Library

 
View Text Low Bandwidth Version
Download Publication
Europe :: Poland
Page last updated on May 13, 2015
 
view 33 photos of
Poland
  • Introduction :: POLAND

  • Poland's history as a state began near the middle of the 10th century. By the mid-16th century, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth ruled a vast tract of land in central and eastern Europe. During the 18th century, internal disorders weakened the nation, and in a series of agreements between 1772 and 1795, Russia, Prussia, and Austria partitioned Poland among themselves. Poland regained its independence in 1918 only to be overrun by Germany and the Soviet Union in World War II. It became a Soviet satellite state following the war, but its government was comparatively tolerant and progressive. Labor turmoil in 1980 led to the formation of the independent trade union "Solidarity" that over time became a political force with over ten million members. Free elections in 1989 and 1990 won Solidarity control of the parliament and the presidency, bringing the communist era to a close. A "shock therapy" program during the early 1990s enabled the country to transform its economy into one of the most robust in Central Europe. Poland joined NATO in 1999 and the European Union in 2004. With its transformation to a democratic, market-oriented country largely completed and with large investments in defense, energy, and other infrastructure, Poland is an increasingly active member of Euro-Atlantic organizations.
  • Geography :: POLAND

  • Central Europe, east of Germany
    52 00 N, 20 00 E
    Europe
    total: 312,685 sq km
    land: 304,255 sq km
    water: 8,430 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 70
    slightly smaller than New Mexico
    total: 3,071 km
    border countries (7): Belarus 418 km, Czech Republic 796 km, Germany 467 km, Lithuania 104 km, Russia (Kaliningrad Oblast) 210 km, Slovakia 541 km, Ukraine 535 km
    440 km
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    exclusive economic zone: defined by international treaties
    temperate with cold, cloudy, moderately severe winters with frequent precipitation; mild summers with frequent showers and thundershowers
    mostly flat plain; mountains along southern border
    lowest point: near Raczki Elblaskie -2 m
    highest point: Rysy 2,499 m
    coal, sulfur, copper, natural gas, silver, lead, salt, amber, arable land
    arable land: 35.68%
    permanent crops: 1.3%
    other: 63.02% (2012 est.)
    1,157 sq km (2007)
    61.6 cu km (2011)
    total: 11.96 cu km/yr (31%/60%/10%)
    per capita: 312.3 cu m/yr (2009)
    flooding
    situation has improved since 1989 due to decline in heavy industry and increased environmental concern by post-Communist governments; air pollution nonetheless remains serious because of sulfur dioxide emissions from coal-fired power plants, and the resulting acid rain has caused forest damage; water pollution from industrial and municipal sources is also a problem, as is disposal of hazardous wastes; pollution levels should continue to decrease as industrial establishments bring their facilities up to EU code, but at substantial cost to business and the government
    party to: Air Pollution, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94
    historically, an area of conflict because of flat terrain and the lack of natural barriers on the North European Plain
  • People and Society :: POLAND

