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South Asia :: PAKISTAN
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PAKISTAN
  • Introduction :: PAKISTAN

  • The Indus Valley civilization, one of the oldest in the world and dating back at least 5,000 years, spread over much of what is presently Pakistan. During the second millennium B.C., remnants of this culture fused with the migrating Indo-Aryan peoples. The area underwent successive invasions in subsequent centuries from the Persians, Greeks, Scythians, Arabs (who brought Islam), Afghans, and Turks. The Mughal Empire flourished in the 16th and 17th centuries; the British came to dominate the region in the 18th century. The separation in 1947 of British India into the Muslim state of Pakistan (with West and East sections) and largely Hindu India was never satisfactorily resolved, and India and Pakistan fought two wars and a limited conflict - in 1947-48, 1965, and 1999 respectively - over the disputed Kashmir territory. A third war between these countries in 1971 - in which India capitalized on Islamabad's marginalization of Bengalis in Pakistani politics - resulted in East Pakistan becoming the separate nation of Bangladesh. In response to Indian nuclear weapons testing, Pakistan conducted its own tests in mid-1998. India-Pakistan relations improved in the mid-2000s but have been rocky since the November 2008 Mumbai attacks and have been further strained by attacks in India by militants suspected of being based in Pakistan. Nawaz SHARIF took office as prime minister in 2013, marking the first time in Pakistani history that a democratically elected government completed a full term and transitioned to a successive democratically elected government. Pakistan has been engaged in a decades-long armed conflict with militant groups that target government institutions and civilians, including the Tehrik-e-Taliban Pakistan (TTP) and other militant networks.
  • Geography :: PAKISTAN

  • Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea, between India on the east and Iran and Afghanistan on the west and China in the north
    30 00 N, 70 00 E
    Asia
    total: 796,095 sq km
    land: 770,875 sq km
    water: 25,220 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 37
    slightly more than five times the size of Georgia; slightly less than twice the size of California
    Area comparison map:
    total: 7,257 km
    border countries (4): Afghanistan 2,670 km, China 438 km, India 3,190 km, Iran 959 km
    1,046 km
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    contiguous zone: 24 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
    mostly hot, dry desert; temperate in northwest; arctic in north
    divided into three major geographic areas: the northern highlands, the Indus River plain in the center and east, and the Balochistan Plateau in the south and west
    mean elevation: 900 m
    elevation extremes: lowest point: Arabian Sea 0 m
    highest point: K2 (Mt. Godwin-Austen) 8,611 m
    arable land, extensive natural gas reserves, limited petroleum, poor quality coal, iron ore, copper, salt, limestone
    agricultural land: 35.2%
    arable land 27.6%; permanent crops 1.1%; permanent pasture 6.5%
    forest: 2.1%
    other: 62.7% (2011 est.)
    202,000 sq km (2012)
    the Indus River and its tributaries attract most of the settlement, with Punjab province the most densely populated
    frequent earthquakes, occasionally severe especially in north and west; flooding along the Indus after heavy rains (July and August)
    water pollution from raw sewage, industrial wastes, and agricultural runoff; limited natural freshwater resources; most of the population does not have access to potable water; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
    controls Khyber Pass and Bolan Pass, traditional invasion routes between Central Asia and the Indian Subcontinent
  • People and Society :: PAKISTAN

  • 204,924,861 (July 2017 est.)
    note: provisional results of Pakistan's 2017 national census estimate the country's total population to be 207,774,000
    country comparison to the world: 6
    noun: Pakistani(s)
    adjective: Pakistani
    Punjabi 44.7%, Pashtun (Pathan) 15.4%, Sindhi 14.1%, Sariaki 8.4%, Muhajirs 7.6%, Balochi 3.6%, other 6.3%
    Punjabi 48%, Sindhi 12%, Saraiki (a Punjabi variant) 10%, Pashto (alternate name, Pashtu) 8%, Urdu (official) 8%, Balochi 3%, Hindko 2%, Brahui 1%, English (official; lingua franca of Pakistani elite and most government ministries), Burushaski, and other 8%
    Muslim (official) 96.4% (Sunni 85-90%, Shia 10-15%), other (includes Christian and Hindu) 3.6% (2010 est.)
