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South Asia :: NEPAL
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NEPAL
  • Introduction :: NEPAL

  • During the late 18th-early 19th centuries, the principality of Gorkha united many of the other principalities and states of the sub-Himalayan region into a Nepalese Kingdom. Nepal retained its independence following the Anglo-Nepalese War of 1814-16 and the subsequent peace treaty laid the foundations for two centuries of amicable relations between Britain and Nepal. (The Brigade of Gurkas continues to serve in the British Army to the present day.) In 1951, the Nepali monarch ended the century-old system of rule by hereditary premiers and instituted a cabinet system that brought political parties into the government. That arrangement lasted until 1960, when political parties were again banned, but was reinstated in 1990 with the establishment of a multiparty democracy within the framework of a constitutional monarchy.
    An insurgency led by Maoists broke out in 1996. The ensuing 10-year civil war between Maoist and government forces witnessed the dissolution of the cabinet and parliament and the re-assumption of absolute power by the king in 2002. A peace accord in 2006 led to the promulgation of an interim constitution in 2007. Following a nationwide Constituent Assembly (CA) election in 2008, the newly formed CA declared Nepal a federal democratic republic, abolished the monarchy, and elected the country's first president. After the CA failed to draft a constitution by a May 2012 deadline set by the Supreme Court, then-Prime Minister Baburam BHATTARAI dissolved the CA. Months of negotiations ensued until March 2013 when the major political parties agreed to create an interim government headed by then-Chief Justice Khil Raj REGMI with a mandate to hold elections for a new CA. Elections were held in November 2013, in which the Nepali Congress won the largest share of seats in the CA and in February 2014 formed a coalition government with the second place Communist Party of Nepal-Unified Marxist-Leninist and with Nepali Congress President Sushil KOIRALA as prime minister. Nepal's new constitution came into effect in September 2015.
  • Geography :: NEPAL

  • Southern Asia, between China and India
    28 00 N, 84 00 E
    Asia
    total: 147,181 sq km
    land: 143,351 sq km
    water: 3,830 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 94
    slightly larger than Arkansas
    total: 3,159 km
    border countries (2): China 1,389 km, India 1,770 km
    0 km (landlocked)
    none (landlocked)
    varies from cool summers and severe winters in north to subtropical summers and mild winters in south
    Tarai or flat river plain of the Ganges in south; central hill region with rugged Himalayas in north
    mean elevation: 2,565 m
    elevation extremes: lowest point: Kanchan Kalan 70 m
    highest point: Mount Everest 8,850 m (highest peak in Asia and highest point on earth above sea level)
    quartz, water, timber, hydropower, scenic beauty, small deposits of lignite, copper, cobalt, iron ore
    agricultural land: 28.8%
    arable land 15.1%; permanent crops 1.2%; permanent pasture 12.5%
    forest: 25.4%
    other: 45.8% (2011 est.)
    13,320 sq km (2012)
    210.2 cu km (2011)
    total: 9.5 cu km/yr (2%/0%/98%)
    per capita: 334.7 cu m/yr (2006)
    severe thunderstorms; flooding; landslides; drought and famine depending on the timing, intensity, and duration of the summer monsoons
    deforestation (overuse of wood for fuel and lack of alternatives); contaminated water (with human and animal wastes, agricultural runoff, and industrial effluents); wildlife conservation; vehicular emissions
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
    landlocked; strategic location between China and India; contains eight of world's 10 highest peaks, including Mount Everest and Kanchenjunga - the world's tallest and third tallest mountains - on the borders with China and India respectively
  • People and Society :: NEPAL