  • noun: Pole(s)
    adjective: Polish
    Polish 96.9%, Silesian 1.1%, German 0.2%, Ukrainian 0.1%, other and unspecified 1.7%
    note: represents ethnicity declared first (2011 est.)
    Polish (official) 98.2%, Silesian 1.4%, other 1.1%, unspecified 1.3%
    note: data represents the language spoken at home; shares sum to more than 100% because some respondents gave more than one answer on the census; Poland ratified the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages in 2009 recognizing Kashub as a regional language, Czech, Hebrew, Yiddish, Belarusian, Lithuanian, German, Armenian, Russian, Slovak, and Ukrainian as national minority languages, and Karaim, Lemko, Romani (Polska Roma and Bergitka Roma), and Tatar as ethnic minority languages (2011 est.)
    Catholic 87.2% (includes Roman Catholic 86.9% and Greek Catholic, Armenian Catholic, and Byzantine-Slavic Catholic .3%), Orthodox 1.3% (almost all are Polish Autocephalous Orthodox), Protestant 0.4% (mainly Augsburg Evangelical and Pentacostal), other 0.4% (includes Jehovah's Witness, Buddhist, Hare Krishna, Gaudiya Vaishnavism, Muslim, Jewish, Mormon), unspecified 10.8% (2012 est.)
    38,346,279 (July 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 35
    0-14 years: 14.6% (male 2,876,264/female 2,716,569)
    15-24 years: 11.9% (male 2,333,627/female 2,235,228)
    25-54 years: 43.8% (male 8,459,153/female 8,355,491)
    55-64 years: 14.7% (male 2,658,106/female 2,973,933)
    65 years and over: 15% (male 2,224,569/female 3,513,339) (2014 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 42.6%
    youth dependency ratio: 21.4%
    elderly dependency ratio: 21.2%
    potential support ratio: 4.7% (2014 est.)
    total: 39.5 years
    male: 37.9 years
    female: 41.3 years (2014 est.)
    -0.11% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 203
    9.77 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 200
    10.37 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 43
    -0.47 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 134
    urban population: 60.6% of total population (2014)
    rate of urbanization: -0.1% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    WARSAW (capital) 1.718 million; Krakow 759,000 (2014)
    at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.62 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2014 est.)
    26.9 (2011 est.)
    3 deaths/100,000 live births (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 175
    total: 6.19 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 6.88 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 5.45 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 168
    total population: 76.65 years
    male: 72.74 years
    female: 80.8 years (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 77
    1.33 children born/woman (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 212
    6.7% of GDP (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 89
    2.22 physicians/1,000 population (2012)
    6.5 beds/1,000 population (2011)
    improved:
    urban: 100% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 0% of population (2012 est.)
    improved:
    urban: 95.7% of population
    rural: 79.7% of population
    total: 89.5% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 4.3% of population
    rural: 20.3% of population
    total: 10.5% of population (2008 est.)
    NA
    NA
    NA
    degree of risk: intermediate
    vectorborne disease: tickborne encephalitis
    note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2013)
    25.3% (2008)
    country comparison to the world: 56
    5.2% of GDP (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 65
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 99.7%
    male: 99.9%
    female: 99.6% (2012 est.)
    total: 15 years
    male: 15 years
    female: 16 years (2012)
    total: 26.5%
    male: 24.1%
    female: 30% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 34
  • Government :: POLAND