    0-14 years: 31.36% (male 33,005,623/female 31,265,463)
    15-24 years: 21.14% (male 22,337,897/female 20,980,455)
    25-54 years: 37.45% (male 39,846,417/female 36,907,683)
    55-64 years: 5.57% (male 5,739,817/female 5,669,495)
    65 years and over: 4.48% (male 4,261,917/female 4,910,094) (2017 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 65.3
    youth dependency ratio: 57.9
    elderly dependency ratio: 7.4
    potential support ratio: 13.5 (2015 est.)
    total: 23.4 years
    male: 23.3 years
    female: 23.4 years (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 167
    1.4% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 81
    21.9 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 74
    6.3 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 150
    -1.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 147
    the Indus River and its tributaries attract most of the settlement, with Punjab province the most densely populated
    urban population: 39.7% of total population (2017)
    rate of urbanization: 2.77% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    Karachi 16.618 million; Lahore 8.741 million; Faisalabad 3.567 million; Rawalpindi 2.506 million; Multan 1.921 million; ISLAMABAD (capital) 1.365 million (2015)
    at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.88 male(s)/female
    total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
    23.4 years
    note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2012/13 est.)
    178 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 44
    total: 53.9 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 57 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 50.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 26
    total population: 67.7 years
    male: 65.8 years
    female: 69.8 years (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 167
    2.62 children born/woman (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 71
    35.4% (2012/13)
    2.6% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 187
    0.81 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
    0.6 beds/1,000 population (2012)
    improved:
    urban: 93.9% of population
    rural: 89.9% of population
    total: 91.4% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 6.1% of population
    rural: 10.1% of population
    total: 8.6% of population (2015 est.)
    improved:
    urban: 83.1% of population
    rural: 51.1% of population
    total: 63.5% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 16.9% of population
    rural: 48.9% of population
    total: 36.5% of population (2015 est.)
    0.1% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 107
    130,000 (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 35
    5,500 (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 29
    degree of risk: high
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
    vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria
    animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
    4.8% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 153
    31.6% (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 11
    2.7% of GDP (2015)
    country comparison to the world: 164
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 57.9%
    male: 69.5%
    female: 45.8% (2015 est.)
    total: 8 years
    male: 9 years
    female: 7 years (2015)
    total: 10.4%
    male: 9.4%
    female: 12.9% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 115
  • Government :: PAKISTAN

  • conventional long form: Islamic Republic of Pakistan
    conventional short form: Pakistan
    local long form: Jamhuryat Islami Pakistan
    local short form: Pakistan
    former: West Pakistan
    etymology: the word "pak" means "pure" in Persian or Pashto, while the Persian suffix "-stan" means "place of" or "country," so the word Pakistan literally means "Land of the Pure"
    federal parliamentary republic
    name: Islamabad
    geographic coordinates: 33 41 N, 73 03 E
    time difference: UTC+5 (10 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    4 provinces, 1 territory*, and 1 capital territory**; Balochistan, Federally Administered Tribal Areas*, Islamabad Capital Territory**, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (formerly North-West Frontier Province), Punjab, Sindh
