red with a blue cross outlined in white that extends to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag); the colors recall Norway's past political unions with Denmark (red and white) and Sweden (blue)
    National symbol(s) field listing
    lion; national colors: red, white, blue
    National anthem field listing
    name: "Ja, vi elsker dette landet" (Yes, We Love This Country)
    lyrics/music: lyrics/music: Bjornstjerne BJORNSON/Rikard NORDRAAK

    note: adopted 1864; in addition to the national anthem, "Kongesangen" (Song of the King), which uses the tune of "God Save the Queen," serves as the royal anthem

  • Economy :: Norway
  • Economy - overview field listing

    Norway has a stable economy with a vibrant private sector, a large state sector, and an extensive social safety net. Norway opted out of the EU during a referendum in November 1994. However, as a member of the European Economic Area, Norway partially participates in the EU’s single market and contributes sizably to the EU budget.

    The country is richly endowed with natural resources such as oil and gas, fish, forests, and minerals. Norway is a leading producer and the world’s second largest exporter of seafood, after China. The government manages the country’s petroleum resources through extensive regulation. The petroleum sector provides about 9% of jobs, 12% of GDP, 13% of the state’s revenue, and 37% of exports, according to official national estimates. Norway is one of the world's leading petroleum exporters, although oil production is close to 50% below its peak in 2000. Gas production, conversely, has more than doubled since 2000. Although oil production is historically low, it rose in 2016 for the third consecutive year due to the higher production of existing oil fields and to new fields coming on stream. Norway’s domestic electricity production relies almost entirely on hydropower.

    In anticipation of eventual declines in oil and gas production, Norway saves state revenue from petroleum sector activities in the world's largest sovereign wealth fund, valued at over $1 trillion at the end of 2017. To help balance the federal budget each year, the government follows a "fiscal rule," which states that spending of revenues from petroleum and fund investments shall correspond to the expected real rate of return on the fund, an amount it estimates is sustainable over time. In February 2017, the government revised the expected rate of return for the fund downward from 4% to 3%.

    After solid GDP growth in the 2004-07 period, the economy slowed in 2008, and contracted in 2009, before returning to modest, positive growth from 2010 to 2017. The Norwegian economy has been adjusting to lower energy prices, as demonstrated by growth in labor force participation and employment in 2017. GDP growth was about 1.5% in 2017, driven largely by domestic demand, which has been boosted by the rebound in the labor market and supportive fiscal policies. Economic growth is expected to remain constant or improve slightly in the next few years.

    GDP (purchasing power parity) field listing
    $381.2 billion (2017 est.)
    $374 billion (2016 est.)
    $370 billion (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 48
    GDP (official exchange rate) field listing
    $398.8 billion (2017 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate field listing
    1.9% (2017 est.)
    1.1% (2016 est.)
    2% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 156
    GDP - per capita (PPP) field listing
    $72,100 (2017 est.)
    $71,200 (2016 est.)
    $71,100 (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 11
    Gross national saving field listing
    34.3% of GDP (2017 est.)
    33.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
    35.5% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 18
    GDP - composition, by end use field listing
    household consumption: 44.8% (2017 est.)
    government consumption: 24% (2017 est.)
    investment in fixed capital: 24.1% (2017 est.)
    investment in inventories: 4.8% (2017 est.)
    exports of goods and services: 35.5% (2017 est.)
    imports of goods and services: -33.2% (2017 est.)
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin field listing
    agriculture: 2.3% (2017 est.)
    industry: 33.7% (2017 est.)
    services: 64% (2017 est.)
    Agriculture - products field listing
    barley, wheat, potatoes; pork, beef, veal, milk; fish
    Industries field listing
    petroleum and gas, shipping, fishing, aquaculture, food processing, shipbuilding, pulp and paper products, metals, chemicals, timber, mining, textiles
    Industrial production growth rate field listing
    1.5% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 143
    Labor force field listing
    2.797 million (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 108
    Labor force - by occupation field listing
    agriculture: 2.1%
    industry: 19.3%
    services: 78.6% (2016 est.)
    Unemployment rate field listing
    4.2% (2017 est.)
    4.7% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 56
    Population below poverty line field listing
    Household income or consumption by percentage share field listing
    lowest 10%: 3.8%
    highest 10%: 21.2% (2014)
    Budget field listing
    revenues: 217.1 billion (2017 est.)
    expenditures: 199.5 billion (2017 est.)
    Taxes and other revenues field listing
    54.4% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 9
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) field listing
    4.4% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 8
    Public debt field listing
    36.5% of GDP (2017 est.)
    36.4% of GDP (2016 est.)

