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Panama
  • Introduction :: PANAMA

  • Explored and settled by the Spanish in the 16th century, Panama broke with Spain in 1821 and joined a union of Colombia, Ecuador, and Venezuela - named the Republic of Gran Colombia. When the latter dissolved in 1830, Panama remained part of Colombia. With US backing, Panama seceded from Colombia in 1903 and promptly signed a treaty with the US allowing for the construction of a canal and US sovereignty over a strip of land on either side of the structure (the Panama Canal Zone). The Panama Canal was built by the US Army Corps of Engineers between 1904 and 1914. In 1977, an agreement was signed for the complete transfer of the Canal from the US to Panama by the end of the century. Certain portions of the Zone and increasing responsibility over the Canal were turned over in the subsequent decades. With US help, dictator Manuel NORIEGA was deposed in 1989. The entire Panama Canal, the area supporting the Canal, and remaining US military bases were transferred to Panama by the end of 1999. In October 2006, Panamanians approved an ambitious plan (estimated to cost $5.3 billion) to expand the Canal. The project, which began in 2007 and could double the Canal's capacity, is expected to be completed in 2016.
  • Geography :: PANAMA

  • Central America, bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Pacific Ocean, between Colombia and Costa Rica
    9 00 N, 80 00 W
    Central America and the Caribbean
    total: 75,420 sq km
    land: 74,340 sq km
    water: 1,080 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 118
    slightly smaller than South Carolina
    total: 687 km
    border countries (2): Colombia 339 km, Costa Rica 348 km
    2,490 km
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    contiguous zone: 24 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm or edge of continental margin
    tropical maritime; hot, humid, cloudy; prolonged rainy season (May to January), short dry season (January to May)
    interior mostly steep, rugged mountains and dissected, upland plains; coastal areas largely plains and rolling hills
    lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
    highest point: Volcan Baru 3,475 m
    copper, mahogany forests, shrimp, hydropower
    agricultural land: 30.5%
    arable land 7.3%; permanent crops 2.5%; permanent pasture 20.7%
    forest: 43.6%
    other: 25.9% (2011 est.)
    346.2 sq km (2003)
    148 cu km (2011)
    total: 0.91 cu km/yr (27%/2%/71%)
    per capita: 296.1 cu m/yr (2005)
    occasional severe storms and forest fires in the Darien area
    water pollution from agricultural runoff threatens fishery resources; deforestation of tropical rain forest; land degradation and soil erosion threatens siltation of Panama Canal; air pollution in urban areas; mining threatens natural resources
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
    signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
    strategic location on eastern end of isthmus forming land bridge connecting North and South America; controls Panama Canal that links North Atlantic Ocean via Caribbean Sea with North Pacific Ocean
  • People and Society :: PANAMA