  • conventional long form: Republic of Poland
    conventional short form: Poland
    local long form: Rzeczpospolita Polska
    local short form: Polska
    republic
    name: Warsaw
    geographic coordinates: 52 15 N, 21 00 E
    time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
    16 provinces (wojewodztwa, singular - wojewodztwo); Dolnoslaskie (Lower Silesia), Kujawsko-Pomorskie (Kuyavia-Pomerania), Lodzkie (Lodz), Lubelskie (Lublin), Lubuskie (Lubusz), Malopolskie (Lesser Poland), Mazowieckie (Masovia), Opolskie (Opole), Podkarpackie (Subcarpathia), Podlaskie, Pomorskie (Pomerania), Slaskie (Silesia), Swietokrzyskie (Holy Cross), Warminsko-Mazurskie (Warmia-Masuria), Wielkopolskie (Greater Poland), Zachodniopomorskie (West Pomerania)
    11 November 1918 (republic proclaimed); notable earlier dates: 966 (adoption of Christianity, traditional founding date), 1 July 1569 (Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth created)
    Constitution Day, 3 May (1791)
    several previous; latest adopted 2 April 1997, approved by referendum 25 May 1997, effective 17 October 1997; amended 2006, 2009 (2013)
    civil law system; changes gradually being introduced as part of broader democratization process; limited judicial review of legislative acts, but rulings of the Constitutional Tribunal are final
    accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: President Bronislaw KOMOROWSKI (since 6 August 2010)
    head of government: Prime Minister Ewa Kopacz (since 22 September 2014); Deputy Prime Ministers Janusz PIECHOCINSKI (since 6 December 2012) and Tomasz SIEMONIAK (since 22 September 2014)
    cabinet: Council of Ministers responsible to the prime minister and the Sejm; the prime minister proposes, the president appoints, and the Sejm approves the Council of Ministers
    elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 20 June and 4 July 2010 (next to be held on 10 May and 24 May 2015); prime minister and deputy prime ministers appointed by the president and confirmed by the Sejm
    election results: Bronislaw KOMOROWSKI elected president; percent of popular vote - Bronislaw KOMOROWSKI 53%, Jaroslaw KACZYNSKI 47%
    description: bicameral legislature consists of the Senate or Senat (100 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 4-year terms) and the Sejm (460 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms); note - the designation National Assembly or Zgromadzenie Narodowe is only used on those rare occasions when the two houses meet jointly
    note: the German minority is exempt from the 5% threshold requirement for seats to the Sejm
    elections: Senate - last held on 9 October 2011 (next to be held by October 2015); Sejm - last held on 9 October 2011 (next to be held by October 2015)
    election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PO 63, PiS 29, PSL 2, SP 2, independent 4; seats by party as of 26 February 2015 - PO 63, PiS 31, PSL 2, independent 4; Sejm - percent of vote by party - PO 39.2%, PiS 29.9%, RP 10%, PSL 8.4%, SLD 8.2%, other 4.3%; seats by party - PO 206, PiS 137, RP 43, PSL 28, SLD 25, SP 19, independent 1, German minority 1; seats by party as of 26 February 2015 - PO 202, PiS 132, TR 16, PSL 39, SLD 34, KPSP (coalition of smaller parties) 15, independent 21, German Minority 1
    highest court(s): Supreme Court or Sad Najwyzszy (consists of the president of the Supreme Court and 116 judges organized in criminal, civil, labor and social insurance, and military chambers)
    judge selection and term of office: president of the Supreme Court nominated by the General Assembly of the Supreme Court and selected by the president of Poland; other judges nominated by the 25-member National Judiciary Council, and appointed by the president of Poland; judges appointed until retirement, usually at age 65, but tenure can be extended
    subordinate courts: Constitutional Tribunal; regional and appellate courts subdivided into military, civil, criminal, labor, and family courts
    A Just Poland (union of PR and SP) [Jaroslaw GOWIN]
    Civic Platform or PO [Ewa KOPACZ,chairperson; Rafal GRUPINSKI, parliamentary caucus leader]
    Democratic Left Alliance or SLD [Leszek MILLER, chairman, parliamentary caucus leader]
    German Minority of Lower Silesia or MNSO [Ryszard GALLA, representative]
    Law and Justice or PiS [Jaroslaw KACZYNSKI, chairman; Mariusz BLASZCZAK, parliamentary caucus leader]
    New Right Congress or KNP [Michal MARUSIK, chairman]
    Poland Together or PR [Jaroslaw GOWIN, chairman]
    Polish People's Party or PSL [Janusz PIECHOCINSKI, chairman; Jan BURY, parliamentary caucus leader]
    Social Democratic Party of Poland or SDPL [Wojciech FILEMONOWICZ, chairman]
    United Poland or SP [Zbigniew ZIOBRO, chairperson]
    Your Movement or TR [Janusz PALIKOT, chairman, parliamentary caucus leader]
    All Poland Trade Union Alliance or OPZZ (trade union) [Jan GUZ]
    Independent and Self-Governing Trade Union "Solidarity" [Piotr DUDA]
    Roman Catholic Church [Archbishop Wojciech POLAK, Archbishop Stanislaw GADECKI]
    Arctic Council (observer), Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CBSS, CD, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, ESA, EU, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MONUSCO, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
    chief of mission: Ambassador Ryszard SCHNEPF (since 28 September 2012)
    chancery: 2640 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
    telephone: [1] (202) 234-3800 through 3802
    FAX: [1] (202) 328-6271
    consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York
    chief of mission: Ambassador Stephen MULL (since 24 October 2012)
    embassy: Aleje Ujazdowskie 29/31 00-540 Warsaw
    mailing address: American Embassy Warsaw, US Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-5010 (pouch)
    telephone: [48] (22) 504-2000
    FAX: [48] (22) 504-2688
    consulate(s) general: Krakow
    two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red; colors derive from the Polish emblem - a white eagle on a red field
    note: similar to the flags of Indonesia and Monaco which are red (top) and white
    white eagle; national colors: white, red
    name: "Mazurek Dabrowskiego" (Dabrowski's Mazurka)
    lyrics/music: Jozef WYBICKI/traditional
    note: adopted 1927; the anthem, commonly known as "Jeszcze Polska nie zginela" (Poland Has Not Yet Perished), was written in 1797; the lyrics resonate strongly with Poles because they reflect the numerous occasions in which the nation's lands have been occupied
  • Economy :: POLAND

