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Africa :: South Sudan Print
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SOUTH SUDAN
  • Introduction :: South Sudan
  • Background field listing

    Egypt attempted to colonize the region of southern Sudan by establishing the province of Equatoria in the 1870s. Islamic Mahdist revolutionaries overran the region in 1885, but in 1898 a British force was able to overthrow the Mahdist regime. An Anglo-Egyptian Sudan was established the following year with Equatoria being the southernmost of its eight provinces. The isolated region was largely left to itself over the following decades, but Christian missionaries converted much of the population and facilitated the spread of English. When Sudan gained its independence in 1956, it was with the understanding that the southerners would be able to participate fully in the political system. When the Arab Khartoum government reneged on its promises, a mutiny began that led to two prolonged periods of conflict (1955-1972 and 1983-2005) in which perhaps 2.5 million people died - mostly civilians - due to starvation and drought. Ongoing peace talks finally resulted in a Comprehensive Peace Agreement, signed in January 2005. As part of this agreement, the south was granted a six-year period of autonomy to be followed by a referendum on final status. The result of this referendum, held in January 2011, was a vote of 98% in favor of secession.

    Since independence on 9 July 2011, South Sudan has struggled with good governance and nation building and has attempted to control opposition forces operating in its territory. Economic conditions have deteriorated since January 2012 when the government decided to shut down oil production following bilateral disagreements with Sudan. In December 2013, conflict between government and opposition forces killed tens of thousands and led to a dire humanitarian crisis with millions of South Sudanese displaced and food insecure. The warring parties signed a peace agreement in August 2015 that created a transitional government of national unity in April 2016. However, in July 2016, fighting broke out in Juba between the two principal signatories, plunging the country back into conflict.

  • Geography :: South Sudan
  • Location field listing
    East-Central Africa; south of Sudan, north of Uganda and Kenya, west of Ethiopia
    Geographic coordinates field listing
    8 00 N, 30 00 E
    Map references field listing
    Africa
    Area field listing
    total: 644,329 sq km
    land: NA
    water: NA
    country comparison to the world: 43
    Area - comparative field listing
    more than four times the size of Georgia; slightly smaller than Texas
    Land boundaries field listing
    total: 6,018 km
    border countries (6): Central African Republic 1055 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 714 km, Ethiopia 1299 km, Kenya 317 km, Sudan 2158 km, Uganda 475 km

    note: South Sudan-Sudan boundary represents 1 January 1956 alignment; final alignment pending negotiations and demarcation; final sovereignty status of Abyei Area pending negotiations between South Sudan and Sudan

    Coastline field listing
    0 km (landlocked)
    Maritime claims field listing
    none (landlocked)
    Climate field listing
    hot with seasonal rainfall influenced by the annual shift of the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone; rainfall heaviest in upland areas of the south and diminishes to the north
    Terrain field listing
    plains in the north and center rise to southern highlands along the border with Uganda and Kenya; the White Nile, flowing north out of the uplands of Central Africa, is the major geographic feature of the country; The Sudd (a name derived from floating vegetation that hinders navigation) is a large swampy area of more than 100,000 sq km fed by the waters of the White Nile that dominates the center of the country
    Elevation field listing
    381 m lowest point: White Nile
    3187 highest point: Kinyeti
    Natural resources field listing
    hydropower, fertile agricultural land, gold, diamonds, petroleum, hardwoods, limestone, iron ore, copper, chromium ore, zinc, tungsten, mica, silver
    Land use field listing
    agricultural land: 100%
    arable land: 0% / permanent crops: 0% / permanent pasture: 100%
    forest: 0%
    other: 0%
    Irrigated land field listing
    1,000 sq km (2012)
    Population distribution field listing
    clusters found in urban areas, particularly in the western interior and around the White Nile
    Environment - current issues field listing
    water pollution; inadequate supplies of potable water; wildlife conservation and loss of biodiversity; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; periodic drought
    Geography - note field listing
    landlocked; The Sudd is a vast swamp in the north central region of South Sudan, formed by the White Nile, its size is variable but can reach some 15% of the country's total area during the rainy season; it is one of the world's largest wetlands
  • People and Society :: South Sudan
  • Population field listing
    10,204,581 (July 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 89
    Nationality field listing
    noun: South Sudanese (singular and plural)
    adjective: South Sudanese
    Ethnic groups field listing
    Dinka 35.8%, Nuer 15.6%, Shilluk, Azande, Bari, Kakwa, Kuku, Murle, Mandari, Didinga, Ndogo, Bviri, Lndi, Anuak, Bongo, Lango, Dungotona, Acholi, Baka, Fertit (2011 est.)
    Languages field listing
    English (official), Arabic (includes Juba and Sudanese variants), regional languages include Dinka, Nuer, Bari, Zande, Shilluk
    Religions field listing
    animist, Christian
    Demographic profile field listing

