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South Asia :: Nepal
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Nepal
  • Introduction :: NEPAL

  • In 1951, the Nepali monarch ended the century-old system of rule by hereditary premiers and instituted a cabinet system that brought political parties into the government. That arrangement lasted until 1960, when political parties were again banned, but was reinstated in 1990 with the establishment of a multiparty democracy within the framework of a constitutional monarchy. An insurgency led by Maoists broke out in 1996. The ensuing 10-year civil war between Maoist and government forces witnessed the dissolution of the cabinet and parliament and the re-assumption of absolute power by the king in 2002. Several weeks of mass protests in April 2006 were followed by several months of peace negotiations between the Maoists and government officials, and culminated in a late 2006 peace accord and the 2007 promulgation of an interim constitution. Following a nationwide Constituent Assembly (CA) election in 2008, the newly formed CA declared Nepal a federal democratic republic, abolished the monarchy, and elected the country's first president. After the CA failed to draft a constitution by a May 2012 deadline set by the Supreme Court, then-Prime Minister Baburam BHATTARAI dissolved the CA. Months of negotiations ensued until March 2013 when the major political parties agreed to create an interim government headed by then-Chief Justice Khil Raj REGMI with a mandate to hold elections for a new CA. Elections were held in November 2013, in which the Nepali Congress won the largest share of seats in the CA and in February 2014 formed a coalition government with the second place Communist Party of Nepal-Unified Marxist-Leninist and with Nepali Congress President Sushil KOIRALA as prime minister. The new government failed to meet its January 2015 deadline for a new constitution primarily due to continuing disagreement over federal restructuring.
  • Geography :: NEPAL

  • Southern Asia, between China and India
    28 00 N, 84 00 E
    Asia
    total: 147,181 sq km
    land: 143,351 sq km
    water: 3,830 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 94
    slightly larger than Arkansas
    total: 3,159 km
    border countries (2): China 1,389 km, India 1,770 km
    0 km (landlocked)
    none (landlocked)
    varies from cool summers and severe winters in north to subtropical summers and mild winters in south
    Tarai or flat river plain of the Ganges in south; central hill region with rugged Himalayas in north
    lowest point: Kanchan Kalan 70 m
    highest point: Mount Everest 8,850 m (highest peak in Asia and highest point on earth above sea level)
    quartz, water, timber, hydropower, scenic beauty, small deposits of lignite, copper, cobalt, iron ore
    agricultural land: 28.8%
    arable land 15.1%; permanent crops 1.2%; permanent pasture 12.5%
    forest: 25.4%
    other: 45.8% (2011 est.)
    11,680 sq km (2003)
    210.2 cu km (2011)
    total: 9.5 cu km/yr (2%/0%/98%)
    per capita: 334.7 cu m/yr (2006)
    severe thunderstorms; flooding; landslides; drought and famine depending on the timing, intensity, and duration of the summer monsoons
    deforestation (overuse of wood for fuel and lack of alternatives); contaminated water (with human and animal wastes, agricultural runoff, and industrial effluents); wildlife conservation; vehicular emissions
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
    landlocked; strategic location between China and India; contains eight of world's 10 highest peaks, including Mount Everest and Kanchenjunga - the world's tallest and third tallest mountains - on the borders with China and India respectively
  • People and Society :: NEPAL