  • 29,033,914 (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 42
    noun: Nepali (singular and plural)
    adjective: Nepali
    Chhettri 16.6%, Brahman-Hill 12.2%, Magar 7.1%, Tharu 6.6%, Tamang 5.8%, Newar 5%, Kami 4.8%, Muslim 4.4%, Yadav 4%, Rai 2.3%, Gurung 2%, Damai/Dholii 1.8%, Thakuri 1.6%, Limbu 1.5%, Sarki 1.4%, Teli 1.4%, Chamar/Harijan/Ram 1.3%, Koiri/Kushwaha 1.2%, other 19%
    note: 125 caste/ethnic groups were reported in the 2011 national census (2011 est.)
    Nepali (official) 44.6%, Maithali 11.7%, Bhojpuri 6%, Tharu 5.8%, Tamang 5.1%, Newar 3.2%, Magar 3%, Bajjika 3%, Urdu 2.6%, Avadhi 1.9%, Limbu 1.3%, Gurung 1.2%, other 10.4%, unspecified 0.2%
    note: 123 languages reported as mother tongue in 2011 national census; many in government and business also speak English (2011 est.)
    Hindu 81.3%, Buddhist 9%, Muslim 4.4%, Kirant 3.1%, Christian 1.4%, other 0.5%, unspecifed 0.2% (2011 est.)
    0-14 years: 30.93% (male 4,646,048/female 4,333,105)
    15-24 years: 21.86% (male 3,176,158/female 3,169,721)
    25-54 years: 35.99% (male 4,707,264/female 5,740,985)
    55-64 years: 6.22% (male 877,288/female 927,202)
    65 years and over: 5.02% (male 723,523/female 732,620) (2016 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 61.8%
    youth dependency ratio: 52.9%
    elderly dependency ratio: 9%
    potential support ratio: 11.1% (2015 est.)
    total: 23.6 years
    male: 22.4 years
    female: 24.8 years (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 165
    1.24% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 64
    19.9 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 80
    5.7 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 146
    -1.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 33
    urban population: 18.6% of total population (2015)
    rate of urbanization: 3.18% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    KATHMANDU (capital) 1.183 million (2015)
    at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 0.82 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
    20.1
    note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2011 est.)
    258 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 60
    total: 28.9 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 30.2 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 27.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 52
    total population: 70.7 years
    male: 70.1 years
    female: 71.3 years (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 166
    2.18 children born/woman (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 96
    49.7% (2011)
    5.8% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 125
    5 beds/1,000 population (2006)
    improved:
    urban: 90.9% of population
    rural: 91.8% of population
    total: 91.6% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 9.1% of population
    rural: 8.2% of population
    total: 8.4% of population (2015 est.)
    improved:
    urban: 56% of population
    rural: 43.5% of population
    total: 45.8% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 44% of population
    rural: 56.5% of population
    total: 54.2% of population (2015 est.)
    0.21% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 97
    39,400 (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 63
    2,300 (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 50
    degree of risk: high
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
    vectorborne disease: Japanese encephalitis, malaria, and dengue fever (2016)
    2.9% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 189
    30.1% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 17
    4.7% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 87
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 63.9%
    male: 76.4%
    female: 53.1% (2015 est.)
    total: 12 years
    male: 12 years
    female: 13 years (2013)
    total number: 2,467,549
    percentage: 34% (2008 est.)
    total: 3.5%
    male: 4.2%
    female: 2.9% (2008 est.)
  • Government :: NEPAL

