Library

 
View Text Low Bandwidth Version
Download Publication
Australia-Oceania :: New Zealand
Page last updated on August 26, 2015
 
view 24 photos of
New Zealand
  • Introduction :: NEW ZEALAND

  • The Polynesian Maori reached New Zealand in about A.D. 800. In 1840, their chieftains entered into a compact with Britain, the Treaty of Waitangi, in which they ceded sovereignty to Queen Victoria while retaining territorial rights. That same year, the British began the first organized colonial settlement. A series of land wars between 1843 and 1872 ended with the defeat of the native peoples. The British colony of New Zealand became an independent dominion in 1907 and supported the UK militarily in both world wars. New Zealand's full participation in a number of defense alliances lapsed by the 1980s. In recent years, the government has sought to address longstanding Maori grievances. New Zealand assumed a nonpermanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2015-16 term.
  • Geography :: NEW ZEALAND

  • Oceania, islands in the South Pacific Ocean, southeast of Australia
    41 00 S, 174 00 E
    Oceania
    total: 267,710 sq km
    land: 267,710 sq km
    water: NA
    note: includes Antipodes Islands, Auckland Islands, Bounty Islands, Campbell Island, Chatham Islands, and Kermadec Islands
    country comparison to the world: 76
    almost twice the size of North Carolina; about the size of Colorado
    Area comparison map:
    0 km
    15,134 km
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    contiguous zone: 24 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
    temperate with sharp regional contrasts
    predominately mountainous with large coastal plains
    lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
    highest point: Aoraki-Mount Cook 3,754 m
    natural gas, iron ore, sand, coal, timber, hydropower, gold, limestone
    agricultural land: 43.2%
    arable land 1.8%; permanent crops 0.3%; permanent pasture 41.1%
    forest: 31.4%
    other: 25.4% (2011 est.)
    6,193 sq km (2007)
    327 cu km (2011)
    total: 4.75 cu km/yr (23%/5%/72%)
    per capita: 1,200 cu m/yr (2010)
    earthquakes are common, though usually not severe; volcanic activity
    volcanism: significant volcanism on North Island; Ruapehu (elev. 2,797 m), which last erupted in 2007, has a history of large eruptions in the past century; Taranaki has the potential to produce dangerous avalanches and lahars; other historically active volcanoes include Okataina, Raoul Island, Tongariro, and White Island
    deforestation; soil erosion; native flora and fauna hard-hit by invasive species
    party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
    signed, but not ratified: Antarctic Seals, Marine Life Conservation
    almost 90% of the population lives in cities; Wellington is the southernmost national capital in the world
  • People and Society :: NEW ZEALAND

  • noun: New Zealander(s)
    adjective: New Zealand
    European 71.2%, Maori 14.1%, Asian 11.3%, Pacific peoples 7.6%, Middle Eastern, Latin American, African 1.1%, other 1.6%, not stated or unidentified 5.4%
    note: based on the 2013 census of the usually resident population; percentages add up to more than 100% because respondents were able to identify more than one ethnic group (2013 est.)
    English (de facto official) 89.8%, Maori (de jure official) 3.5%, Samoan 2%, Hindi 1.6%, French 1.2%, Northern Chinese 1.2%, Yue 1%, Other or not stated 20.5%, New Zealand Sign Language (de jure official)
    note: shares sum to 120.8% due to multiple responses on census (2013 est.)
    Christian 44.3% (Catholic 11.6%, Anglican 10.8%, Presbyterian and Congregational 7.8%, Methodist, 2.4%, Pentecostal 1.8%, other 9.9%), Hindu 2.1%, Buddhist 1.4%, Maori Christian 1.3%, Islam 1.1%, other religion 1.4% (includes Judaism, Spiritualism and New Age religions, Baha'i, Asian religions other than Buddhism), no religion 38.5%, not stated or unidentified 8.2%, objected to answering 4.1%
    note: based on the 2013 census of the usually resident population; percentages add up to more than 100% because people were able to identify more than one religion (2013 est.)
    4,438,393 (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 127
    0-14 years: 19.87% (male 451,684/female 430,084)
    15-24 years: 13.74% (male 313,140/female 296,654)
    25-54 years: 40.25% (male 894,475/female 891,973)
    55-64 years: 11.52% (male 249,765/female 261,670)
    65 years and over: 14.62% (male 299,862/female 349,086) (2015 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 54%
    youth dependency ratio: 31.1%
    elderly dependency ratio: 22.9%
    potential support ratio: 4.4% (2015 est.)
    total: 37.6 years
    male: 36.7 years
    female: 38.4 years (2014 est.)
    0.82% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 132
    13.33 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 151
    7.36 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 122
    2.21 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 45
    urban population: 86.3% of total population (2015)
    rate of urbanization: 1.05% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    Auckland 1.344 million; WELLINGTON (capital) 383,000 (2015)
    at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2015 est.)
    total: 4.52 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 5.07 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 3.96 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 184
    total population: 81.05 years
    male: 78.97 years
    female: 83.22 years (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 26
    2.04 children born/woman (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 119
    9.7% of GDP (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 20
    2.74 physicians/1,000 population (2010)
    2.3 beds/1,000 population (2011)
    improved:
    urban: 100% of population
    rural: 100% of population
    total: 100% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 0% of population
    rural: 0% of population
    total: 0% of population (2012 est.)
    NA
    NA
    NA
    30.6% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 34
    7.4% of GDP (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 16
    total: 19 years
    male: 18 years
    female: 20 years (2012)
    total: 17.7%
    male: 17.3%
    female: 18.1% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 64
  • Government :: NEW ZEALAND