    note: the Pakistani-administered portion of the disputed Jammu and Kashmir region consists of 2 administrative entities: Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan
    14 August 1947 (from British India)
    Pakistan Day (also referred to as Pakistan Resolution Day or Republic Day), 23 March (1940); note - commemorates both the adoption of the Lahore Resolution by the All-India Muslim League during its 22-24 March 1940 session, which called for the creation of independent Muslim states, and the adoption of the first constitution of Pakistan on 23 March 1956 during the transition to the Islamic Republic of Pakistan
    history: several previous; latest endorsed 12 April 1973, passed 19 April 1973, entered into force 14 August 1973 (suspended and restored several times)
    amendments: proposed by the Senate or by the National Assembly; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote of the membership of both houses; amended many times, last in 2015 (2017)
    common law system with Islamic law influence
    accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; non-party state to the ICCt
    citizenship by birth: yes
    citizenship by descent: at least one parent must be a citizen of Pakistan
    dual citizenship recognized: yes, but limited to select countries
    residency requirement for naturalization: 4 out of the previous 7 years and including the 12 months preceding application
    18 years of age; universal; note - there are joint electorates and reserved parliamentary seats for women and non-Muslims
    chief of state: President Mamnoon HUSSAIN (since 9 September 2013)
    head of government: Prime Minister Shahid Khaqan ABBASI (since 1 August 2017); Prime Minister Mohammad Nawaz SHARIF resigned 7/28/17
    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president upon the advice of the prime minister
    elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the Electoral College consisting of members of the Senate, National Assembly, and provincial assemblies for a 5-year term (eligible for reelection); election last held on 9 September 2013 (next to be held in 2018); prime minister elected by the National Assembly
    election results: Mamnoon HUSSAIN elected president; Mamnoon HUSSAIN (PML-N) 432 votes, Wajihuddin AHMED (PTI) 77 votes
    description: bicameral Parliament or Majlis-e-Shoora consists of the Senate (104 seats; members indirectly elected by the 4 provincial assemblies and the territories' representatives by proportional representation vote; members serve 6-year terms with one-half of the membership renewed every 3 years) and the National Assembly (342 seats; 272 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 70 members - 60 women and 10 non-Muslims - directly elected by proportional representation vote; all members serve 5-year terms)
    elections: Senate - last held on 5 March 2015 (next to be held in March 2018); National Assembly - last held on 11 May 2013 (next to be held by 2018)
    election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PPPP 27, PML-N 26, MQM 8, ANP 6, PTI 7, JUI-F 5, PML-Q 4, BNP-A 2, NP 1, PML-F 1, other 7, independent 10; National Assembly - percent of votes by party - NA; seats by party - PML-N 126, PPPP 31, PTI 28, MQM 18, JUI-F 10, PML-F 5, other 22, independent 25, unfilled seats 7; 60 seats reserved for women, 10 seats reserved for non-Muslims; seats by party as of July 2016 (includes women and non-Muslim seats) - PML-N 188, PPPP 46, PTI 33, MQM 24, JUI-F 13, PML-F 5, other 21, independent 12
    highest court(s): Supreme Court of Pakistan (consists of the chief justice and 16 judges)
    judge selection and term of office: justices nominated by an 8-member parliamentary committee upon the recommendation of the Judicial Commission (a 9-member body of judges and other judicial professionals), and appointed by the president of Pakistan; justices can serve until age 65
    subordinate courts: High Courts; Federal Shariat Court; provincial and district civil and criminal courts; specialized courts for issues such as taxation, banking, customs, etc.