    South Sudan, independent from Sudan since July 2011 after decades of civil war, is one of the world’s poorest countries and ranks among the lowest in many socioeconomic categories. Problems are exacerbated by ongoing tensions with Sudan over oil revenues and land borders, fighting between government forces and rebel groups, and inter-communal violence. Most of the population lives off of farming, while smaller numbers rely on animal husbandry; more than 80% of the populace lives in rural areas. The maternal mortality rate is among the world’s highest for a variety of reasons, including a shortage of health care workers, facilities, and supplies; poor roads and a lack of transport; and cultural beliefs that prevent women from seeking obstetric care. Most women marry and start having children early, giving birth at home with the assistance of traditional birth attendants, who are unable to handle complications.

    Educational attainment is extremely poor due to the lack of schools, qualified teachers, and materials. Less than a third of the population is literate (the rate is even lower among women), and half live below the poverty line. Teachers and students are also struggling with the switch from Arabic to English as the language of instruction. Many adults missed out on schooling because of warfare and displacement.

    Almost 2 million South Sudanese have sought refuge in neighboring countries since the current conflict began in December 2013. Another 1.96 million South Sudanese are internally displaced as of August 2017. Despite South Sudan’s instability and lack of infrastructure and social services, more than 240,000 people have fled to South Sudan to escape fighting in Sudan.