  • noun: Panamanian(s)
    adjective: Panamanian
    mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 65%, Native American 12.3% (Ngabe 7.6%, Kuna 2.4%, Embera .9%, Bugle .8%, other .4%, unspecified .2%), black or African descent 9.2%, mulatto 6.8%, white 6.7% (2010 est.)
    Spanish (official), indigenous languages (including Ngabe, Bugle, Kuna, Embera, Wounaan, Naso Tjerdi, and Bri Bri)
    note: many Panamanians are bilingual
    Roman Catholic 85%, Protestant 15%
    Panama is a country of demographic and economic contrasts. It is in the midst of a demographic transition, characterized by steadily declining rates of fertility, mortality, and population growth, but disparities persist based on wealth, geography, and ethnicity. Panama has one of the fastest growing economies in Latin America and dedicates substantial funding to social programs, yet poverty and inequality remain prevalent. The indigenous population accounts for a growing share of Panama's poor and extreme poor, while the non-indigenous rural poor have been more successful at rising out of poverty through rural-to-urban labor migration. The government's large expenditures on untargeted, indirect subsidies for water, electricity, and fuel have been ineffective, but its conditional cash transfer program has shown some promise in helping to decrease extreme poverty among the indigenous population.
    Panama has expanded access to education and clean water, but the availability of sanitation and, to a lesser extent, electricity remains poor. The increase in secondary schooling - led by female enrollment - is spreading to rural and indigenous areas, which probably will help to alleviate poverty if educational quality and the availability of skilled jobs improve. Inadequate access to sanitation contributes to a high incidence of diarrhea in Panama's children, which is one of the main causes of Panama's elevated chronic malnutrition rate, especially among indigenous communities.
    3,608,431 (July 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 131
    0-14 years: 27.4% (male 504,710/female 484,166)
    15-24 years: 17.3% (male 317,875/female 306,378)
    25-54 years: 40.1% (male 733,588/female 714,859)
    55-64 years: 7.4% (male 131,899/female 135,015)
    65 years and over: 7.8% (male 129,091/female 150,850) (2014 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 54.7%
    youth dependency ratio: 43.2%
    elderly dependency ratio: 11.4%
    potential support ratio: 8.7% (2014 est.)
    total: 28.3 years
    male: 27.9 years
    female: 28.7 years (2014 est.)
    1.35% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 91
    18.61 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 98
    4.77 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 197
    -0.32 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 129
    urban population: 66.3% of total population (2014)
    rate of urbanization: 2.07% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    PANAMA CITY (capital) 1.638 million (2014)
    at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female
    total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2014 est.)
    85 deaths/100,000 live births (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 78
    total: 10.7 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 11.46 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 9.92 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 135
    total population: 78.3 years
    male: 75.51 years
    female: 81.22 years (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 56
    2.38 children born/woman (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 85
    52.2% (2009)
    7.2% of GDP (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 64
    1.65 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
    2.2 beds/1,000 population (2011)
    improved:
    urban: 96.8% of population
    rural: 86.6% of population
    total: 94.3% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 3.2% of population
    rural: 13.4% of population
    total: 5.7% of population (2012 est.)
    improved:
    urban: 79.7% of population
    rural: 52.5% of population
    total: 73.2% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 20.3% of population
    rural: 47.5% of population
    total: 26.8% of population (2012 est.)
    0.65% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 53
    15,500 (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 82
    500 (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 83
    degree of risk: intermediate
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea
    vectorborne disease: dengue fever (2013)
    26.5% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 55
    3.9% (2008)
    country comparison to the world: 99
    3.3% of GDP (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 122
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 95%
    male: 95.7%
    female: 94.4% (2015 est.)
    total: 13 years
    male: 13 years
    female: 14 years (2012)
    total number: 59,294
    percentage: 7%
    note: data represents children ages 5-17 (2010 est.)
    total: 10.3%
    male: 8.7%
    female: 13.3% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 99
  • Government :: PANAMA