    note: data cover general government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data exclude treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data exclude debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions

    country comparison to the world: 146
    Fiscal year field listing
    calendar year
    Inflation rate (consumer prices) field listing
    1.9% (2017 est.)
    3.6% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 99
    Current account balance field listing
    $22.01 billion (2017 est.)
    $14.09 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 16
    Exports field listing
    $102.8 billion (2017 est.)
    $88.88 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 36
    Exports - partners field listing
    UK 21.1%, Germany 15.5%, Netherlands 9.9%, Sweden 6.6%, France 6.4%, Belgium 4.8%, Denmark 4.7%, US 4.6% (2017)
    Exports - commodities field listing
    petroleum and petroleum products, machinery and equipment, metals, chemicals, ships, fish
    Imports field listing
    $95.06 billion (2017 est.)
    $74.94 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 36
    Imports - commodities field listing
    machinery and equipment, chemicals, metals, foodstuffs
    Imports - partners field listing
    Sweden 11.4%, Germany 11%, China 9.8%, US 6.8%, South Korea 6.7%, Denmark 5.4%, UK 4.7% (2017)
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold field listing
    $65.92 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $57.46 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 34
    Debt - external field listing
    $642.3 billion (31 March 2016 est.)
    $640.1 billion (31 March 2015 est.)
    note: Norway is a net external creditor
    country comparison to the world: 17
    Exchange rates field listing
    Norwegian kroner (NOK) per US dollar -
    8.308 (2017 est.)
    8.3978 (2016 est.)
    8.3978 (2015 est.)
    8.0646 (2014 est.)
    6.3021 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: Norway
  • Electricity access field listing
    electrification - total population: 100% (2016)
    Electricity - production field listing
    147.7 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 29
    Electricity - consumption field listing
    122.2 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 29
    Electricity - exports field listing
    15.53 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 12
    Electricity - imports field listing
    5.741 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 34
    Electricity - installed generating capacity field listing
    33.86 million kW (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 30
    Electricity - from fossil fuels field listing
    3% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 208
    Electricity - from nuclear fuels field listing
    0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 159
    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants field listing
    93% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 8
    Electricity - from other renewable sources field listing
    4% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 115
    Crude oil - production field listing
    1.517 million bbl/day (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 15
    Crude oil - exports field listing
    1.383 million bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 10
    Crude oil - imports field listing
    36,550 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 58
    Crude oil - proved reserves field listing
    6.376 billion bbl (1 January 2018)
    country comparison to the world: 20
    Refined petroleum products - production field listing
    371,600 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 38
    Refined petroleum products - consumption field listing
    205,300 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 57
    Refined petroleum products - exports field listing
    432,800 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 20
    Refined petroleum products - imports field listing
    135,300 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 43
    Natural gas - production field listing
    123.9 billion cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 7
    Natural gas - consumption field listing
    4.049 billion cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 65
    Natural gas - exports field listing
    120.2 billion cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 3
    Natural gas - imports field listing
    5.663 million cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 77
    Natural gas - proved reserves field listing
    1.782 trillion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 20
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy field listing
    39.8 million Mt (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 65
  • Communications :: Norway
  • Telephones - fixed lines field listing
    total subscriptions: 560,945
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 10 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 91
    Telephones - mobile cellular field listing
    total subscriptions: 5,720,892
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 106 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 117
    Telecommunication systems field listing
    general assessment: one of the most advanced telecommunications networks in Europe; high mobile and broadband penetration rates and highly developed digital media sector; forward leaning in LTE-A developments; migrate all DSL subscribers to fiber by 2023; looking to close 2G and 3G networks by 2025; regulator competes 700 MHz auction and assigns spectrum for 5G, partners with Chinese company Huawei (2020)
    domestic: Norway has a domestic satellite system; the prevalence of rural areas encourages the wide use of mobile-cellular systems; fixed-line 10 per 100 and mobile-cellular 106 per 100 (2018)