    Age structure field listing
    0-14 years: 42.3% (male 2,194,952 /female 2,121,990)
    15-24 years: 20.94% (male 1,113,008 /female 1,023,954)
    25-54 years: 30.45% (male 1,579,519 /female 1,528,165)
    55-64 years: 3.82% (male 215,247 /female 174,078)
    65 years and over: 2.49% (male 145,812 /female 107,856) (2018 est.)
    population pyramid: population pyramid
    Dependency ratios field listing
    total dependency ratio: 83.7 (2015 est.)
    youth dependency ratio: 77.3 (2015 est.)
    elderly dependency ratio: 6.4 (2015 est.)
    potential support ratio: 15.7 (2015 est.)
    Median age field listing
    total: 18.1 years
    male: 18.4 years
    female: 17.8 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 212
    Population growth rate field listing
    -1.16% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 230
    Birth rate field listing
    36.9 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 15
    Death rate field listing
    19.3 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 1
    Net migration rate field listing
    10.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 8
    Population distribution field listing
    clusters found in urban areas, particularly in the western interior and around the White Nile
    Urbanization field listing
    urban population: 19.6% of total population (2018)
    rate of urbanization: 4.1% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    Major urban areas - population field listing
    369,000 JUBA (capital) (2018)
    Sex ratio field listing
    0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.11 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 1.16 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 1.32 male(s)/female
    total population: 1.03 male(s)/female
    Maternal mortality rate field listing
    789 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 5
    Infant mortality rate field listing
    total: 90.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    male: 97.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    female: 83.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 3
    Total fertility rate field listing
    5.34 children born/woman (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 10
    Contraceptive prevalence rate field listing
    4% (2010)
    Health expenditures field listing
    2.7% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 185
    Drinking water source field listing
    improved: urban: 66.7% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 56.9% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 58.7% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 33.3% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 43.1% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 41.3% of population (2015 est.)
    Sanitation facility access field listing
    improved: urban: 16.4% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 4.5% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 6.7% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 83.6% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 95.5% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 93.3% of population (2015 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate field listing
    2.4% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 22
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS field listing
    150,000 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 34
    HIV/AIDS - deaths field listing
    12,000 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 20
    Major infectious diseases field listing
    degree of risk: very high (2016)
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever (2016)
    vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, trypanosomiasis-Gambiense (African sleeping sickness) (2016)
    water contact diseases: schistosomiasis (2016)
    animal contact diseases: rabies (2016)
    respiratory diseases: meningococcal meningitis (2016)
    Obesity - adult prevalence rate field listing
    6.6% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 165
    Children under the age of 5 years underweight field listing
    27.6% (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 13
    Education expenditures field listing
    1.8% of GDP (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 174
    Literacy field listing
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2009 est.)
    total population: 27% (2009 est.)
    male: 40% (2009 est.)
    female: 16% (2009 est.)
    Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 field listing
    total: 18.5% (2008 est.)
    male: 20% (2008 est.)
    female: 17% (2008 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 70
  • Government :: South Sudan
  • Country name field listing
    conventional long form: Republic of South Sudan
    conventional short form: South Sudan
    etymology: self-descriptive name from the country's former position within Sudan prior to independence; the name "Sudan" derives from the Arabic "bilad-as-sudan" meaning "Land of the Black [peoples]"
    Government type field listing
    presidential republic
    Capital field listing
    name: Juba
    geographic coordinates: 04 51 N, 31 37 E
    time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    Administrative divisions field listing
    10 states; Central Equatoria, Eastern Equatoria, Jonglei, Lakes, Northern Bahr el Ghazal, Unity, Upper Nile, Warrap, Western Bahr el Ghazal, Western Equatoria; note - in 2015, the creation of 28 new states was announced and in 2017 four additional, but these 32 states have not yet been vetted by the US Board on Geographic Names
    Independence field listing
    9 July 2011 (from Sudan)
    National holiday field listing
    Independence Day, 9 July (2011)
    Constitution field listing
    history: previous 2005 (preindependence); latest signed 7 July 2011, effective 9 July 2011 (Transitional Constitution of the Republic of South Sudan, 2011) (2018)
    amendments: proposed by the National Legislature or by the president of the republic; passage requires submission of the proposal to the Legislature at least one month prior to consideration, approval by at least two-thirds majority vote in both houses of the Legislature, and assent by the president; amended 2013, 2015, 2018 (2018)
    Citizenship field listing
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of South Sudan
    dual citizenship recognized: yes
    residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years
    Suffrage field listing
    18 years of age; universal
    Executive branch field listing
    chief of state: President Salva KIIR Mayardit (since 9 July 2011); First Vice President Taban Deng GAI (since 26 July 2016); Second Vice President James Wani IGGA (since 26 April 2016); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
    head of government: President Salva KIIR Mayardit (since 9 July 2011); First Vice President Taban Deng GAI (since 26 July 2016); Second Vice President James Wani IGGA (since 26 April 2016)
    cabinet: National Council of Ministers appointed by the president, approved by the Transitional National Legislative Assembly
    elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 11-15 April 2010 (next election scheduled for 2015 postponed to 2018 and again to 2021)
    election results: Salva KIIR Mayardit elected president; percent of vote - Salva KIIR Mayardit (SPLM) 93%, Lam AKOL (SPLM-DC) 7%
    Legislative branch field listing
    description: bicameral National Legislature consists of:
    Council of States, established by presidential decree in August 2011 (50 seats; 20 former members of the Council of States and 30 appointed representatives)
    Transitional National Legislative Assembly, established on 4 August 2016, in accordance with the August 2015 Agreement on the Resolution of the Conflict in the Republic of South Sudan (400 seats; 170 members elected in April 2010, 96 members of the former National Assembly, 66 members appointed after independence, and 68 members added as a result of the 2016 Agreement)
    elections:
    Council of States - established and members appointed 1 August 2011
    National Legislative Assembly - last held 11-15 April 2010 but did not take office until July 2011; current parliamentary term extended until 2021)
    election results:
    Council of States - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - SPLM 20, unknown 30
    National Legislative Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - SPLM 251, DCP 10, independent 6, unknown 65
    Judicial branch field listing
    highest courts: Supreme Court of South Sudan (consists of the chief and deputy chief justices, 9 other justices and normally organized into panels of 3 justices except when sitting as a Constitutional panel of all 9 justices chaired by the chief justice)
    judge selection and term of office: justices appointed by the president upon proposal of the Judicial Service Council, a 9-member judicial and administrative body; justice tenure set by the National Legislature
    subordinate courts: national level - Courts of Appeal; High Courts; County Courts; state level - High Courts; County Courts; customary courts; other specialized courts and tribunals
    Political parties and leaders field listing
    Democratic Change or DC [Onyoti Adigo NYIKWEC] (formerly Sudan People's Liberation Movement-Democratic Movement or SPLM-DC)Sudan People's Liberation Movement or SPLM [Salva KIIR Mayardit]Sudan People’s Liberation Movement-In Opposition or SPLM-IO [Riek MACHAR Teny Dhurgon]
    International organization participation field listing
    AU, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOM, IPU, ITU, MIGA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WMO
    Diplomatic representation in the US field listing
    chief of mission: Ambassador Philip Jada NATANA (since 17 September 2018)
    chancery: 1015 31st St., NW, Third Floor, Washington, DC, 20007
    telephone: [1] (202) 293-7940
    FAX: [1] (202) 293-7941
    Diplomatic representation from the US field listing
    chief of mission: Ambassador Thomas HUSHEK (since 5 June 2018)
    embassy: Kololo Road adjacent to the EU's compound, Juba
    telephone: [211] 912-105-188
    Flag description field listing
    three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and green; the red band is edged in white; a blue isosceles triangle based on the hoist side contains a gold, five-pointed star; black represents the people of South Sudan, red the blood shed in the struggle for freedom, green the verdant land, and blue the waters of the Nile; the gold star represents the unity of the states making up South Sudan