  • conventional long form: Republic of Panama
    conventional short form: Panama
    local long form: Republica de Panama
    local short form: Panama
    constitutional democracy
    name: Panama City
    geographic coordinates: 8 58 N, 79 32 W
    time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    10 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia) and 3 indigenous territories* (comarcas); Bocas del Toro, Chiriqui, Cocle, Colon, Darien, Embera-Wounaan*, Herrera, Kuna Yala*, Los Santos, Ngobe-Bugle*, Panama, Panama Oeste, Veraguas
    3 November 1903 (from Colombia; became independent from Spain on 28 November 1821)
    Independence Day, 3 November (1903)
    several previous; latest effective 11 October 1972; amended several times, last in 2004 (2010)
    civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court of Justice
    accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: President Juan Carlos VARELA (since 1 July 2014); Vice President Isabel de SAINT MALO de Alvarado (since 1 July 2014); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
    head of government: President Juan Carlos VARELA (since 1 July 2014); Vice President Isabel de SAINT MALO de Alvarado (since 1 July 2014)
    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
    elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for five-year terms (president not eligible for immediate reelection and must sit out two additional terms (10 years) before becoming eligible for reelection); election last held on 4 May 2014 (next to be held in May 2019)
    election results: Juan Carlos VARELA elected president; percent of vote - Juan Carlos VARELA 39.1%, Jose Domingo ARIAS 31.4%, Juan Carlos NAVARRO 28.2%, other 1.3%
    description: unicameral National Assembly or Asamblea Nacional (71 seats; 45 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies - populous towns and cities - by proportional representation vote and 26 directly elected in single-seat constituencies - outlying rural districts - by plurality vote; members serve 5-year terms)
    elections: last held on 4 May 2014 (next to be held in May 2019)
    election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PRD 26, CD 25, Panamenista 16, MOLIRENA 2, PP 1, independent 1; note - only 57 deputies were officially installed because fourteen runners-up challenged the election
    highest court(s): Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (consists of 9 magistrates and 9 alternates and divided into civil, criminal, administrative, and general business chambers)
    judge selection and term of office: magistrates appointed by the president for staggered 10-year terms
    subordinate courts: appellate courts or Tribunal Superior; Labor Supreme Courts; Court of Audit; circuit courts or Tribunal Circuital (2 each in 9 of the 10 provinces); municipal courts; electoral, family, maritime, and adolescent courts
    Democratic Change or CD [Ricardo MARTINELLI Berrocal]
    Democratic Revolutionary Party or PRD [Carlos PEREZ Herrera]
    Nationalist Republican Liberal Movement or MOLIRENA [Francisco "Pancho" ALEMAN]
    Panamenista Party [Juan Carlos VARELA Rodriguez] (formerly the Arnulfista Party)
    Popular Party or PP [Milton C. HENRIQUEZ] (formerly Christian Democratic Party or PDC)
    Chamber of Commerce
    Concertacion Nacional (mechanism for government of Panama to formally dialogue with representatives of civil society)
    National Council of Organized Workers or CONATO
    National Council of Private Enterprise or CONEP
    National Union of Construction and Similar Workers (SUNTRACS)
    Panamanian Association of Business Executives or APEDE
    Panamanian Industrialists Society or SIP
    Workers Confederation of the Republic of Panama or CTRP
    BCIE, CAN (observer), CD, CELAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, MIGA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, Pacific Alliance (observer), PCA, SICA, UN, UNASUR (observer), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    chief of mission: Ambassador Emanuel Arturo GONZALEZ-REVILLA Lince (since 18 September 2014)
    chancery: 2862 McGill Terrace NW, Washington, DC 20007
    telephone: [1] (202) 483-1407
    FAX: [1] (202) 483-8413
    consulate(s) general: Honolulu, Houston, Miami, New Orleans, New York, Philadelphia, San Diego, Tampa (FL), Washington DC
    chief of mission: Ambassador Jonathan D. FARRAR (since 15 May 2012)
    embassy: Edificio 783, Avenida Demetrio Basilio Lakas Panama, Apartado Postal 0816-02561, Zona 5, Panama City
    mailing address: American Embassy Panama, Unit 0945, APO AA 34002; American Embassy Panama, 9100 Panama City PL, Washington, DC 20521-9100
    telephone: [507] 317-5000
    FAX: [507] 317-5568
    divided into four, equal rectangles; the top quadrants are white (hoist side) with a blue five-pointed star in the center and plain red; the bottom quadrants are plain blue (hoist side) and white with a red five-pointed star in the center; the blue and red colors are those of the main political parties (Conservatives and Liberals respectively) and the white denotes peace between them; the blue star stands for the civic virtues of purity and honesty, the red star signifies authority and law
    harpy eagle; national colors: blue, white, red
    name: "Himno Istmeno" (Isthmus Hymn)
    lyrics/music: Jeronimo DE LA OSSA/Santos A. JORGE
    note: adopted 1925
  • Economy :: PANAMA