  • noun: Nepali (singular and plural)
    adjective: Nepali
    Chhettri 16.6%, Brahman-Hill 12.2%, Magar 7.1%, Tharu 6.6%, Tamang 5.8%, Newar 5%, Kami 4.8%, Muslim 4.4%, Yadav 4%, Rai 2.3%, Gurung 2%, Damai/Dholii 1.8%, Thakuri 1.6%, Limbu 1.5%, Sarki 1.4%, Teli 1.4%, Chamar/Harijan/Ram 1.3%, Koiri/Kushwaha 1.2%, other 19%
    note: 125 caste/ethnic groups were reported in the 2011 national census (2011 est.)
    Nepali (official) 44.6%, Maithali 11.7%, Bhojpuri 6%, Tharu 5.8%, Tamang 5.1%, Newar 3.2%, Magar 3%, Bajjika 3%, Urdu 2.6%, Avadhi 1.9%, Limbu 1.3%, Gurung 1.2%, other 10.4%, unspecified 0.2%
    note: 123 languages reported as mother tongue in 2011 national census; many in government and business also speak English (2011 est.)
    Hindu 81.3%, Buddhist 9%, Muslim 4.4%, Kirant 3.1%, Christian 1.4%, other 0.5%, unspecifed 0.2% (2011 est.)
    31,551,305 (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 42
    0-14 years: 30.72% (male 4,937,627/female 4,755,972)
    15-24 years: 22.51% (male 3,580,083/female 3,522,047)
    25-54 years: 36.5% (male 5,552,621/female 5,964,599)
    55-64 years: 5.67% (male 874,350/female 913,683)
    65 years and over: 4.6% (male 668,760/female 781,563) (2015 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 64%
    youth dependency ratio: 55.4%
    elderly dependency ratio: 8.6%
    potential support ratio: 11.7% (2014 est.)
    total: 22.9 years
    male: 22.2 years
    female: 23.6 years (2014 est.)
    1.79% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 66
    20.64 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 79
    6.56 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 144
    3.86 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 32
    urban population: 18.6% of total population (2015)
    rate of urbanization: 3.18% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    KATHMANDU (capital) 1.142 million (2014)
    at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2015 est.)
    total: 39.14 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 39.24 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 39.04 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 53
    total population: 67.52 years
    male: 66.18 years
    female: 68.92 years (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 166
    2.24 children born/woman (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 93
    49.7% (2011)
    6% of GDP (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 125
    5 beds/1,000 population (2006)
    improved:
    urban: 90.3% of population
    rural: 87.6% of population
    total: 88.1% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 9.7% of population
    rural: 12.4% of population
    total: 11.9% of population (2012 est.)
    improved:
    urban: 51.2% of population
    rural: 33.7% of population
    total: 36.7% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 48.8% of population
    rural: 66.3% of population
    total: 63.3% of population (2012 est.)
    0.23% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 92
    38,800 (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 61
    3,300 (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 44
    degree of risk: high
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
    vectorborne disease: Japanese encephalitis, malaria, and dengue fever (2013)
    2.9% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 189
    29.1% (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 17
    4.7% of GDP (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 87
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 63.9%
    male: 76.4%
    female: 53.1% (2015 est.)
    total: 12 years
    male: 12 years
    female: 12 years (2011)
    total number: 2,467,549
    percentage: 34% (2008 est.)
  • Government :: NEPAL