    international: country code - 47; landing points for the Svalbard Undersea Cable System, Polar Circle Cable, Bodo-Rost Cable, NOR5KE Viking, Celtic Norse, Tempnet Offshore FOC Network, England Cable, Denmark-Norwary6, Havfrue/AEC-2, Skagerrak 4, and the Skagenfiber West & East submarine cables providing links to other Nordic countries, Europe and the US; satellite earth stations - Eutelsat, Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), and 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Norway shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, and Sweden) (2019)
    the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
    Broadcast media field listing
    state-owned public radio-TV broadcaster operates 3 nationwide TV stations, 3 nationwide radio stations, and 16 regional radio stations; roughly a dozen privately owned TV stations broadcast nationally and roughly another 25 local TV stations broadcasting; nearly 75% of households have access to multi-channel cable or satellite TV; 2 privately owned radio stations broadcast nationwide and another 240 stations operate locally; Norway is the first country in the world to phase out FM radio in favor of Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB), a process scheduled for completion in late 2017 (2019)
    Internet country code field listing
    Internet users field listing
    total: 5,122,904
    percent of population: 97.3% (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 75
    Broadband - fixed subscriptions field listing
    total: 2,206,519
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 41 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 53
  • Military and Security :: Norway
  • Military and security forces field listing
    Norwegian Armed Forces:  Norwegian Army (Haeren), Royal Norwegian Navy (Kongelige Norske Sjoeforsvaret; includes Coastal Rangers and Coast Guard (Kystvakt)), Royal Norwegian Air Force (Kongelige Norske Luftforsvaret), Home Guard (Heimevernet, HV) (2020)
    Military expenditures field listing
    1.8% of GDP (2019 est.)
    1.73% of GDP (2018)
    1.71% of GDP (2017)
    1.73% of GDP (2016)
    1.59% of GDP (2015)
    country comparison to the world: 63
    Military and security service personnel strengths field listing
    the Norwegian Armed Forces have approximately 23,000 active personnel (8,000 Army; 4,000 Navy; 3,500 Air Force; 500 Home Guard; 7,000 other, including special operations, cyber, joint staff, intelligence, logistics support, etc.) (2020)
    Military equipment inventories and acquisitions field listing
    the Norwegian Armed Forces inventory includes mostly imported European and US weapons systems, as well as a limited mix of domestically-produced equipment, particularly small naval craft; since 2010, the US is the leading supplier of weapons systems to Norway, followed by France, Italy, South Korea, and Spain (2019 est.)
    Military service age and obligation field listing
    19-35 years of age for male and female selective compulsory military service; 17 years of age for male volunteers (16 in wartime); 18 years of age for women; 19-month service obligation; conscripts first serve 12 months from 19-28, and then up to 4-5 refresher training periods until age 35, 44, 55, or 60 depending on rank and function. (2019)
    Military deployments field listing
    120 Lithuania (NATO) (Oct. 2019)
  • Transportation :: Norway
  • National air transport system field listing
    number of registered air carriers: 3 (2015)
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 106 (2015)
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 12,277,220 (2015)
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 0 mt-km (2015)
    Civil aircraft registration country code prefix field listing
    LN (2016)
    Airports field listing
    95 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 61
    Airports - with paved runways field listing
    total: 67 (2017)
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 14 (2017)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 10 (2017)
    914 to 1,523 m: 22 (2017)
    under 914 m: 21 (2017)
    Airports - with unpaved runways field listing
    total: 28 (2013)
    914 to 1,523 m: 6 (2013)
    under 914 m: 22 (2013)
    Heliports field listing
    1 (2013)
    Pipelines field listing
    8520 km gas, 1304 km oil/condensate (2017)
    Railways field listing
    total: 4,200 km (2019)
    standard gauge: 4,200 km 1.435-m gauge (2,480 km electrified) (2019)
    country comparison to the world: 45
    Roadways field listing
    total: 94,902 km (includes 455 km of expressways) (2018)
    country comparison to the world: 52
    Waterways field listing
    1,577 km (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 51
    Merchant marine field listing
    total: 1,576
    by type: bulk carrier 98, general cargo 216, oil tanker 87, other 1,175 (2019)
    country comparison to the world: 18
    Ports and terminals field listing
    major seaport(s): Bergen, Haugesund, Maaloy, Mongstad, Narvik, Sture
    LNG terminal(s) (export): Kamoy, Kollsnes, Melkoya Island
    LNG terminal(s) (import): Fredrikstad, Mosjoen
  • Transnational Issues :: Norway
  • Disputes - international field listing

    Norway asserts a territorial claim in Antarctica (Queen Maud Land and its continental shelf); Denmark (Greenland) and Norway have made submissions to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS) and Russia is collecting additional data to augment its 2001 CLCS submission; Norway and Russia signed a comprehensive maritime boundary agreement in 2010

    Refugees and internally displaced persons field listing
    refugees (country of origin): 15,246 (Eritrea), 13,914 (Syria), 7,183 (Somalia), 6,065 (Afghanistan) (2018)
    stateless persons: 2,809 (2018)