    note: resembles the flag of Kenya; one of only two national flags to display six colors as part of its primary design, the other is South Africa's

    National symbol(s) field listing
    African fish eagle; national colors: red, green, blue, yellow, black, white
    National anthem field listing
    name: South Sudan Oyee! (Hooray!)
    lyrics/music: collective of 49 poets/Juba University students and teachers

    note: adopted 2011; anthem selected in a national contest

  • Economy :: South Sudan
  • Economy - overview field listing

    Industry and infrastructure in landlocked South Sudan are severely underdeveloped and poverty is widespread, following several decades of civil war with Sudan. Continued fighting within the new nation is disrupting what remains of the economy. The vast majority of the population is dependent on subsistence agriculture and humanitarian assistance. Property rights are insecure and price signals are weak, because markets are not well-organized.

    South Sudan has little infrastructure – about 10,000 kilometers of roads, but just 2% of them paved. Electricity is produced mostly by costly diesel generators, and indoor plumbing and potable water are scarce, so less than 2% of the population has access to electricity. About 90% of consumed goods, capital, and services are imported from neighboring countries – mainly Uganda, Kenya and Sudan. Chinese investment plays a growing role in the infrastructure and energy sectors.

    Nevertheless, South Sudan does have abundant natural resources. South Sudan holds one of the richest agricultural areas in Africa, with fertile soils and abundant water supplies. Currently the region supports 10-20 million head of cattle. At independence in 2011, South Sudan produced nearly three-fourths of former Sudan's total oil output of nearly a half million barrels per day. The Government of South Sudan relies on oil for the vast majority of its budget revenues, although oil production has fallen sharply since independence. South Sudan is one of the most oil-dependent countries in the world, with 98% of the government’s annual operating budget and 80% of its gross domestic product (GDP) derived from oil. Oil is exported through a pipeline that runs to refineries and shipping facilities at Port Sudan on the Red Sea. The economy of South Sudan will remain linked to Sudan for some time, given the existing oil infrastructure. The outbreak of conflict in December 2013, combined with falling crude oil production and prices, meant that GDP fell significantly between 2014 and 2017. Since the second half of 2017 oil production has risen, and is currently about 130,000 barrels per day.

    Poverty and food insecurity has risen due to displacement of people caused by the conflict. With famine spreading, 66% of the population in South Sudan is living on less than about $2 a day, up from 50.6% in 2009, according to the World Bank. About 80% of the population lives in rural areas, with agriculture, forestry and fishing providing the livelihood for a majority of the households. Much of rural sector activity is focused on low-input, low-output subsistence agriculture.

    South Sudan is burdened by considerable debt because of increased military spending and high levels of government corruption. Economic mismanagement is prevalent. Civil servants, including police and the military, are not paid on time, creating incentives to engage in looting and banditry. South Sudan has received more than $11 billion in foreign aid since 2005, largely from the US, the UK, and the EU. Inflation peaked at over 800% per year in October 2016 but dropped to 118% in 2017. The government has funded its expenditures by borrowing from the central bank and foreign sources, using forward sales of oil as collateral. The central bank’s decision to adopt a managed floating exchange rate regime in December 2015 triggered a 97% depreciation of the currency and spawned a growing black market.

    Long-term challenges include rooting out public sector corruption, improving agricultural productivity, alleviating poverty and unemployment, improving fiscal transparency - particularly in regard to oil revenues, taming inflation, improving government revenues, and creating a rules-based business environment.