  • Poland has pursued a policy of economic liberalization since 1990 and Poland's economy was the only one in the EU to avoid a recession through the 2008-09 economic downturn. Although EU membership and access to EU structural funds have provided a major boost to the economy since 2004, GDP per capita remains significantly below the EU average while unemployment continues to exceed the EU average. The government of Prime Minister Donald TUSK steered the Polish economy through the economic downturn by skillfully managing public finances and adopting controversial pension and tax reforms to further shore up public finances. While the Polish economy has performed well over the past five years, growth slowed in 2013 and 2014, in part due to the ongoing economic difficulties in the euro zone. Short-term, the key policy challenge will be to consolidate debt and spending without stifling economic growth. Over the longer term, Poland's economic performance could improve if the country addresses some of the remaining deficiencies in its road and rail infrastructure, business environment, rigid labor code, commercial court system, government red tape, and burdensome tax system.
    $941.4 billion (2014 est.)
    $911.8 billion (2013 est.)
    $897.9 billion (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2014 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 25
    $552.2 billion (2014 est.)
    3.2% (2014 est.)
    1.6% (2013 est.)
    2% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 98
    $24,400 (2014 est.)
    $23,700 (2013 est.)
    $23,300 (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2013 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 72
    19.1% of GDP (2014 est.)
    17.4% of GDP (2013 est.)
    16.7% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 86
    household consumption: 61.1%
    government consumption: 17.9%
    investment in fixed capital: 18.7%
    investment in inventories: 0.6%
    exports of goods and services: 49.2%
    imports of goods and services: -47.5%
    (2014 est.)
    agriculture: 3.7%
    industry: 32%
    services: 64.3% (2014 est.)
    potatoes, fruits, vegetables, wheat; poultry, eggs, pork, dairy
    machine building, iron and steel, coal mining, chemicals, shipbuilding, food processing, glass, beverages, textiles
    5.5% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 47
    18.26 million (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 33
    agriculture: 12.9%
    industry: 30.2%
    services: 57% (2010)
    12.7% (2014 est.)
    13.5% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 131
    10.6% (2008 est.)
    lowest 10%: 3.3%
    highest 10%: 27.1% (2009 est.)
    34.1 (2009)
    31.6 (1998)
    country comparison to the world: 95
    revenues: $92.96 billion
    expenditures: $101.5 billion (2014 est.)
    16.8% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 182
    -1.5% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 70
    45.6% of GDP (2014 est.)
    49.7% of GDP (2013 est.)
    note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities, the data include subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions
    country comparison to the world: 79
    calendar year
    0.2% (2014 est.)
    1.1% (2013 est.)
    4.25% (31 December 2012)
    4% (31 December 2010)
    country comparison to the world: 87
    6.3% (31 December 2014 est.)
    7.07% (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 129
    $181.7 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $184.5 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 24
    $306.7 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $318.8 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 33
    $352 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $362.9 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 35
    $177.7 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    $138.2 billion (31 December 2011)
    $190.2 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 35
    -$6.008 billion (2014 est.)
    -$7.014 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 172
    $218.9 billion (2014 est.)
    $197.8 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 27
    machinery and transport equipment 37.8%, intermediate manufactured goods 23.7%, miscellaneous manufactured goods 17.1%, food and live animals 7.6% (2012 est.)
    Germany 26%, UK 6.8%, Czech Republic 6.4%, France 5.8%, Russia 5.3%, Italy 4.5%, Netherlands 4.1% (2013)
    $217 billion (2014 est.)
    $196.9 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 26
    machinery and transport equipment 38%, intermediate manufactured goods 21%, chemicals 15%, minerals, fuels, lubricants, and related materials 9% (2011 est.)
    Germany 27.5%, Russia 10.6%, Netherlands 6%, China 5.7%, Italy 5.3%, Czech Republic 4.3%, France 4.2% (2013)
    $105.7 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $106.2 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 23
    $395.2 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $377.9 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 30
    $273.7 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $269.4 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 22
    $69.72 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $68.92 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 35
    zlotych (PLN) per US dollar -
    3.139 (2014 est.)
    3.1606 (2013 est.)
    3.26 (2012 est.)
    2.9639 (2011 est.)
    3.0153 (2010 est.)
  • Energy :: POLAND