  • conventional long form: Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal
    conventional short form: Nepal
    local long form: Sanghiya Loktantrik Ganatantra Nepal
    local short form: Nepal
    federal democratic republic
    name: Kathmandu
    geographic coordinates: 27 43 N, 85 19 E
    time difference: UTC+5.75 (10.75 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    14 zones (anchal, singular and plural); Bagmati, Bheri, Dhawalagiri, Gandaki, Janakpur, Karnali, Kosi, Lumbini, Mahakali, Mechi, Narayani, Rapti, Sagarmatha, Seti
    1768 (unified by Prithvi Narayan SHAH)
    Republic Day, 28 May (2008), the abdication of Gyanendra SHAH, last Nepalese monarch, and the establishment of a federal republic
    several previous; latest entered into force 15 January 2007 (interim); note -a Constituent Assembly (CA) elected in 2008 to draft and promulgate a new constitution was unsuccessful and was dissolved in mid-2012; a new CA was elected in late 2013 and the parties have committed to promulgating a new constitution by mid-February 2015 (2014)
    English common law and Hindu legal concepts
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: President Ram Baran YADAV (since 23 July 2008); Vice President Paramananda JHA (since 23 July 2008)
    head of government: Prime Minister Sushil KOIRALA (since 11 February 2014)
    cabinet: Prime Minister KOIRALA on 25 February 2014 appointed the cabinet ministers; the cabinet is dominated by the Nepali Congress and the Communist Party of Nepal-United Marxist-Leninist
    elections: president elected by Parliament; term extends until the new constitution is promulgated; president elected on 21 July 2008 (next election NA)
    election results: Ram Baran YADAV elected president by the Constituent Assembly in second round; Ram Baran YADAV 308 votes, Ram Jaja Prasad SINGH 282
    description: unicameral Constituent Assembly or Sambidhan Sabha (601 seats; 240 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 335 directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation (PR) vote and 26 appointed by the cabinet (Council of Ministers); note - political parties allocated more than 30 percent of the PR seats are obliged to follow specified quotas for ethnic groups and within them equal percentages of men and women
    elections: last held on 19 November 2013 (next to be held NA)
    election results: percent of vote by party - NC 26%, CPN-UML 24%, Unified Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) 15%, Rastriya Prajatantra Party Nepal 7%; other 28%; seats by party - NC 196, CPN-UML 175, UCPN(M) 80, Rastriya Prajantantra Party Nepal 24, other smaller parties 100; note - 26 seats filled by the new Cabinet have not yet been appointed
    highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice and up to 14 judges)
    judge selection and term of office: the Supreme Court chief justice appointed by the prime minister on the recommendation of the Constitutional Council; other judges appointed by the prime minister on the recommendation of the Judicial Council; judges serve until age 65
    subordinate courts: appellate and district courts
    note: Nepal's judiciary was restructured under its 2007 Interim Constitution
    note: 120 political parties participated in the 19 November 2013 election and the 30 parties listed below were elected to serve in the Constituent Assembly
    Akhanda Nepal Party [Kumar KHADKA]
    Communist Party of Nepal-Marxist Leninist [C.P. MAINALI]
    Communist Party of Nepal-Unified Marxist-Leninist or UML [Jhalanath KHANAL]
    Communist Party of Nepal (United) [Chandra Dev JOSHI]
    Dalit Janajati Party [Bishwendra PASHWAN]
    Federal Socialist Party [Ashok RAI]
    Jana Jagaran Party Nepal [Lok Mani DHAKAL]
    Khambuwan Rastriya Morcha-Nepal [Ram Kumar RAI]
    Madhesi People's Rights Forum-Democratic [Bijay Kumar GACHCHADAR]
    Madhesi People's Rights Forum-Nepal [Upendra YADAV]
    Madhesi People's Rights Forum-Republican [Raj Kishore YADAV]
    Madhes Samata Party Nepal [Meghraj SAHANI]
    National Madhes Socialist Party [Sharat Singh BHANDARI]
    Nepal Pariwar Dal [Ek Nath DHAKAL]
    Nepal Workers and Peasants Party [Narayan Man BIJUKCHHE]
    Nepali Congress [Sushil KOIRALA]
    Nepali Janata Dal [Hari Charan SAH]
    Nepa Rastriya Party [Keshav Man SHAKYA]
    Rastriya Janamorcha Nepal [Chitra Bahadur K.C.]
    Rastriya Janamukti Party [Malwar Singh THAPA]
    Rastriya Prajatantra Party [Surya Bahadur THAPA]
    Rastriya Prajatantra Party-Nepal [Kamal THAPA]
    Sadbhavana Party [Rajendra MAHATO]
    Samajbadi Janata Party Nepal [Prem Bahadur SINGH]
    Sanghiya Sadbhavana Party [Anil JHA]
    Sanghiye Lokatantrik Rastriya Manch [Rukmini CHAUDARY]
    Terai Madhes Democratic Party [Mahantha THAKUR]
    Terai Madhes Sadbhavana Party-Nepal [Mahendra YADAV]
    Tharuhat Terai Party Nepal [Bhanuram CHAUDARY]
    Unified Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) or UCPN(M) [Pushpa Kamal DAHAL, also known as PRACHANDA]
    The Communist Party of Nepal - Maoist (CPN-M); note - this party split from the UCPN(M) in June 2012,opposed the November 2013 elections, and is not represented in the current Constituent Assembly
    other: a variety of groups advocating regional autonomy such as the Federal State Limbuwan Council in far eastern Nepal
    ADB, BIMSTEC, CD, CP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSMA, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAM, OPCW, SAARC, SACEP, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    chief of mission: Ambassador Arjun Kumar KARKI (since 18 May 2015)
    chancery: 2131 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 667-4550
    FAX: [1] (202) 667-5534
    consulate(s) general: Cleveland (OH), New York
    chief of mission: Ambassador Peter W. BODDE (since 10 September 2012)
    embassy: Maharajgunj, Kathmandu
    mailing address: use embassy street address
    telephone: [977] (1) 423-4000
    FAX: [977] (1) 400-7272
    red with a blue border around the unique shape of two overlapping right triangles; the smaller, upper triangle bears a white stylized moon and the larger, lower triangle displays a white 12-pointed sun; the color red represents the rhododendron (Nepal's national flower) and is a sign of victory and bravery, the blue border signifies peace and harmony; the two right triangles are a combination of two single pennons (pennants) that originally symbolized the Himalaya Mountains while their charges represented the families of the king (upper) and the prime minister, but today they are understood to denote Hinduism and Buddhism, the country's two main religions; the moon represents the serenity of the Nepalese people and the shade and cool weather in the Himalayas, while the sun depicts the heat and higher temperatures of the lower parts of Nepal; the moon and the sun are also said to express the hope that the nation will endure as long as these heavenly bodies
    note: Nepal is the only country in the world whose flag is not rectangular or square
    rhododendron blossom; national color: red
    name: "Sayaun Thunga Phool Ka" (Hundreds of Flowers)
    lyrics/music: Pradeep Kumar RAI/Ambar GURUNG
    note: adopted 2007; after the abolition of the monarchy in 2006, a new anthem was required because of the previous anthem's praise for the king
  • Economy :: NEPAL