  • Panama's dollar-based economy rests primarily on a well-developed services sector that accounts for more than three-quarters of GDP. Services include operating the Panama Canal, logistics, banking, the Colon Free Trade Zone, insurance, container ports, flagship registry, and tourism. Economic growth will be bolstered by the Panama Canal expansion project that began in 2007 and is estimated to be completed by 2016 at a cost of $5.3 billion - about 10-15% of current GDP. The expansion project will more than double the Canal's capacity, enabling it to accommodate ships that are too large to traverse the existing canal. The United States and China are the top users of the Canal. Panama completed a metro system in Panama City, valued at $1.2 billion in 2014. Panama's transportation and logistics services sectors, along with infrastructure development projects, have boosted economic growth; however, public debt surpassed $17 billion in 2014 because of excessive government spending and public works projects. Foreign direct investment has continued to be a source of growth. Strong economic performance has not translated into broadly shared prosperity, as Panama has the second worst income distribution in Latin America. About one-fourth of the population lives in poverty; however, from 2006 to 2012 poverty was reduced by 10 percentage points. The US-Panama Trade Promotion Agreement was approved by Congress and signed into law in October 2011, and entered into force in October 2012.
    $76.95 billion (2014 est.)
    $72.18 billion (2013 est.)
    $66.61 billion (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2014 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 91
    $44.69 billion (2014 est.)
    6.6% (2014 est.)
    8.4% (2013 est.)
    10.8% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 26
    $20,300 (2014 est.)
    $19,400 (2013 est.)
    $18,200 (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2013 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 83
    19% of GDP (2014 est.)
    18.1% of GDP (2013 est.)
    18% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 87
    household consumption: 52.9%
    government consumption: 11.3%
    investment in fixed capital: 28.7%
    investment in inventories: 5.8%
    exports of goods and services: 75.3%
    imports of goods and services: -74%
    (2014 est.)
    agriculture: 2.9%
    industry: 14.1%
    services: 83% (2014 est.)
    bananas, rice, corn, coffee, sugarcane, vegetables; livestock; shrimp
    construction, brewing, cement and other construction materials, sugar milling
    8.2% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 21
    1.563 million
    note: shortage of skilled labor, but an oversupply of unskilled labor (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 128
    agriculture: 17%
    industry: 18.6%
    services: 64.4% (2009 est.)
    4.5% (2014 est.)
    4.1% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 42
    26% (2012 est.)
    lowest 10%: 1.1%
    highest 10%: 40.1% (2010 est.)
    51.9 (2010 est.)
    56.1 (2003)
    country comparison to the world: 16
    revenues: $10.86 billion
    expenditures: $12.69 billion (2014 est.)
    24.3% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 123
    -4.1% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 144
    37.2% of GDP (2014 est.)
    36.8% of GDP (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 109
    calendar year
    2.9% (2014 est.)
    4% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 118
    6.6% (31 December 2014 est.)
    6.59% (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 126
    $6.887 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $6.347 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 92
    $28.22 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $25.81 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 77
    $40.11 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $28.83 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 67
    $12.54 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    $10.68 billion (31 December 2011)
    $8.348 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 70
    $-4.288 billion (2014 est.)
    $-4.806 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 166
    $18.07 billion (2014 est.)
    $17.5 billion (2013 est.)
    note: includes the Colon Free Zone
    country comparison to the world: 76
    fruit and nuts, fish, iron and steel waste, wood
    Ecuador 33.9%, US 11.5%, Japan 8.8% (2013)
    $25.65 billion (2014 est.)
    $24.26 billion (2013 est.)
    note: includes the Colon Free Zone
    country comparison to the world: 73
    fuels, machinery, vehicles, iron and steel rods, pharmaceuticals
    US 19%, China 14.8%, Singapore 13.1%, Japan 9.5%, Brazil 8.2%, Colombia 5.1% (2013)
    $3.048 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $2.848 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 109
    $15.47 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $13.88 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 92
    $39.39 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $35.69 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 60
    $8.34 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $7.835 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 62
    balboas (PAB) per US dollar -
    1 (2014 est.)
    1 (2013 est.)
    1 (2012 est.)
    1 (2011 est.)
    1 (2010 est.)
  • Energy :: PANAMA

  • 7.642 billion kWh (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 103
    6.626 billion kWh (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 106
    59 million kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 86
    19 million kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 108
    2.391 million kW (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 101
    43.5% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 160
    0% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 164
    56.5% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 42
    0% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 116
    0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 186
    0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 170
    0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 113
    0 bbl (1 January 2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 179
    0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 122
    101,400 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 78
    0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 208
    111,100 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 48
    0 cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 118
    0 cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 186
    0 cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 163
    0 cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 118
    0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 183
    16.23 million Mt (2012 est.)
  • Communications :: PANAMA

  • 640,000 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 90
    6.77 million (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 96
    general assessment: domestic and international facilities well-developed
    domestic: mobile-cellular telephone subscribership has increased rapidly
    international: country code - 507; landing point for the Americas Region Caribbean Ring System (ARCOS-1), the MAYA-1, and PAN-AM submarine cable systems that together provide links to the US and parts of the Caribbean, Central America, and South America; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); connected to the Central American Microwave System (2011)
    multiple privately owned TV networks and a government-owned educational TV station; multi-channel cable and satellite TV subscription services are available; more than 100 commercial radio stations (2007)
    AM 101, FM 134, shortwave 0 (1998)
    38 (including repeaters) (1998)
    .pa
    11,022 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 132
    959,800 (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 102
  • Transportation :: PANAMA