    GDP (purchasing power parity) field listing
    $20.01 billion (2017 est.)
    $21.1 billion (2016 est.)
    $24.52 billion (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 149
    GDP (official exchange rate) field listing
    $3.06 billion (2017 est.) (2017 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate field listing
    -5.2% (2017 est.)
    -13.9% (2016 est.)
    -0.2% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 218
    GDP - per capita (PPP) field listing
    $1,600 (2017 est.)
    $1,700 (2016 est.)
    $2,100 (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 220
    Gross national saving field listing
    3.6% of GDP (2017 est.)
    18.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
    7.4% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 179
    GDP - composition, by end use field listing
    household consumption: 34.9% (2011 est.)
    government consumption: 17.1% (2011 est.)
    investment in fixed capital: 10.4% (2011 est.)
    exports of goods and services: 64.9% (2011 est.)
    imports of goods and services: -27.2% (2011 est.)
    Agriculture - products field listing
    sorghum, maize, rice, millet, wheat, gum arabic, sugarcane, mangoes, papayas, bananas, sweet potatoes, sunflower seeds, cotton, sesame seeds, cassava (manioc, tapioca), beans, peanuts; cattle, sheep
    Population below poverty line field listing
    66% (2015 est.)
    Distribution of family income - Gini index field listing
    46 (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 34
    Budget field listing
    revenues: 259.6 million (FY2017/18 est.)
    expenditures: 298.6 million (FY2017/18 est.)
    Taxes and other revenues field listing
    8.5% (of GDP) (FY2017/18 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 218
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) field listing
    -1.3% (of GDP) (FY2017/18 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 87
    Public debt field listing
    62.7% of GDP (2017 est.)
    86.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 69
    Inflation rate (consumer prices) field listing
    187.9% (2017 est.)
    379.8% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 225
    Commercial bank prime lending rate field listing
    13.38% (December 2017)
    9.72% (December 2016)
    country comparison to the world: 55
    Stock of narrow money field listing
    $491.9 million (31 December 2017)
    $409.1 million (31 December 2016)
    country comparison to the world: 171
    Stock of broad money field listing
    $550.5 million (31 December 2017 est.)
    $494.7 million (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 173
    Current account balance field listing
    -$154 million (2017 est.)
    $39 million (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 93
    Exports field listing
    $1.13 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 156
    Imports field listing
    $3.795 billion (2016 est.)
    $3.795 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 141
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold field listing
    $73 million (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 184
    Exchange rates field listing
    South Sudanese pounds (SSP) per US dollar -
    0.885 (2017 est.)
    0.903 (2016 est.)
    0.9214 (2015 est.)
    0.885 (2014 est.)
    0.7634 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: South Sudan
  • Electricity access field listing
    population without electricity: 11.2 million (2013)
    electrification - total population: 1% (2013)
    electrification - urban areas: 4% (2013)
    electrification - rural areas: 0% (2013)
    Electricity - production field listing
    412.8 million kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 169
    Electricity - consumption field listing
    391.8 million kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 175
    Electricity - exports field listing
    0 kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 201
    Electricity - imports field listing
    0 kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 203
    Electricity - installed generating capacity field listing
    80,400 kW (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 185
    Electricity - from fossil fuels field listing
    100% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 18
    Electricity - from nuclear fuels field listing
    0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 186
    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants field listing
    0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 203
    Electricity - from other renewable sources field listing
    1% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 168
    Crude oil - production field listing
    150,200 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 39
    Crude oil - exports field listing
    147,300 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 32
    Crude oil - imports field listing
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 199
    Crude oil - proved reserves field listing
    3.75 billion bbl (1 January 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 26
    Refined petroleum products - production field listing
    0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 205
    Refined petroleum products - consumption field listing
    8,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 165
    Refined petroleum products - exports field listing
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 205
    Refined petroleum products - imports field listing
    7,160 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 157
    Natural gas - production field listing
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 199
    Natural gas - consumption field listing
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 200
    Natural gas - exports field listing
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 188
    Natural gas - imports field listing
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 191
    Natural gas - proved reserves field listing
    63.71 billion cu m (1 January 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 59
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy field listing
    1.224 million Mt (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 163
  • Communications :: South Sudan
  • Telephones - fixed lines field listing
    0 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 221
    Telephones - mobile cellular field listing
    total subscriptions: 1,511,529 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 12 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 154
    Telephone system field listing
    general assessment: one of the least developed telecommunications and Internet systems in the world; domestic mobile providers are waiting for a political settlement and the return of social stability in order to expand their networks; the few carriers in the market have reduced the areas in which they offer service, not expanded them; the government shut down the largest cellphone carrier, Vivacell, in March 2018, stranding 1.4 million customers over a disputed service fee arrangement (2017)
    international: country code - 211 (2017)
    Broadcast media field listing
    a single TV channel is controlled by the government; several private FM stations are operational, mostly sponsored by outside aid donors; some foreign radio broadcasts are available
    Internet country code field listing
    .ss
    Broadband - fixed subscriptions field listing
    total: 150 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 196
  • Transportation :: South Sudan
  • National air transport system field listing
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 0 mt-km
    Civil aircraft registration country code prefix field listing
    Z8 (2016)
    Airports field listing
    85 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 64
    Airports - with paved runways field listing
    total: 3 (2013)
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (2013)
    Airports - with unpaved runways field listing
    total: 82 (2013)
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 12 (2013)
    914 to 1,523 m: 35 (2013)
    under 914 m: 34 (2013)
    Heliports field listing
    1 (2013)
    Railways field listing
    total: 248 km (2018)

