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Africa :: South Sudan
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South Sudan
  • Introduction :: SOUTH SUDAN

  • Egypt attempted to colonize the region of southern Sudan by establishing the province of Equatoria in the 1870s. Islamic Mahdist revolutionaries overran the region in 1885, but in 1898 a British force was able to overthrow the Mahdist regime. An Anglo-Egyptian Sudan was established the following year with Equatoria being the southernmost of its eight provinces. The isolated region was largely left to itself over the following decades, but Christian missionaries converted much of the population and facilitated the spread of English. When Sudan gained its independence in 1956, it was with the understanding that the southerners would be able to participate fully in the political system. When the Arab Khartoum government reneged on its promises, a mutiny began that led to two prolonged periods of conflict (1955-1972 and 1983-2005) in which perhaps 2.5 million people died - mostly civilians - due to starvation and drought. Ongoing peace talks finally resulted in a Comprehensive Peace Agreement, signed in January 2005. As part of this agreement the south was granted a six-year period of autonomy to be followed by a referendum on final status. The result of this referendum, held in January 2011, was a vote of 98% in favor of secession. Independence was attained on 9 July 2011. Since independence South Sudan has struggled with good governance and nation building and has attempted to control rebel militia groups operating in its territory. Economic conditions have deteriorated since January 2012 when the government decided to shut down oil production following bilateral disagreements with Sudan.
  • Geography :: SOUTH SUDAN

  • East-Central Africa; south of Sudan, north of Uganda and Kenya, west of Ethiopia
    8 00 N, 30 00 E
    Africa
    total: 644,329 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 42
    slightly smaller than Texas
    total: 6,018 km
    border countries (6): Central African Republic 1,055 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 714 km, Ethiopia 1,299 km, Kenya 317 km, Sudan 2,158 km, Uganda 475 km
    note: South Sudan-Sudan boundary represents 1 January 1956 alignment; final alignment pending negotiations and demarcation; final sovereignty status of Abyei Area pending negotiations between South Sudan and Sudan
    0 km (landlocked)
    none (landlocked)
    hot with seasonal rainfall influenced by the annual shift of the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone; rainfall is heaviest in the upland areas of the south and diminishes to the north
    the terrain gradually rises from plains in the north and center to southern highlands along the border with Uganda and Kenya; the White Nile, flowing north out of the uplands of Central Africa, is the major geographic feature of the country supporting agriculture and extensive wild animal populations; The Sudd (a name derived from floating vegetation that hinders navigation) is a large swampy area of more than 100,000 sq km fed by the waters of the White Nile that dominates the center of the country
    Lowest point: NA
    highest point: Kinyeti 3,187 m
    hydropower, fertile agricultural land, gold, diamonds, petroleum, hardwoods, limestone, iron ore, copper, chromium ore, zinc, tungsten, mica, silver
    The Sudd is a vast swamp in South Sudan, formed by the White Nile, comprising more than 15% of the total area; it is one of the world's largest wetlands
  • People and Society :: SOUTH SUDAN

  • noun: South Sudanese (singular and plural)
    adjective: South Sudanese
    Dinka 35.8%, Nuer 15.6%, Shilluk, Azande, Bari, Kakwa, Kuku, Murle, Mandari, Didinga, Ndogo, Bviri, Lndi, Anuak, Bongo, Lango, Dungotona, Acholi (2011 est.)
    English (official), Arabic (includes Juba and Sudanese variants), regional languages include Dinka, Nuer, Bari, Zande, Shilluk
    animist, Christian
    11,562,695 (July 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 75
    0-14 years: 45.8% (male 2,699,556/female 2,593,241)
    15-24 years: 19.9% (male 1,210,962/female 1,084,810)
    25-54 years: 29.1% (male 1,622,776/female 1,742,842)
    55-64 years: 3.2% (male 198,106/female 166,664)
    65 years and over: 2.1% (male 136,932/female 106,806) (2014 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 82.8%
    youth dependency ratio: 76.4%
    elderly dependency ratio: 6.4%
    potential support ratio: 15.6% (2014 est.)
    total: 16.8 years
    male: 16.6 years
    female: 17 years (2014 est.)
    4.12% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 3
    37.68 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 13
    8.42 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 81
    11.94 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 13
    urban population: 18.6% of total population (2014)
    rate of urbanization: 5.05% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    JUBA (capital) 307,000 (2014)
    730 deaths/100,000 live births (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 1
    total: 68.16 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 72.92 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 63.15 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 16
    5.43 children born/woman (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 10
    4% (2010)
    2.2% of GDP (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 186
    improved:
    urban: 63.4% of population
    rural: 55% of population
    total: 56.5% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 36.6% of population
    rural: 45% of population
    total: 43.5% of population (2012 est.)
    improved:
    urban: 15.7% of population
    rural: 7.3% of population
    total: 8.9% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 84.3% of population
    rural: 92.7% of population
    total: 91.1% of population (2012 est.)
    2.24% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 26
    153,100 (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 31
    12,600 (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 21
    degree of risk: very high
    food or waterborne disease: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
    vectorborne disease: malaria, dengue fever, trypanosomiasis-Gambiense (African sleeping sickness)
    water contact disease: schistosomiasis
    respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
    animal contact disease: rabies (2013)
    6.6% (2014)
    27.6% (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 10
    0.7% of GDP (2011)
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 27%
    male: 40%
    female: 16% (2009 est.)
  • Government :: SOUTH SUDAN