  • 150.9 billion kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 27
    137.5 billion kWh (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 25
    12.32 billion kWh (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 16
    7.8 billion kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 31
    34.32 million kW (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 25
    91.5% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 70
    0% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 162
    2.9% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 133
    5.6% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 51
    25,220 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 68
    156.5 million bbl (1 January 2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 64
    553,700 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 30
    511,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 33
    68,970 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 56
    109,900 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 49
    6.206 billion cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 50
    18.23 billion cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 38
    94 million cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 45
    12.47 billion cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 21
    92 billion cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 55
    289.5 million Mt (2012 est.)
  • Communications :: POLAND

  • 6.125 million (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 28
    50.84 million (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 27
    general assessment: modernization of the telecommunications network has accelerated with market-based competition; fixed-line service, dominated by the former state-owned company, is dwarfed by the growth in mobile-cellular services
    domestic: mobile-cellular service available since 1993 and provided by three nation-wide networks with a fourth provider beginning operations in late 2006; coverage is generally good with some gaps in the east; fixed-line service lags in rural areas
    international: country code - 48; international direct dialing with automated exchanges; satellite earth station - 1 with access to Intelsat, Eutelsat, Inmarsat, and Intersputnik (2011)
    state-run public TV operates 2 national channels supplemented by 16 regional channels and several niche channels; privately owned entities operate several national TV networks and a number of special interest channels; many privately owned channels broadcasting locally; roughly half of all households are linked to either satellite or cable TV systems providing access to foreign television networks; state-run public radio operates 5 national networks and 17 regional radio stations; 2 privately owned national radio networks, several commercial stations broadcasting to multiple cities, and many privately owned local radio stations (2007)
    AM 14, FM 63, shortwave 2 (2008)
    75 (2008)
    .pl
    13.265 million (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 12
    22.452 million (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 18
  • Transportation :: POLAND

  • 126 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 47
    total: 87
    over 3,047 m: 5
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 30
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 36
    914 to 1,523 m: 10
    under 914 m: 6 (2013)
    total: 39
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
    914 to 1,523 m: 17
    under 914 m:
    21 (2013)
    6 (2013)
    gas 14,198 km; oil 1,374 km; refined products 777 km (2013)
    total: 19,428 km
    broad gauge: 399 km 1.524-m gauge
    standard gauge: 19,029 km 1.435-m gauge (11,805 km electrified) (2007)
    country comparison to the world: 15
    total: 412,035 km
    paved: 280,719 km (includes 2,418 km of expressways)
    unpaved: 131,316 km (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 16
    3,997 km (navigable rivers and canals) (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 27
    total: 9
    by type: cargo 7, chemical tanker 1, passenger/cargo 1
    registered in other countries: 106 (Antigua and Barbuda 2, Bahamas 34, Cyprus 24, Liberia 13, Malta 21, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 3, Vanuatu 9) (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 118
    major seaport(s): Gdansk, Gdynia, Swinoujscie
    river port(s): Szczecin (River Oder)
  • Military :: POLAND

  • Polish Armed Forces: Land Forces, Navy, Air and Air Defense Aviation Forces, Special Forces (2013)
    18-28 years of age for male and female voluntary military service; conscription phased out in 2009-12; service obligation shortened from 12 to 9 months in 2005; women only allowed to serve as officers and noncommissioned officers (2013)
    males age 16-49: 9,531,855
    females age 16-49: 9,298,593 (2010 est.)
    males age 16-49: 7,817,556
    females age 16-49: 7,766,361 (2010 est.)
    male: 221,889
    female: 211,172 (2010 est.)
    1.95% of GDP (2014)
    1.95% of GDP (2013)
    1.91% of GDP (2012)
    1.83% of GDP (2011)
    1.91% of GDP (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 44
  • Transnational Issues :: POLAND

  • as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Poland has implemented the strict Schengen border rules to restrict illegal immigration and trade along its eastern borders with Belarus and Ukraine
    refugees (country of origin): 15,149 (Russia) (2014); 51,382 applicants for forms of legal stay other than asylum (Ukraine) (2015)
    stateless persons: 10,825 (2013)
    despite diligent counternarcotics measures and international information sharing on cross-border crimes, a major illicit producer of synthetic drugs for the international market; minor transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and Latin American cocaine to Western Europe
GO TOP