  • conventional long form: Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal
    conventional short form: Nepal
    local long form: Sanghiya Loktantrik Ganatantra Nepal
    local short form: Nepal
    etymology: the Newar people of the Kathmandu Valley and surrounding areas apparently gave their name to the country; the terms "Nepal," "Newar," "Nepar," and "Newal" are phonetically different forms of the same word
    federal parliamentary republic
    name: Kathmandu
    geographic coordinates: 27 43 N, 85 19 E
    time difference: UTC+5.75 (10.75 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    14 zones (anchal, singular and plural); Bagmati, Bheri, Dhawalagiri, Gandaki, Janakpur, Karnali, Kosi, Lumbini, Mahakali, Mechi, Narayani, Rapti, Sagarmatha, Seti
    1768 (unified by Prithvi Narayan SHAH)
    Republic Day, 28 May (2008), the abdication of Gyanendra SHAH, last Nepalese monarch, and the establishment of a federal republic
    several previous; latest adopted 20 September 2015; amended January 2016
    English common law and Hindu legal concepts
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
    citizenship by birth: yes
    citizenship by descent: yes
    dual citizenship recognized: no
    residency requirement for naturalization: 15 years
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: President Bidhya Devi BHANDARI (since 29 October 2015); Vice President Nanda Bahadar PUN (since 31 October 2015)
    head of government: Prime Minister Pushpa Kamal DAHAL (since 4 August 2016); note - Prime Minister Khadga Prasad OLI resigned on 24 July 2016
    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister; cabinet dominated by the Nepali Congress and the Communist Party of Nepal-United Marxist-Leninist
    elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the Constituency Assembly; term extends until the new constitution is promulgated; president elected on 29 October 2015 (next election NA); prime minister indirectly elected by the Constituent Assembly
    election results: Bidhya Devi BHANDARI elected president; Constituent Assembly vote count - Bidhya Devi BHANDARI (CPN-UML) 327, Kul Bahadur GURUNG (NC) 214; BHANDARI is Nepal's first woman president
    description: unicameral Constituent Assembly or Sambidhan Sabha (601 seats; 240 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 335 directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation (PR) vote and 26 appointed by the cabinet (Council of Ministers); note - political parties allocated more than 30 percent of the PR seats are obliged to follow specified quotas for ethnic groups and within them equal percentages of men and women
    elections: last held on 19 November 2013 (next to be held NA)
    election results: percent of vote by party - NC 26%, CPN-UML 24%, Unified Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) 15%, Rastriya Prajatantra Party Nepal 7%; other 28%; seats by party - NC 196, CPN-UML 175, UCPN(M) 80, Rastriya Prajatantra Party Nepal 24, other smaller parties 100
    highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice and up to 14 judges)
    judge selection and term of office: the Supreme Court chief justice appointed by the prime minister on the recommendation of the Constitutional Council; other judges appointed by the prime minister on the recommendation of the Judicial Council; judges serve until age 65
    subordinate courts: appellate and district courts
    note: Nepal's judiciary was restructured under its 2007 Interim Constitution
    note: 122 political parties participated in the 19 November 2013 election and the 30 parties listed below were elected to serve in the Constituent Assembly
    Akhanda Nepal Party [Kumar KHADKA]
    Communist Party of Nepal-Marxist Leninist or CPN-ML [C.P. MAINALI]
    Communist Party of Nepal-Unified Marxist-Leninist or CPN-UML [Jhala Nath KHANAL]
    Communist Party of Nepal (United) or CPN (United) [Jaydev JOSHI]
    Dalit Janajati Party [Bishwendra PASHWAN]
    Federal Socialist Party [Ashok RAI]
    Jana Jagaran Party Nepal (Awareness Party Nepal) [Lok Mani DHAKAL]
    Khambuwan Rastriya Morcha-Nepal [Ram Kumar RAI]
    Madhesi People's Rights Forum-Democratic [Bijay Kumar GACHCHADAR]
    Madhesi People's Rights Forum-Nepal [Upendra YADAV]
    Madhesi People's Rights Forum-Republican
    Madhesh Samata Party Nepal [Meghraj SAHANI]
    National Madhes Socialist Party [Sharat Singh BHANDARI]
    Nepal Rastriya Party [Keshav Man SHAKYA]
    Nepal Pariwar Dal [Ek Nath DHAKAL]
    Nepal Workers and Peasants Party [Narayan Man BIJUKCHHE]
    Nepali Congress or NC [Sushil KOIRALA]
    Nepali Janata Dal [Hari Charan SHAH]
    Rastriya Janamorcha Nepal [Chitra Bahadur K.C.]
    Rastriya Janamukti Party [Malwar Singh THAPA]
    Rastriya Prajatantra Party
    Rastriya Prajatantra Party-Nepal [Kamal THAPA]
    Sadbhavana Party [Rajendra MAHATO]
    Samajbadi Prajatanytrik Janata Party Nepal [Prem Bahadur SINGH]
    Sanghiya Sadbhavana Party [Anil Kumar JHA]
    Sanghiye Loktantrik Rastriya Manch [Rukmini CHAUDHARY]
    Terai Madhesh Democratic Party [Mahantha THAKUR]
    Terai-Madhesh Sadbhavana Party-Nepal [Mahendra YADAV]
    Tharuhat Terai Party Nepal [Bhanuram CHAUDARY]
    Unified Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) or UCPN(M) [Pushpa Kamal DAHAL, also known as Comrade PRACHANDA]
    other: various groups advocating regional autonomy such as the Federal State Limbuwan Council in far eastern Nepal
    ADB, BIMSTEC, CD, CP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSMA, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAM, OPCW, SAARC, SACEP, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    chief of mission: Ambassador Arjun Kumar KARKI (since 18 May 2015)
    chancery: 2131 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 667-4550
    FAX: [1] (202) 667-5534
    consulate(s) general: Cleveland (OH), New York
    chief of mission: Ambassador Alaina B. TEPLITZ (since 7 October 2015)
    embassy: Maharajgunj, Kathmandu
    mailing address: use embassy street address
    telephone: [977] (1) 423-4000
    FAX: [977] (1) 400-7272
    red with a blue border around the unique shape of two overlapping right triangles; the smaller, upper triangle bears a white stylized moon and the larger, lower triangle displays a white 12-pointed sun; the color red represents the rhododendron (Nepal's national flower) and is a sign of victory and bravery, the blue border signifies peace and harmony; the two right triangles are a combination of two single pennons (pennants) that originally symbolized the Himalaya Mountains while their charges represented the families of the king (upper) and the prime minister, but today they are understood to denote Hinduism and Buddhism, the country's two main religions; the moon represents the serenity of the Nepalese people and the shade and cool weather in the Himalayas, while the sun depicts the heat and higher temperatures of the lower parts of Nepal; the moon and the sun are also said to express the hope that the nation will endure as long as these heavenly bodies
    note: Nepal is the only country in the world whose flag is not rectangular or square
    rhododendron blossom; national color: red
    name: "Sayaun Thunga Phool Ka" (Hundreds of Flowers)
    lyrics/music: Pradeep Kumar RAI/Ambar GURUNG
    note: adopted 2007; after the abolition of the monarchy in 2006, a new anthem was required because of the previous anthem's praise for the king
  • Economy :: NEPAL