  • Nepal is among the poorest and least developed countries in the world, with about one-quarter of its population living below the poverty line. Nepal is heavily dependent on remittances, which amount to as much as 22%-25% of GDP. Agriculture is the mainstay of the economy, providing a livelihood for more than 70% of the population and accounting for a little over one-third of GDP. Industrial activity mainly involves the processing of agricultural products, including pulses, jute, sugarcane, tobacco, and grain. Nepal has considerable scope for exploiting its potential in hydropower, with an estimated 42,000 MW of commercially feasible capacity, but political uncertainty and a difficult business climate have hampered foreign investment. Additional challenges to Nepal's growth include its landlocked geographic location, persistent power shortages, underdeveloped transportation infrastructure, civil strife and labor unrest, and its susceptibility to natural disaster. The lack of political consensus in the past several years has delayed national budgets and prevented much-needed economic reform, although the government passed a full budget in 2013 and 2014. Nepal and India signed trade and investment agreements in 2014 that will increase Nepal’s hydropower potential.
    $66.78 billion (2014 est.)
    $63.31 billion (2013 est.)
    $60.96 billion (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2014 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 97
    $19.64 billion (2014 est.)
    5.5% (2014 est.)
    3.9% (2013 est.)
    4.8% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 44
    $2,400 (2014 est.)
    $2,300 (2013 est.)
    $2,200 (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2013 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 197
    33.5% of GDP (2014 est.)
    33.1% of GDP (2013 est.)
    34.9% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 21
    household consumption: 78.1%
    government consumption: 11.2%
    investment in fixed capital: 23.1%
    investment in inventories: 13.9%
    exports of goods and services: 13.9%
    imports of goods and services: -40.3%
    (2014 est.)
    agriculture: 30.7%
    industry: 13.6%
    services: 55.7% (2014 est.)
    pulses, rice, corn, wheat, sugarcane, jute, root crops; milk, water buffalo meat
    tourism, carpets, textiles; small rice, jute, sugar, and oilseed mills; cigarettes, cement and brick production
    2.7% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 108
    14.76 million
    note: severe lack of skilled labor (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 39
    agriculture: 75%
    industry: 7%
    services: 18% (2010 est.)
    46% (2008 est.)
    42% (2004 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 195
    25.2% (2011 est.)
    lowest 10%: 3.2%
    highest 10%: 29.5% (2011)
    32.8 (2010)
    47.2 (2008 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 103
    revenues: $4.085 billion
    expenditures: $3.834 billion (2014 est.)
    20.8% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 154
    1.3% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 19
    30% of GDP (FY 2012/13 est.)
    32% of GDP (FY 2011/12 est.) (FY11/12)
    country comparison to the world: 126
    16 July - 15 July
    8.4% (2014 est.)
    10.2% (2013 est.)
    8% (31 October 2014)
    8% (31 December 2013)
    country comparison to the world: 36
    10.9% (31 December 2014 est.)
    12.4% (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 75
    $3.808 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $3.356 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 113
    $14.5 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $12.55 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 96
    $13.35 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $11.82 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 96
    $9.671 billion (31 October 2014 est.)
    $5.812 billion (31 October 2013 est.)
    $5.235 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 76
    $908 million (2014 est.)
    $805.7 million (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 50
    $1.124 billion (2014 est.)
    $991.5 million (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 159
    clothing, pulses, carpets, textiles, juice, jute goods
    India 53.7%, US 9.2%, China 5%, Bangladesh 4.2%, Germany 4.2% (2013)
    $7.282 billion (2014 est.)
    $6.502 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 114
    petroleum products, machinery and equipment, gold, electrical goods, medicine
    India 50.6%, China 35% (2013)
    $5.439 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    $4.434 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 94
    $3.549 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $3.648 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 138
    $103 million (31 July 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 111
    $NA
    Nepalese rupees (NPR) per US dollar -
    97.4 (2014 est.)
    93 (2013 est.)
    85.2 (2012 est.)
    74.02 (2011 est.)
    73.16 (2010 est.)
  • Energy :: NEPAL