    Awami National Party or ANP [Mian Iftikhar HUSSAIN]
    Balochistan National Party-Awami or BNP-A [Mir Israr Ullah ZEHRI]
    Balochistan National Party-Mengal or BNP-M [Sardar Akhtar Jan MENGAL]
    Jamaat-i Islami or JI [Sirajul HAQ]
    Jamiat-i Ulema-i Islam Fazl-ur Rehman or JUI-F [Fazlur REHMAN]
    Muttahida Quami Movement or MQM [Farooq SATTAR]
    Muttahida Quami Movement-London or MQM-L [Nadeem NUSRAT]
    Pakhtun khwa Milli Awami Party or PkMAP [Mahmood Khan ACHAKZAI]
    Pakistan Muslim League-Functional or PML-F [Pir PAGARO or Syed Shah Mardan SHAH-II]
    Pakistan Muslim League-Nawaz or PML-N [Nawaz SHARIF]
    Pakistan Peoples Party Parliamentarians or PPPP [Bilawal Bhutto ZARDARI and Asif Ali ZARDARI]
    Pakistan Tehrik-e Insaaf or PTI [Imran KHAN]
    Pak Sarzameen Party or PSP [Mustafa KAMAL]
    Quami Watan Party or QWP [Aftab Ahmed Khan SHERPAO]
    note: political alliances in Pakistan shift frequently
    other: military; ulema (clergy); landowners; industrialists; small merchants
    ADB, ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), C, CICA, CP, D-8, ECO, FAO, G-11, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, PCA, SAARC, SACEP, SCO (observer), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    chief of mission: Aizaz Ahmad CHAUDHRY (since 24 April 2017)
    chancery: 3517 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 243-6500
    FAX: [1] (202) 686-1534
    consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York
    consulate(s): Louisville (KY), San Francisco
    chief of mission: Ambassador David M. HALE (since 3 December 2015)
    embassy: Diplomatic Enclave, Ramna 5, Islamabad
    mailing address: 8100 Islamabad Place, Washington, DC 20521-8100
    telephone: [92] (51) 208-0000/[92] (51) 201-4000
    FAX: [92] (51) 233-8071
    consulate(s) general: Karachi, Lahore
    consulate(s): Peshawar
    green with a vertical white band (symbolizing the role of religious minorities) on the hoist side; a large white crescent and star are centered in the green field; the crescent, star, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam
    star and crescent, jasmine; national colors: green, white
    name: "Qaumi Tarana" (National Anthem)
    lyrics/music: Abu-Al-Asar Hafeez JULLANDHURI/Ahmed Ghulamali CHAGLA
    note: adopted 1954; also known as "Pak sarzamin shad bad" (Blessed Be the Sacred Land)
  • Economy :: PAKISTAN

  • Decades of internal political disputes and low levels of foreign investment have led to slow growth and underdevelopment in Pakistan. Pakistan has a large English-speaking population. Nevertheless, a challenging security environment, electricity shortages, and a burdensome investment climate have deterred investors. Agriculture accounts for one-fifth of output and two-fifths of employment. Textiles and apparel account for most of Pakistan's export earnings; Pakistan's failure to diversify its exports has left the country vulnerable to shifts in world demand. Pakistan’s GDP growth has gradually increased since 2012. Official unemployment was 6.1% in 2016, but this fails to capture the true picture, because much of the economy is informal and underemployment remains high. Human development continues to lag behind most of the region.
    In 2013, Pakistan embarked on a $6.3 billion IMF Extended Fund Facility, which focused on reducing energy shortages, stabilizing public finances, increasing revenue collection, and improving its balance of payments position. The program concluded in September 2016. Although Pakistan missed several structural reform criteria, it restored macroeconomic stability, improved its credit rating, and boosted growth. The Pakistani rupee, after heavy depreciation in 2013, remained relatively stable against the US dollar in 2016. Low global oil prices in 2016 contributed to a narrowing current account deficit and lower inflation. Remittances from overseas workers continued to be a key revenue source, also mitigating the impact of the lack of foreign investment and a growing trade deficit on the country’s current account.
    Pakistan must continue to address several longstanding issues, including expanding investment in education and healthcare, adapting to the effects of climate change and natural disasters, improving the country’s business environment, reducing dependence on foreign donors, and widening the country’s tax base. Given demographic challenges, Pakistan’s leadership will be pressed to implement economic reforms, promote further development of the energy sector, and attract foreign investment to support sufficient economic growth necessary to employ its growing and rapidly urbanizing population, much of which is under the age of 25.
    In an effort to boost development, Pakistan and China are implementing the “China-Pakistan Economic Corridor,” a $46 billion investment program targeted towards the energy sector and other infrastructure projects that Islamabad and Beijing had agreed on in early 2013.
    $988.2 billion (2016 est.)
    $943.8 billion (2015 est.)