  • conventional long form: none
    conventional short form: New Zealand
    abbreviation: NZ
    parliamentary democracy and a Commonwealth realm
    name: Wellington
    geographic coordinates: 41 18 S, 174 47 E
    time difference: UTC+12 (17 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in September; ends first Sunday in April
    note: New Zealand has two time zones - New Zealand standard time (12 hours in advance of UTC), and Chatham Islands time (45 minutes in advance of New Zealand standard time)
    16 regions and 1 territory*; Auckland, Bay of Plenty, Canterbury, Chatham Islands*, Gisborne, Hawke's Bay, Manawatu-Wanganui, Marlborough, Nelson, Northland, Otago, Southland, Taranaki, Tasman, Waikato, Wellington, West Coast
    Cook Islands, Niue, Tokelau
    26 September 1907 (from the UK)
    Waitangi Day (Treaty of Waitangi established British sovereignty over New Zealand), 6 February (1840); ANZAC Day (commemorated as the anniversary of the landing of troops of the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps during World War I at Gallipoli, Turkey), 25 April (1915)
    Constitution Act 1986 (the principal formal charter) adopted and effective 1 January 1987; amended 1999, 2005 (2013)
    common law system, based on English model, with special legislation and land courts for the Maori
    accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General Lt. Gen. Sir Jerry MATEPARAE (since 31 August 2011)
    head of government: Prime Minister John KEY (since 19 November 2008); Deputy Prime Minister Simon William ENGLISH (since 19 November 2008)
    cabinet: Executive Council appointed by the governor general on the recommendation of the prime minister
    elections: the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of a majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the governor general; deputy prime minister appointed by the governor general
    description: unicameral House of Representatives - commonly called Parliament (usually 120 seats; 70 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies, including 7 Maori constituencies, by simple majority vote and 50 directly elected by proportional representation vote; members serve 3-year terms)
    elections: last held on 20 September 2014 (next to be held by September 2017)
    election results: percent of vote by party - National Party 48.1%, Labor Party 24.7%, Green Party 10%, NZ First 8.8%, Maori 1.29%, ACT Party .69%, United Future .22%; seats by party - National Party 61, Labor Party 32, Green Party 13, NZ First 11, Maori 2, ACT Party 1, United Future 1
    highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of 5 justices including the chief justice); note - the Supreme Court in 2004 replaced the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in London as the final appeals court
    judge selection and term of office: justices appointed by the governor-general on the recommendation of the attorney-general; justices appointed for life
    subordinate courts: Court of Appeal; High Court; tribunals and authorities; district courts; specialized courts for issues related to employment, environment, Maori lands, and military
    ACT New Zealand [Rodney HIDE]
    Green Party [Russel NORMAN and Metiria TUREI]
    Jim Anderton's Progressive Party [James (Jim) ANDERTON]
    Mana Party [Hone HARAWIRA]
    Maori Party [Tariana TURIA and Dr. Pita SHARPLES]
    New Zealand First Party or NZ First [Winston PETERS]
    New Zealand Labor Party [Phil GOFF]
    New Zealand National Party [John KEY]
    United Future New Zealand [Peter DUNNE]
    Women's Electoral Lobby or WEL
    other: apartheid groups; civil rights groups; farmers groups; Maori; nuclear weapons groups; women's rights groups
    ADB, ANZUS (US suspended security obligations to NZ on 11 August 1986), APEC, ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), Australia Group, BIS, C, CD, CP, EAS, EBRD, FAO, FATF, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NSG, OECD, OPCW, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club (associate), PCA, PIF, SICA (observer), Sparteca, SPC, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMISS, UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    chief of mission: Ambassador Michael Kenneth MOORE (since 5 August 2010)
    chancery: 37 Observatory Circle NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 328-4800
    FAX: [1] (202) 667-5227
    consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York, Pago Pago (American Samoa), Santa Monica (CA)
    chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d' Affaires Marie C. DAMOUR (since 17 January 2014); note - also accredited to Samoa
    embassy: 29 Fitzherbert Terrace, Thorndon, Wellington
    mailing address: P. O. Box 1190, Wellington; PSC 467, Box 1, APO AP 96531-1034
    telephone: [64] (4) 462-6000
    FAX: [64] (4) 499-0490
    consulate(s) general: Auckland
    blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant with four red five-pointed stars edged in white centered in the outer half of the flag; the stars represent the Southern Cross constellation
    Southern Cross constellation (four, five-pointed stars), kiwi (bird), silver fern; national colors: black, white, red (ochre)
    name: "God Defend New Zealand"
    lyrics/music: Thomas BRACKEN [English], Thomas Henry SMITH [Maori]/John Joseph WOODS
    note: adopted 1940 as national song, adopted 1977 as co-national anthem; New Zealand has two national anthems with equal status; as a commonwealth realm, in addition to "God Defend New Zealand," "God Save the Queen" serves as a national anthem (see United Kingdom); "God Save the Queen" normally played only when a member of the royal family or the governor-general is present; in all other cases, "God Defend New Zealand" is played
  • Economy :: NEW ZEALAND