  • 3.431 billion kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 128
    2.832 billion kWh (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 133
    31 million kWh (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 89
    721 million kWh (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 72
    746,000 kW (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 130
    7.6% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 198
    0% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 154
    92.4% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 11
    0% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 110
    0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 206
    0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 164
    0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 106
    0 bbl (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 173
    0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 182
    19,260 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 133
    0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 205
    21,960 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 101
    0 cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 175
    0 cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 180
    0 cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 154
    0 cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 109
    0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 178
    3.638 million Mt (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 137
  • Communications :: NEPAL

  • 834,000 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 83
    18.138 million (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 54
    general assessment: poor telephone and telegraph service; fair radiotelephone communication service and mobile-cellular telephone network
    domestic: mobile-cellular telephone subscribership base is increasing with roughly 90% of the population living in areas covered by mobile carriers
    international: country code - 977; radiotelephone communications; microwave and fiber landlines to India; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) (2011)
    state operates 2 TV stations, as well as national and regional radio stations; roughly 30 independent TV channels are registered with only about half in regular operation; nearly 400 FM radio stations are licensed with roughly 300 operational (2007)
    AM 6, FM 80, shortwave 4 (2008)
    9 (plus 9 repeaters) (2008)
    .np
    41,256 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 100
    577,800 (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 113
  • Transportation :: NEPAL

  • 47 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 95
    total: 11
    over 3,047 m: 1
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
    914 to 1,523 m: 6
    under 914 m: 1 (2013)
    total: 36
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
    914 to 1,523 m: 6
    under 914 m:
    29 (2013)
    total: 59 km
    narrow gauge: 59 km 0.762-m gauge (2008)
    country comparison to the world: 131
    total: 10,844 km
    paved: 4,952 km
    unpaved: 5,892 km (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 132
  • Military :: NEPAL

  • Nepal Army (2012)
    18 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2014)
    males age 16-49: 6,941,152
    females age 16-49: 7,618,397 (2010 est.)
    males age 16-49: 5,260,878
    females age 16-49: 5,947,512 (2010 est.)
    male: 380,172
    female: 367,103 (2010 est.)
    NA% (2012)
    1.41% of GDP (2011)
    NA% (2010)
  • Transnational Issues :: NEPAL

  • joint border commission continues to work on contested sections of boundary with India, including the 400 sq km dispute over the source of the Kalapani River; India has instituted a stricter border regime to restrict transit of Maoist insurgents and illegal cross-border activities
    refugees (country of origin): 23,059 (Bhutan); 15,000 (Tibet/China) (2014)
    IDPs: 59,433 (remaining from ten-year Maoist insurgency that officially ended in 2006; figure does not include people displaced since 2007 by inter-communal violence and insecurity in the Terai region; 2015 earthquakes) (2015)
    stateless persons: undetermined (2013); note - in 2007-2008 the government distributed 2.6 million citizenship certificates to the 3.4 million people without one; the remaining 800,000 without citizenship certificates are not necessarily stateless, and the UNHCR is working with the Nepali Government to clarify their situation; lesser numbers of Bhutanese Hindu refugees of Nepali origin (the Lhotsampa) who were stripped of Bhutanese nationality and forced to flee their country in the late 1980s and early 1990s - and undocumented Tibetan refugees who arrived in Nepal prior to the 1990s - are considered stateless
    illicit producer of cannabis and hashish for the domestic and international drug markets; transit point for opiates from Southeast Asia to the West
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