    $907.2 billion (2014 est.)
    note: data are in 2016 dollars
    data are for fiscal years
    country comparison to the world: 26
    $284.2 billion (2015 est.)
    4.7% (2016 est.)
    4% (2015 est.)
    4.1% (2014 est.)
    note: data are for fiscal years
    country comparison to the world: 44
    $5,100 (2016 est.)
    $5,000 (2015 est.)
    $4,900 (2014 est.)
    note: data are in 2016 dollars
    data are for fiscal years
    country comparison to the world: 171
    14.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
    14.5% of GDP (2015 est.)
    13.4% of GDP (2014 est.)
    note: data are for fiscal years
    country comparison to the world: 129
    household consumption: 80.1%
    government consumption: 11.8%
    investment in fixed capital: 13.6%
    investment in inventories: 1.6%
    exports of goods and services: 8.7%
    imports of goods and services: -15.8% (2016 est.)
    agriculture: 25.2%
    industry: 19.2%
    services: 55.6% (2016 est.)
    cotton, wheat, rice, sugarcane, fruits, vegetables; milk, beef, mutton, eggs
    textiles and apparel, food processing, pharmaceuticals, surgical instruments, construction materials, paper products, fertilizer, shrimp
    6.8% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 20
    65.1 million
    note: extensive export of labor, mostly to the Middle East, and use of child labor (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 10
    agriculture: 42.3%
    industry: 22.6%
    services: 35.1% (FY2015 est.)
    6.1% (2016 est.)
    6.5% (2015 est.)
    note: substantial underemployment exists
    country comparison to the world: 79
    29.5% (FY2013 est.)
    lowest 10%: 4%
    highest 10%: 26.1% (FY2013)
    30.7 (FY2013)
    30.9 (FY2011)
    country comparison to the world: 123
    revenues: $42.3 billion
    expenditures: $54.63 billion
    note: data are for fiscal years (2016 est.)
    14.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 196
    -4.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 143
    69.8% of GDP (30 September 2016 est.)
    69.9% of GDP (30 September 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 48
    1 July - 30 June
    2.9% (FY2016 est.)
    4.5% (FY2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 141
    5.75% (15 November 2016)
    6% (15 November 2015)
    country comparison to the world: 73
    6.46% (10 December 2015 est.)
    9.74% (10 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 119
    $100.2 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    $89.3 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 35
    $122.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    $109.8 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 52
    $142.2 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    $127.5 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 48
    $43.68 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    $32.76 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $38.17 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 56
    -$3.262 billion (2016 est.)
    -$2.709 billion (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 161
    $20.96 billion (2016 est.)
    $28.51 billion (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 66
    textiles (garments, bed linen, cotton cloth, yarn), rice, leather goods, sporting goods, chemicals, manufactures, surgical instruments, carpets and rugs
    US 13%, UAE 9%, Afghanistan 9%, China 8.7%, UK 5.3%, Germany 4.9% (2015)
    $38.25 billion (2016 est.)
    $47.53 billion (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 55
    petroleum, petroleum products, machinery, plastics, transportation equipment, edible oils, paper and paperboard, iron and steel, tea
    China 28.3%, Saudi Arabia 11%, UAE 10.9%, Kuwait 5.7% (2015)
    $20.53 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    $20.05 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 57
    $64.04 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    $62.18 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 59
    $33.82 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    $31.82 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 63
    $2.059 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    $2.009 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 79
    Pakistani rupees (PKR) per US dollar -
    103.77 (2016 est.)
    101.89 (2015 est.)
    102.77 (FY2014 est.)
    101.1 (FY2013 est.)
    93.4 (2012 est.)