  • conventional long form: Republic of South Sudan
    conventional short form: South Sudan
    republic
    name: Juba
    geographic coordinates: 04 51 N 31 37 E
    time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    10 states; Central Equatoria, Eastern Equatoria, Jonglei, Lakes, Northern Bahr el Ghazal, Unity, Upper Nile, Warrap, Western Bahr el Ghazal, Western Equatoria
    9 July 2011 (from Sudan)
    Independence Day, 9 July (2011)
    previous 2005 (preindependence); latest signed 7 July 2011 (Transitional Constitution of the Republic of South Sudan, 2011); amended March 2015; note - in January 2013, the mandate of the South Sudan National Constitutional Review Commission to address additional constitutional amendments was extended (2013)
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: President Salva KIIR Mayardit (since 9 July 2011); Vice President James Wani IGGA (since 23 August 2013); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
    head of government: President Salva KIIR Mayardit (since 9 July 2011); Vice President James Wani IGGA (since 23 August 2013)
    cabinet: National Council of Ministers; appointed by the president and approved by a resolution from the Legislative Assembly
    elections: president elected by popular vote for a four-year term; election last held on 11-15 April 2010 (the next election has been postponed from 2015 to 2017 or 2018 due to instability and violence)
    election results: Salva KIIR Mayardit elected president; percent of vote - Salva KIIR Mayardit 93%, Lam AKOL 7%
    description: bicameral National Legislature consists of the Council of States (50 seats; the Council of States, established by presidential decree in August 2011, includes 50 members - 20 former members of the Council of States and 30 appointed representatives ) and the National Legislative Assembly (332 seats; the National Assembly, also established by presidential decree in August 2011, includes 170 members elected in April 2010, 96 members of the former National Assembly, and 66 newly appointed members)
    elections: National Legislative Assembly - last held 11-15 April 2010 but did not take office until July 2011 (next to be held in 2015); Council of States - established and members appointed 1 August 2011
    election results: National Legislative Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - SPLM 251, SPLM-DC 6, NCP 3, independent 6, unknown 66; Council of States - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - SPLM 20, unknown 30
    highest court(s): Supreme Court of South Sudan (consists of 7 justices including the court president and deputy president and organized into panels of 3 justices except when sitting as a Constitutional panel of all 7 justices)
    judge selection and term of office: judges appointed by the president upon proposal of the Judicial Service Council, a 9-member judicial and administrative body; judge tenure NA
    subordinate courts: national level: Courts of Appeal; High Courts; County Courts; state level: High Courts; County Courts; customary courts; other specialized courts and tribunals
    National Congress Party of NCP [Omar al-BASHIR]
    Sudan People's Liberation Movement or SPLM [Salva KIIR Mayardit]
    Sudan People's Liberation Movement for Democratic Change or SPLM-DC [Lam AKOL]
    AU, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOM, IPU, ITU, MIGA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WMO
    chief of mission: Ambassador Garang Diing AKUONG (since 23 February 2015)
    chancery: 1015 31st St., NW, Third Floor, Washington, DC, 20007
    telephone: [1] (202) 293-7940
    FAX: [1] (202) 293-7941
    chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Charles TWINNING (since 24 August 2014)
    embassy: located on Kololo Road adjacent to the EU's compound, Juba
    telephone: [211] (0) 912-105-188
    three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and green; the red band is edged in white; a blue isosceles triangle based on the hoist side contains a gold, five-pointed star; black represents the people of South Sudan, red the blood shed in the struggle for freedom, green the verdant land, and blue the waters of the Nile; the gold star represents the unity of the states making up South Sudan
    note: resembles the flag of Kenya; one of only two national flags to display six colors as part of its primary design, the other is South Africa's
    African fish eagle; national colors: red, green, blue, yellow, black, white
    name: South Sudan Oyee! (Hooray!)
    lyrics/music: collective of 49 poets/Juba University students and teachers
    note: adopted 2011; anthem selected in a national contest
  • Economy :: SOUTH SUDAN