    note: a narrow gauge, single-track railroad between Babonosa (Sudan) and Wau, the only existing rail system, was repaired in 2010 with $250 million in UN funds, but is not currently operational

    country comparison to the world: 126
    Roadways field listing
    total: 7,000 km (2012)

    note: most of the road network is unpaved and much of it is in disrepair; a 192-km paved road between the capital, Juba, and Nimule on the Ugandan border was constructed with USAID funds in 2012

    country comparison to the world: 145
    Waterways field listing
    see entry for Sudan
  • Military and Security :: South Sudan
  • Military expenditures field listing
    10.93% of GDP (2015)
    9.77% of GDP (2014)
    7.41% of GDP (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 2
    Military branches field listing
    South Sudan Defense Force (SSDF): ground force, navy, air force and air defense units (2017)
    Military service age and obligation field listing
    18 is the legal minimum age for compulsory and voluntary military service; the Government of South Sudan signed agreements in March 2012 and August 2015 that included the demobilization of all child soldiers within the armed forces and opposition, but the recruitment of child soldiers by the warring parties continues; as of the end of 2017, UNICEF estimates that more than 19,000 child soldiers had been used in the country's civil war since it began in December 2013 (2017)
  • Transnational Issues :: South Sudan
  • Disputes - international field listing
    South Sudan-Sudan boundary represents 1 January 1956 alignment, final alignment pending negotiations and demarcationfinal sovereignty status of Abyei Area pending negotiations between South Sudan and Sudanperiodic violent skirmishes with South Sudanese residents over water and grazing rights persist among related pastoral populations along the border with the Central African Republicthe boundary that separates Kenya and South Sudan's sovereignty is unclear in the "Ilemi Triangle," which Kenya has administered since colonial times
    Refugees and internally displaced persons field listing
    refugees (country of origin): 277,183 (Sudan) (refugees and asylum seekers), 15,683 (Democratic Republic of the Congo) (refugees and asylum seekers) (2018)
    IDPs: 1.76 million (alleged coup attempt and ethnic conflict beginning in December 2013; information is lacking on those displaced in earlier years by: fighting in Abyei between the Sudanese Armed Forces and the Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA) in May 2011; clashes between the SPLA and dissident militia groups in South Sudan; inter-ethnic conflicts over resources and cattle; attacks from the Lord's Resistance Army; floods and drought) (2018)
    Trafficking in persons field listing
    current situation: South Sudan is a source and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; South Sudanese women and girls, particularly those who are internally displaced, orphaned, refugees, or from rural areas, are vulnerable to forced labor and sexual exploitation, often in urban centers; children may be victims of forced labor in construction, market vending, shoe shining, car washing, rock breaking, brick making, delivery cart pulling, and begging; girls are also forced into marriages and subsequently subjected to sexual slavery or domestic servitude; women and girls migrate willingly from Uganda, Kenya, Ethiopia, Eritrea, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to South Sudan with the promise of legitimate jobs and are forced into the sex trade; inter-ethnic abductions and abductions by criminal groups continue, with abductees subsequently forced into domestic servitude, herding, or sex trafficking; in 2014, the recruitment and use of child soldiers increased significantly within government security forces and was also prevalent among opposition forces
    tier rating: Tier 3 – South Sudan does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and is not making significant efforts to do so; despite the government’s formal recommitment to an action plan to eliminate the recruitment and use of child soldiers by 2016, the practice expanded during 2014, and the government did not hold any officers criminally responsible; government officials reportedly are complicit in trafficking offenses but these activities continue to go uninvestigated; authorities reportedly identified five trafficking victims but did not transfer them to care facilities; law enforcement continued to arrest and imprison individuals for prostitution, including trafficking victims; no known steps were taken to address the exploitation of South Sudanese nationals working abroad or foreign workers in South Sudan (2015)