  • Energy :: PAKISTAN

  • population without electricity: 49,500,000
    electrification - total population: 73%
    electrification - urban areas: 91%
    electrification - rural areas: 62% (2013)
    100 billion kWh (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 34
    82 billion kWh (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 35
    0 kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 117
    400 million kWh (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 84
    24.82 million kW (FY2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 36
    67.7% of total installed capacity (FY2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 114
    3.2% of total installed capacity (FY2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 27
    28.6% of total installed capacity (FY2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 81
    0.4% of total installed capacity (FY2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 108
    90,210 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 46
    0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 178
    150,800 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 35
    370 million bbl (1 January 2015 es)
    country comparison to the world: 56
    235,300 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 47
    450,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 35
    17,120 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 72
    228,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 29
    42.02 billion cu m (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 22
    42.02 billion cu m (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 21
    0 cu m (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 163
    4.125 billion cu m (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 35
    669.4 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
    country comparison to the world: 30
    145 million Mt (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 33
  • Communications :: PAKISTAN

  • total subscriptions: 3,067,911
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 2 (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 31
    total: 136,489,014
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 68 (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 11
    general assessment: the telecommunications infrastructure is improving, with investments in mobile-cellular networks increasing, but fixed-line subscriptions declining; system consists of microwave radio relay, coaxial cable, fiber-optic cable, cellular, and satellite networks; 3G and 4G mobile services introduced
    domestic: mobile-cellular subscribership has skyrocketed; more than 90% of Pakistanis live within areas that have cell phone coverage; fiber-optic networks are being constructed throughout the country to increase broadband access, though broadband penetration in Pakistan is still relatively low
    international: country code - 92; landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-3 and SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cable systems that provide links to Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean); 3 operational international gateway exchanges (1 at Karachi and 2 at Islamabad); microwave radio relay to neighboring countries (2015)
    media is government regulated; 1 dominant state-owned TV broadcaster, Pakistan Television Corporation (PTV), operates a network consisting of 8 channels; private TV broadcasters are permitted; to date 69 foreign satellite channels are operational; the state-owned radio network operates more than 30 stations; nearly 200 commercially licensed, privately owned radio stations provide programming mostly limited to music and talk shows (2017)
    .pk
    total: 31,338,715
    percent of population: 15.5% (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 27
  • Transportation :: PAKISTAN

  • number of registered air carriers: 4
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 67
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 8,467,827
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 183,177,313 mt-km (2015)
    AP (2016)
    151 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 37
    total: 108
    over 3,047 m: 15
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 20
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 43
    914 to 1,523 m: 20
    under 914 m: 10 (2013)
    total: 43
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 9
    914 to 1,523 m: 9
    under 914 m: 24 (2013)
    23 (2013)
    gas 12,646 km; oil 2,576 km; refined products 1,087 km (2013)
    total: 11,881 km
    broad gauge: 11,492 km 1.676-m gauge (293 km electrified)
    narrow gauge: 389 km 1.000-m gauge (2015)
    country comparison to the world: 22
    total: 263,942 km
    paved: 185,063 km (includes 708 km of expressways)
    unpaved: 78,879 km (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 21
    total: 11
    by type: bulk carrier 5, cargo 3, petroleum tanker 3
    registered in other countries: 11 (Comoros 5, Marshall Islands 1, Moldova 1, Panama 3, Saint Kitts and Nevis 1) (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 111
    major seaport(s): Karachi, Port Muhammad Bin Qasim
    container port(s) (TEUs): Karachi (1,545,434)
    LNG terminal(s) (import): Port Qasim
  • Military and Security :: PAKISTAN

  • 3.56% of GDP (2016)
    3.54% of GDP (2015)
    3.48% of GDP (2014)