  • Over the past 30 years the government has transformed New Zealand from an agrarian economy, dependent on concessionary British market access, to a more industrialized, free market economy that can compete globally. This dynamic growth has boosted real incomes - but left behind some at the bottom of the ladder - and broadened and deepened the technological capabilities of the industrial sector. Per capita income rose for ten consecutive years until 2007 in purchasing power parity terms, but fell in 2008-09. Debt-driven consumer spending drove robust growth in the first half of the decade, fueling a large balance of payments deficit that posed a challenge for policymakers. Inflationary pressures caused the central bank to raise its key rate steadily from January 2004 until it was among the highest in the OECD in 2007-08. The higher rate attracted international capital inflows, which strengthened the currency and housing market while aggravating the current account deficit. The economy fell into recession before the start of the global financial crisis and contracted for five consecutive quarters in 2008-09. In line with global peers, the central bank cut interest rates aggressively and the government developed fiscal stimulus measures. The economy pulled out of recession in 2009, and achieved 2%-3% growth between 2011 to 2014. Nevertheless, key trade sectors remain vulnerable to weak external demand and lower commodity prices. In the aftermath of the Canterbury earthquakes, the government has continued programs to expand export markets, develop capital markets, invest in innovation, raise productivity growth, and develop infrastructure, while easing its fiscal austerity.
    $158.9 billion (2014 est.)
    $153.9 billion (2013 est.)
    $150.5 billion (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2014 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 71
    $198.1 billion (2014 est.)
    3.2% (2014 est.)
    2.2% (2013 est.)
    2.4% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 82
    $35,200 (2014 est.)
    $34,000 (2013 est.)
    $33,300 (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2014 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 47
    20% of GDP (2014 est.)
    19.7% of GDP (2013 est.)
    18% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 95
    household consumption: 58.8%
    government consumption: 18.7%
    investment in fixed capital: 21.2%
    investment in inventories: 0.7%
    exports of goods and services: 28.4%
    imports of goods and services: -27.8%
    (2014 est.)
    agriculture: 3.8%
    industry: 26.6%
    services: 69.6% (2014 est.)
    dairy products, sheep, beef, poultry, fruit, vegetables, wine, seafood, wheat and barley
    agriculture, forestry, fishing, logs and wood articles, manufacturing, mining, construction, financial services, real estate services, tourism
    2.2% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 120
    2.452 million (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 116
    agriculture: 7%
    industry: 19%
    services: 74% (2006 est.)
    5.4% (2014 est.)
    6.2% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 60
    NA%
    lowest 10%: NA%
    highest 10%: NA%
    36.2 (1997)
    country comparison to the world: 85
    revenues: $82.63 billion
    expenditures: $84.37 billion (2014 est.)
    41.1% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 34
    -0.9% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 57
    35.3% of GDP (2014 est.)
    35.3% of GDP (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 112
    1 April - 31 March
    note: this is the fiscal year for tax purposes
    1.2% (2014 est.)
    1.1% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 73
    2.5% (31 December 2009)
    5% (31 December 2008)
    country comparison to the world: 112
    6.1% (31 December 2014 est.)
    5.53% (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 131
    $33.65 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $32.71 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 60
    $105.1 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $97.74 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 53
    $271.2 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $275.9 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 37
    $79.8 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    $71.66 billion (31 December 2011)
    $71.83 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 45
    -$6.972 billion (2014 est.)
    -$6.153 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 178
    $40.21 billion (2014 est.)
    $39.94 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 60
    dairy products, meat and edible offal, logs and wood articles, fruit, crude oil, wine
    China 20.8%, Australia 19%, US 8.5%, Japan 5.9% (2013)
    $40.71 billion (2014 est.)
    $38.81 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 59
    petroleum and products, mechanical machinery, vehicles and parts, electrical machinery, textiles
    China 17.5%, Australia 13.3%, US 9.4%, Japan 6.4%, Germany 4.6%, Malaysia 4.1% (2013)
    $18.96 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $16.32 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 60
    $87.16 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $86.89 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 50
    $85.64 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $81.38 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 47
    $59.08 billion (31 December 2009)
    country comparison to the world: 37
    New Zealand dollars (NZD) per US dollar -
    1.206 (2014 est.)
    1.2187 (2013 est.)
    1.23 (2012 est.)
    1.263 (2011 est.)
    1.3874 (2010 est.)
  • Energy :: NEW ZEALAND