  • Following several decades of civil war with Sudan, industry and infrastructure in landlocked South Sudan are severely underdeveloped and poverty is widespread. Subsistence agriculture provides a living for the vast majority of the population. Property rights are insecure and price signals are weak, because markets are not well organized. South Sudan has little infrastructure - approximately 250 kilometers of paved roads. Electricity is produced mostly by costly diesel generators and indoor plumbing and potable water are scarce. South Sudan depends largely on imports of goods, services, and capital - mainly from Uganda, Kenya and Sudan. Nevertheless, South Sudan does have abundant natural resources. At independence in 2011, South Sudan produced nearly three-fourths of former Sudan's total oil output of nearly a half million barrels per day. The government of South Sudan derives nearly 98% of its budget revenues from oil. Oil is exported through two pipelines that run to refineries and shipping facilities at Port Sudan on the Red Sea. The economy of South Sudan will remain linked to Sudan for some time, given the long lead time and great expense required to build another pipeline, should the government decide to do so. In January 2012 South Sudan suspended production of oil because of its dispute with Sudan over transshipment fees. This suspension lasted fifteen months and had a devastating impact on GDP, which declined by 48% in 2012. With the resumption of oil flows the economy rebounded strongly during the second half of calendar year 2013. This occurred in spite of the fact that oil production, at an average level of 222,000 barrels per day, was 40% lower compared with 2011, prior to the shutdown. GDP is estimated to have grown by about 25% in 2014. However, the outbreak of conflict on December 15, 2013 combined with a further reduction of oil exports, means that GDP growth forecasts for 2014 are being revised downwards again, and poverty and food insecurity are rising. South Sudan holds one of the richest agricultural areas in Africa with fertile soils and abundant water supplies. Currently the region supports 10-20 million head of cattle. South Sudan is currently burdened by considerable debt, accrued largely in 2012, based on rapidly accumulating arrears, and increased military spending. South Sudan has received more than $4 billion in foreign aid since 2005, largely from the UK, the US, Norway, and the Netherlands. Following independence, South Sudan's central bank issued a new currency, the South Sudanese Pound, allowing a short grace period for turning in the old currency. Annual inflation peaked at 79.5% in May 2012 but declined rapidly thereafter, to 1.7% in 2013. Following the December 2013 outbreak of violence, inflation is on the rise again. Long-term challenges include diversifying the formal economy, alleviating poverty, maintaining macroeconomic stability, improving tax collection and financial management and improving the business environment.
    $23.31 billion (2014 est.)
    $26.56 billion (2013 est.)
    $20.9 billion (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2014 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 139
    $11.89 billion (2014 est.)
    -12.3% (2014 est.)
    27.1% (2013 est.)
    -47.6% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 220
    $2,000 (2014 est.)
    $2,400 (2013 est.)
    $2,000 (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2013 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 201
    7.4% of GDP (2014 est.)
    14.3% of GDP (2013 est.)
    -15.4% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 158
    household consumption: 34.9%
    government consumption: 17.1%
    investment in fixed capital: 10.4%
    exports of goods and services: 64.9%
    imports of goods and services: -27.2%
    (2011 est.)
    sorghum, maize, rice, millet, wheat, gum arabic, sugarcane, mangoes, papayas, bananas, sweet potatoes, sunflower seeds, cotton, sesame seeds, cassava (manioc, tapioca), beans, peanuts; cattle, sheep
    50.6% (2009 est.)
    46 (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 36
    revenues: $437 million
    expenditures: $2.259 billion (FY 2013 est.)
    3.7% of GDP (FY 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 215
    -15.3% of GDP (FY 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 214
    1.7% (2013 est.)
    79% (May 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 78
    $1.873 billion (31 December 2013)
    $2.032 billion (31 December 2012)
    country comparison to the world: 133
    $2.194 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    $2.23 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 150
    South Sudanese pounds (SSP) per US dollar -
    0.75 (2014 est.)
    0.76 (2013 est.)
    0.78 (2012 est.)
    0.72 (2011 est.)
  • Energy :: SOUTH SUDAN