  • 117 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 49
    total: 57
    over 3,047 m: 1
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
    914 to 1,523 m: 20
    under 914 m: 30 (2013)
    total: 60
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
    914 to 1,523 m: 8
    under 914 m:
    51 (2013)
    3 (2013)
    oil 128 km (2013)
    total: 76 km
    standard gauge: 76 km 1.435-m gauge (2008)
    country comparison to the world: 129
    total: 15,137 km
    paved: 6,351 km
    unpaved: 8,786 km (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 122
    800 km (includes the 82-km Panama Canal that is being widened) (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 72
    total: 6,413
    by type: barge carrier 1, bulk carrier 2,525, cargo 1,115, carrier 27, chemical tanker 588, combination ore/oil 1, container 742, liquefied gas 205, passenger 42, passenger/cargo 51, petroleum tanker 545, refrigerated cargo 191, roll on/roll off 87, specialized tanker 3, vehicle carrier 290
    foreign-owned: 5,162 (Albania 4, Argentina 5, Australia 4, Bahamas 6, Bangladesh 5, Belgium 1, Bermuda 27, Brazil 3, Bulgaria 6, Burma 3, Canada 6, Chile 14, China 534, Colombia 2, Croatia 2, Cuba 2, Cyprus 5, Denmark 41, Ecuador 3, Egypt 11, Finland 2, France 7, Gabon 1, Germany 24, Gibraltar 1, Greece 379, Hong Kong 144, India 24, Indonesia 10, Iran 5, Ireland 1, Israel 1, Italy 25, Japan 2372, Jordan 11, Kuwait 12, Lebanon 2, Lithuania 3, Luxembourg 1, Malaysia 12, Maldives 2, Malta 2, Mexico 5, Monaco 11, Netherlands 6, Nigeria 6, Norway 81, Oman 10, Pakistan 3, Peru 9, Philippines 5, Portugal 10, Qatar 1, Romania 3, Russia 49, Saudi Arabia 11, Singapore 92, South Korea 373, Spain 30, Sweden 2, Switzerland 15, Syria 34, Taiwan 328, Tanzania 2, Thailand 6, Turkey 62, UAE 83, UK 37, Ukraine 8, US 90, Venezuela 13, Vietnam 43, Yemen 4)
    registered in other countries: 1 (Honduras 1) (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 1
    major seaport(s): Balboa, Colon, Cristobal
    container port(s) (TEUs): Balboa (3,232,265), Colon (2,390,976), Manzanillo (2,391,066)
  • Military :: PANAMA

  • no regular military forces; Panamanian Public Security Forces (subordinate to the Ministry of Public Security), comprising the National Police (PNP), National Air-Naval Service (SENAN), National Border Service (SENAFRONT) (2013)
    males age 16-49: 890,006 (2010 est.)
    males age 16-49: 731,254
    females age 16-49: 728,329 (2010 est.)
    male: 32,142
    female: 30,879 (2010 est.)
    on 10 February 1990, the government of then President ENDARA abolished Panama's military and reformed the security apparatus by creating the Panamanian Public Forces; in October 1994, Panama's Legislative Assembly approved a constitutional amendment prohibiting the creation of a standing military force but allowing the temporary establishment of special police units to counter acts of "external aggression"
  • Transnational Issues :: PANAMA

  • organized illegal narcotics operations in Colombia operate within the remote border region with Panama
    refugees (country of origin): 15,551 (Colombia) (2014)
    current situation: Panama is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to sex trafficking and forced labor; most Panamanian victims are sexually exploited domestically; indigenous girls and women are also forced into domestic servitude in the country; foreign women from nearby countries migrate to Panama legally but some are subsequently exploited in sex trafficking or, to a lesser extent, in domestic service; Chinese adults and men from neighboring countries are subjected to debt bondage, while Colombian and Middle Eastern men are used as forced labor in restaurants
    tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List – Panama does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; several public awareness events were conducted in 2013, but the government did not demonstrate overall increasing anti-trafficking efforts; authorities did not report whether any internal sex trafficking or forced labor involving the movement of victims was investigated or prosecuted in 2013; many officials lack an understanding of human trafficking; fewer trafficking victims were identified and assisted in 2013; victim assistance mechanisms required by Panamanian law were not implemented (2014)
    major cocaine transshipment point and primary money-laundering center for narcotics revenue; money-laundering activity is especially heavy in the Colon Free Zone; offshore financial center; negligible signs of coca cultivation; monitoring of financial transactions is improving; official corruption remains a major problem
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