  • Nepal is among the poorest and least developed countries in the world, with about one-quarter of its population living below the poverty line. Nepal is heavily dependent on remittances, which amount to as much as 29% of GDP. Agriculture is the mainstay of the economy, providing a livelihood for almost 70% of the population and accounting for about one-third of GDP. Industrial activity mainly involves the processing of agricultural products, including pulses, jute, sugarcane, tobacco, and grain.
    Nepal has considerable scope for exploiting its potential in hydropower, with an estimated 42,000 MW of commercially feasible capacity. Nepal and India signed trade and investment agreements in 2014 that increase Nepal’s hydropower potential, but political uncertainty and a difficult business climate have hampered foreign investment.
    Nepal was hit by massive earthquakes in early 2015, which damaged or destroyed infrastructure and homes and set back economic development. Political gridlock in the past several years and recent public protests, predominantly in the southern Tarai region, have hindered post-earthquake recovery and prevented much-needed economic reform. Additional challenges to Nepal's growth include its landlocked geographic location, persistent power shortages, and underdeveloped transportation infrastructure.
    $70.09 billion (2015 est.)
    $67.81 billion (2014 est.)
    $64.35 billion (2013 est.)
    note: data are in 2015 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 98
    $21.36 billion (2015 est.)
    3.4% (2015 est.)
    5.4% (2014 est.)
    4.1% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 89
    $2,500 (2015 est.)
    $2,400 (2014 est.)
    $2,300 (2013 est.)
    note: data are in 2015 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 197
    33.9% of GDP (2015 est.)
    33.3% of GDP (2014 est.)
    33.1% of GDP (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 12
    household consumption: 77.2%
    government consumption: 12.4%
    investment in fixed capital: 24.4%
    investment in inventories: 12.3%
    exports of goods and services: 9.9%
    imports of goods and services: -36.2% (2015 est.)
    agriculture: 31.7%
    industry: 15.1%
    services: 53.2% (FY2014/15 est.)
    pulses, rice, corn, wheat, sugarcane, jute, root crops; milk, water buffalo meat
    tourism, carpets, textiles; small rice, jute, sugar, and oilseed mills; cigarettes, cement and brick production
    2.6% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 98
    15.2 million
    note: severe lack of skilled labor (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 39
    agriculture: 69%
    industry: 12%
    services: 19% (2014 est.)
    46% (2008 est.)
    42% (2004 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 200
    25.2% (2011 est.)
    lowest 10%: 3.2%
    highest 10%: 29.5% (2011)
    32.8 (2010)
    47.2 (2008 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 106
    revenues: $4.257 billion
    expenditures: $4.203 billion (2015 est.)
    19.9% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 159
    0.2% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 26
    30% of GDP (FY 2012/13 est.)
    32% of GDP (2013 est.) (FY11/12)
    country comparison to the world: 144
    16 July - 15 July
    7.2% (2015 est.)
    9% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 194
    8% (31 July 2015)
    8% (31 July 2014)
    country comparison to the world: 40
    9.8% (31 December 2015 est.)
    10.6% (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 85
    $4.002 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $3.567 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 107
    $17.83 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $16.36 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 93
    $14.33 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $13.97 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 93
    $11.81 billion (31 October 2015 est.)
    $9.574 billion (31 October 2014)
    $5.235 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 71
    $1.067 billion (2015 est.)
    $908 million (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 36
    $924.2 million (2015 est.)
    $1.078 billion (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 163
    clothing, pulses, carpets, textiles, juice, jute goods
    India 61.2%, US 9.4% (2015)
    $8.56 billion (2015 est.)
    $7.72 billion (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 106
    petroleum products, machinery and equipment, gold, electrical goods, medicine
    India 61.4%, China 15.4% (2015)
    $71.83 billion (30 July 2015 est.)
    $6.191 billion (30 July 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 32
    $3.727 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $3.833 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 137
    $103 million (31 July 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 117
    $NA
    Nepalese rupees (NPR) per US dollar -
    102.4 (2015 est.)
    97.6 (2014 est.)
    99.53 (2013 est.)
    85.2 (2012 est.)
    74.02 (2011 est.)
  • Energy :: NEPAL