  • 42.91 billion kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 56
    40.45 billion kWh (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 55
    0 kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 182
    0 kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 184
    9.722 million kW (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 57
    30.9% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 179
    0% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 158
    54% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 42
    15.1% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 19
    39,410 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 61
    35,520 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 47
    105,900 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 48
    81.4 million bbl (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 74
    117,600 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 71
    152,800 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 65
    2,471 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 98
    37,620 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 81
    4.765 billion cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 52
    4.718 billion cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 61
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 158
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 113
    29.42 billion cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 67
    37.89 million Mt (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 71
  • Communications :: NEW ZEALAND

  • total subscriptions: 1.85 million
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 42 (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 62
    total: 5.1 million
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 116 (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 116
    general assessment: excellent domestic and international systems
    domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular telephone subscribership exceeds 150 per 100 persons
    international: country code - 64; the Southern Cross submarine cable system provides links to Australia, Fiji, and the US; satellite earth stations - 8 (1 Inmarsat - Pacific Ocean, 7 other) (2011)
    state-owned Television New Zealand operates multiple TV networks and state-owned Radio New Zealand operates 3 radio networks and an external shortwave radio service to the South Pacific region; a small number of national commercial TV and radio stations and many regional commercial television and radio stations are available; cable and satellite TV systems are available (2008)
    AM 124, FM 290, shortwave 4 (1998)
    41 (plus about 700 repeaters) (1997)
    .nz
    total: 4 million
    percent of population: 91.5% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 77
  • Transportation :: NEW ZEALAND

  • 123 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 48
    total: 39
    over 3,047 m: 2
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 12
    914 to 1,523 m: 23
    under 914 m: 1 (2013)
    total: 84
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
    914 to 1,523 m: 33
    under 914 m:
    48 (2013)
    condensate 331 km; gas 1,936 km; liquid petroleum gas 172 km; oil 288 km; refined products 198 km (2013)
    total: 4,128 km
    narrow gauge: 4,128 km 1.067-m gauge (503 km electrified) (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 42
    total: 94,902 km
    paved: 62,759 km (includes 199 km of expressways)
    unpaved: 32,143 km (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 50
    total: 15
    by type: bulk carrier 3, cargo 3, chemical tanker 1, container 1, passenger/cargo 5, petroleum tanker 2
    foreign-owned: 7 (Germany 2, Hong Kong 1, South Africa 1, Switzerland 2, UK 1)
    registered in other countries: 5 (Antigua and Barbuda 2, Cook Islands 2, Samoa 1) (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 101
    major seaport(s): Auckland, Lyttelton, Manukau Harbor, Marsden Point, Tauranga, Wellington
  • Military :: NEW ZEALAND

  • New Zealand Defense Force (NZDF): New Zealand Army, Royal New Zealand Navy, Royal New Zealand Air Force (Te Hokowhitu o Kahurangi, RNZAF) (2013)
    17 years of age for voluntary military service; soldiers cannot be deployed until the age of 18; no conscription; 3 years of secondary education required; must be a citizen of NZ, the UK, Australia, Canada, or the US, and resident of NZ for the previous 5 years (2013)
    males age 16-49: 1,019,798
    females age 16-49: 1,003,429 (2010 est.)
    males age 16-49: 843,526
    females age 16-49: 828,779 (2010 est.)
    male: 30,846
    female: 28,825 (2010 est.)
    1.13% of GDP (2012)
    1.12% of GDP (2011)
    1.13% of GDP (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 87
  • Transnational Issues :: NEW ZEALAND

  • asserts a territorial claim in Antarctica (Ross Dependency)
    significant consumer of amphetamines
GO TOP