  • 881.3 million kWh (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 150
    694.1 million kWh (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 164
    0 kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 183
    0 kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 185
    255,200 kW (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 156
    30.7% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 182
    0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 160
    66.3% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 30
    3% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 68
    220,000 bbl/day (Second half, 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 38
    291,800 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 25
    0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 111
    3.75 billion bbl (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 28
    13,050 bbl/day
    country comparison to the world: 126
    0 cu m (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 116
    0 cu m (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 184
    0 cu m (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 160
    0 cu m (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 114
    63.71 billion cu m (1 January 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 60
    2.016 million Mt (2011 est.)
  • Communications :: SOUTH SUDAN

  • 2,200 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 215
    2 million (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 146
    international: country code - 211
    TV is controlled by the government; several private FM stations are operational in South Sudan; some foreign radio broadcasts are available
    .ss
  • Transportation :: SOUTH SUDAN

  • 85 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 64
    total: 3
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (2013)
    total: 82
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 12
    914 to 1,523 m: 35
    under 914 m:
    34 (2013)
    1 (2013)
    total: 248 km
    note: a narrow guage, single-track railroad between Babonosa (Sudan) and Wau, the only existing rail system, was repaired in 2010 with $250 million in United Nations funds (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 126
    total: 7,000 km
    note: little of the road network is paved and much of it is in disrepair; a 192 km paved road between the capital, Juba, and Nimule on the Ugandan border was constructed with USAID funds in 2012 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 145
    see entry for Sudan
  • Military :: SOUTH SUDAN

  • Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA)
    18 is the legal minimum age for compulsory and voluntary military service; the Government of South Sudan signed a revised action plan with the UN in March 2012 to demobilize all child soldiers within the SPLA; UNICEF reported 250 confirmed cases of the SPLA's association with children at the end of 2012 (2012)
    10.32% of GDP (2012)
    5.8% of GDP (2011)
    10.32% of GDP (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 1
  • Transnational Issues :: SOUTH SUDAN

  • South Sudan-Sudan boundary represents 1 January 1956 alignment, final alignment pending negotiations and demarcation; final sovereignty status of Abyei Area pending negotiations between South Sudan and Sudan; periodic violent skirmishes with South Sudanese residents over water and grazing rights persist among related pastoral populations along the border with the Central African Republic; the boundary that separates Kenya and South Sudan's sovereignty is unclear in the "Ilemi Triangle," which Kenya has administered since colonial times
    refugees (country of origin): 241,773 (Sudan); 16,057 (Democratic Republic of the Congo) (2015)
    IDPs: 1,555,059 (alleged coup attempt and ethnic conflict beginning in December 2013; information is lacking on those displaced in earlier years by: fighting in Abyei between the Sudanese Armed Forces and the Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA) in May 2011; clashes between the SPLA and dissident militia groups in South Sudan; inter-ethnic conflicts over resources and cattle; attacks from the Lord's Resistance Army; floods and drought) (2015)
    current situation: South Sudan is a source and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; South Sudanese women and girls, particularly those who are internally displaced, orphaned, or from rural areas, are vulnerable to forced labor and sexual exploitation, often in urban centers; the rising number of street children and child laborers are also exploited for forced labor and prostitution; women and girls from Uganda, Kenya, Ethiopia, Eritrea, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo are trafficked to South Sudan with promises of legitimate jobs and are forced into the sex trade; inter-ethnic abductions continue between some communities in South Sudan, with abductees subsequently faced with domestic servitude, forced herding, or sex trafficking; government security forces and armed militia groups continue to recruit children
    tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - South Sudan does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; the government has a written plan that, if implemented, would constitute a significant effort toward meeting the minimum standards for eliminating human trafficking; implementation of a UN-backed action plan to eliminate the use of child soldiers in the country’s armed forces continued in 2013, but no officers complicit in the ongoing recruitment of children were investigated, prosecuted, or punished; efforts to address other forms of human trafficking were negligible; South Sudanese law does not prohibit all forms of human trafficking, and authorities did not investigate or prosecute any offenders; limited protection was provided to former child soldiers in 2013, while no steps were taken to identify victims of sex or labor trafficking or to refer them to care (2014)
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