  • population without electricity: 6.6 million
    electrification - total population: 76 %
    electrification - urban areas: 97 %
    electrification - rural areas: 72 % (2013)
    3.516 billion kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 129
    3.239 billion kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 131
    4 million kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 92
    793 million kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 68
    763,000 kW (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 131
    7.5% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 202
    0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 156
    92.5% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 11
    0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 208
    0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 176
    0 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 170
    0 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 109
    0 bbl (1 January 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 176
    0 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 119
    20,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 128
    0 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 211
    19,990 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 113
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 112
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 180
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 156
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 112
    0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 179
    3.638 million Mt (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 137
  • Communications :: NEPAL

  • total subscriptions: 846,940
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 3 (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 85
    total: 27.516 million
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 87 (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 52
    general assessment: poor telephone and telegraph service; fair radiotelephone communication service and mobile-cellular telephone network
    domestic: mobile-cellular telephone subscribership base is increasing with roughly 90% of the population living in areas covered by mobile carriers
    international: country code - 977; radiotelephone communications; microwave and fiber landlines to India; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) (2015)
    state operates 2 TV stations, as well as national and regional radio stations; roughly 30 independent TV channels are registered with only about half in regular operation; nearly 400 FM radio stations are licensed with roughly 300 operational (2007)
    AM 6, FM 80, shortwave 4 (2008)
    9 (plus 9 repeaters) (2008)
    .np
    41,256 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 100
    total: 5.547 million
    percent of population: 17.6% (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 80
  • Transportation :: NEPAL

  • 47 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 95
    total: 11
    over 3,047 m: 1
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
    914 to 1,523 m: 6
    under 914 m: 1 (2013)
    total: 36
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
    914 to 1,523 m: 6
    under 914 m: 29 (2013)
    total: 53 km
    narrow gauge: 53 km 0.762-m gauge (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 131
    total: 10,844 km
    paved: 4,952 km
    unpaved: 5,892 km (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 132
  • Military and Security :: NEPAL

  • Nepal Army (2012)
    18 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2014)
    NA% (2012)
    1.41% of GDP (2011)
  • Transnational Issues :: NEPAL

  • joint border commission continues to work on contested sections of boundary with India, including the 400 sq km dispute over the source of the Kalapani River; India has instituted a stricter border regime to restrict transit of Maoist insurgents and illegal cross-border activities
    refugees (country of origin): 15,000 (Tibet/China) (2015); just over 14,000 (Bhutan) (2016)
    IDPs: 40,700 (remaining from ten-year Maoist insurgency that officially ended in 2006; figure does not include people displaced since 2007 by inter-communal violence and insecurity in the Terai region; 2015 earthquakes) (2015)
    stateless persons: undetermined (2015); note - the UNHCR is working with the Nepali Government to address the large number of individuals lacking citizenship certificates in Nepal; smaller numbers of Bhutanese Hindu refugees of Nepali origin (the Lhotsampa) who were stripped of Bhutanese nationality and forced to flee their country in the late 1980s and early 1990s - and undocumented Tibetan refugees who arrived in Nepal prior to the 1990s - are considered stateless
    illicit producer of cannabis and hashish for the domestic and international drug markets; transit point for opiates from Southeast Asia to the West