    3.47% of GDP (2013)
    3.48% of GDP (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 21
    Pakistan Army (includes National Guard), Pakistan Navy (includes Maritime Security Agency), Pakistan Air Force (Pakistan Fiza'ya) (2015)
    16-23 years of age for voluntary military service; soldiers cannot be deployed for combat until age 18; women serve in all three armed forces; reserve obligation to age 45 for enlisted men, age 50 for officers (2017)
  • Transnational Issues :: PAKISTAN

  • various talks and confidence-building measures cautiously have begun to defuse tensions over Kashmir, particularly since the October 2005 earthquake in the region; Kashmir nevertheless remains the site of the world's largest and most militarized territorial dispute with portions under the de facto administration of China (Aksai Chin), India (Jammu and Kashmir), and Pakistan (Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas); UN Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan has maintained a small group of peacekeepers since 1949; India does not recognize Pakistan's ceding historic Kashmir lands to China in 1964; India and Pakistan have maintained their 2004 cease-fire in Kashmir and initiated discussions on defusing the armed standoff in the Siachen glacier region; Pakistan protests India's fencing the highly militarized Line of Control and construction of the Baglihar Dam on the Chenab River in Jammu and Kashmir, which is part of the larger dispute on water sharing of the Indus River and its tributaries; to defuse tensions and prepare for discussions on a maritime boundary, India and Pakistan seek technical resolution of the disputed boundary in Sir Creek estuary at the mouth of the Rann of Kutch in the Arabian Sea; Pakistani maps continue to show the Junagadh claim in India's Gujarat State; since 2002, with UN assistance, Pakistan has repatriated 3.8 million Afghan refugees, leaving about 2.6 million; Pakistan has sent troops across and built fences along some remote tribal areas of its treaty-defined Durand Line border with Afghanistan, which serve as bases for foreign terrorists and other illegal activities; Afghan, Coalition, and Pakistan military meet periodically to clarify the alignment of the boundary on the ground and on maps
    refugees (country of origin): 2 - 2.4 million (1.4 million registered, 600,000 - 1.0 million undocumented) (Afghanistan) (2017)
    IDPs: 847,368 (primarily those who remain displaced by counter-terrorism and counter-insurgency operations and violent conflict between armed non-state groups in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas and Khyber-Paktunkwa Province; more than 1 million displaced in northern Waziristan in 2014; individuals also have been displaced by repeated monsoon floods) (2016)
    current situation: Pakistan is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; the largest human trafficking problem is bonded labor in agriculture, brickmaking and, to a lesser extent, fishing, mining and carpet-making; children are bought, sold, rented, and placed in forced begging rings, domestic service, small shops, brick kilns, or prostitution; militant groups also force children to spy, fight, or die as suicide bombers, kidnapping the children or getting them from poor parents through sale or coercion; women and girls are forced into prostitution or marriages; Pakistani adults migrate to the Gulf States and African and European states for low-skilled jobs and sometimes become victims of forced labor, debt bondage, or prostitution; foreign adults and children, particularly from Afghanistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka, may be subject to forced labor, and foreign women may be sex trafficked in Pakistan, with refugees and ethnic minorities being most vulnerable
    tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List – Pakistan does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; the government lacks political will and capacity to fully address human trafficking, as evidenced by ineffective law enforcement efforts, official complicity, penalization of victims, and the continued conflation of migrant smuggling and human trafficking by many officials; not all forms of trafficking are prohibited; an anti-trafficking bill drafted in 2013 to address gaps in existing legislation remains pending, and a national action plan drafted in 2014 is not finalized; feudal landlords and brick kiln owners use their political influence to protect their involvement in bonded labor, while some police personnel have taken bribes to ignore prostitution that may have included sex trafficking; authorities began to use standard procedures for the identification and referral of trafficking victims, but it is not clear how widely these methods were practiced; in other instances, police were reluctant to assist NGOs with rescues and even punished victims for crimes committed as a direct result of being trafficked (2015)
    significant transit area for Afghan drugs, including heroin, opium, morphine, and hashish, bound for Iran, Western markets, the Gulf States, Africa, and Asia; financial crimes related to drug trafficking, terrorism, corruption, and smuggling remain problems; opium poppy cultivation estimated to be 2,300 hectares in 2007 with 600 of those hectares eradicated; federal and provincial authorities continue to conduct anti-poppy campaigns that utilizes forced eradication, fines, and arrests