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Europe :: Portugal
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  • Introduction :: PORTUGAL

  • Following its heyday as a global maritime power during the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal lost much of its wealth and status with the destruction of Lisbon in a 1755 earthquake, occupation during the Napoleonic Wars, and the independence of Brazil, its wealthiest colony, in 1822. A 1910 revolution deposed the monarchy; for most of the next six decades, repressive governments ran the country. In 1974, a left-wing military coup installed broad democratic reforms. The following year, Portugal granted independence to all of its African colonies. Portugal is a founding member of NATO and entered the EC (now the EU) in 1986.
  • Geography :: PORTUGAL

  • Southwestern Europe, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Spain
    39 30 N, 8 00 W
    total: 92,090 sq km
    land: 91,470 sq km
    water: 620 sq km
    note: includes Azores and Madeira Islands
    slightly smaller than Indiana
    total: 1,224 km
    border countries (1): Spain 1,224 km
    1,793 km
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    contiguous zone: 24 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation
    maritime temperate; cool and rainy in north, warmer and drier in south
    mountainous north of the Tagus River, rolling plains in south
    lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
    highest point: Ponta do Pico (Pico or Pico Alto) on Ilha do Pico in the Azores 2,351 m
    fish, forests (cork), iron ore, copper, zinc, tin, tungsten, silver, gold, uranium, marble, clay, gypsum, salt, arable land, hydropower
    agricultural land: 39.7%
    arable land 11.9%; permanent crops 7.8%; permanent pasture 20%
    forest: 37.8%
    other: 22.5% (2011 est.)
    5,837 sq km (2007)
    68.7 cu km (2011)
    total: 8.46 cu km/yr (12%/18%/69%)
    per capita: 812 cu m/yr (2005)
    Azores subject to severe earthquakes
    volcanism: limited volcanic activity in the Azores Islands; Fayal or Faial (elev. 1,043 m) last erupted in 1958; most volcanoes have not erupted in centuries; historically active volcanoes include Agua de Pau, Furnas, Pico, Picos Volcanic System, San Jorge, Sete Cidades, and Terceira
    soil erosion; air pollution caused by industrial and vehicle emissions; water pollution, especially in coastal areas
    party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
    signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Environmental Modification
    Azores and Madeira Islands occupy strategic locations along western sea approaches to Strait of Gibraltar
  • People and Society :: PORTUGAL

  • noun: Portuguese (singular and plural)
    adjective: Portuguese
    homogeneous Mediterranean stock; citizens of black African descent who immigrated to mainland during decolonization number less than 100,000; since 1990 East Europeans have entered Portugal
    Portuguese (official), Mirandese (official, but locally used)
    Roman Catholic 81%, other Christian 3.3%, other (includes Jewish, Muslim, other) 0.6%, none 6.8%, unspecified 8.3%
    notes: represents population 15 years of age and older (2011 est.)
    10,813,834 (July 2014 est.)
    0-14 years: 15.9% (male 893,902/female 821,062)
    15-24 years: 11.4% (male 654,102/female 579,440)
    25-54 years: 42.2% (male 2,304,503/female 2,260,556)
    55-64 years: 11.9% (male 599,380/female 685,279)
    65 years and over: 18.6% (male 824,062/female 1,191,548) (2014 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 50.8%
    youth dependency ratio: 22.1%
    elderly dependency ratio: 28.7%
    potential support ratio: 3.5% (2014 est.)
    total: 41.1 years
    male: 39 years
    female: 43.3 years (2014 est.)
    0.12% (2014 est.)
    9.42 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    10.97 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    2.74 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    urban population: 62.9% of total population (2014)
    rate of urbanization: 0.97% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    LISBON (capital) 2.869 million; Porto 1.296 million (2014)
    at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.09 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.13 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2014 est.)
    29.5 (2012 est.)
    8 deaths/100,000 live births (2013 est.)
    total: 4.48 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 4.92 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 4.02 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)
    total population: 79.01 years
    male: 75.76 years
    female: 82.47 years (2014 est.)
    1.52 children born/woman (2014 est.)
    86.8% (2005/06)
    9.7% of GDP (2013)
    4.1 physicians/1,000 population (2012)
    3.4 beds/1,000 population (2011)
    urban: 99.8% of population
    rural: 99.9% of population
    total: 99.8% of population
    urban: 0.2% of population
    rural: 0.1% of population
    total: 0.2% of population (2012 est.)
    urban: 100% of population
    rural: 100% of population
    total: 100% of population
    urban: 0% of population
    rural: 0% of population
    total: 0% of population (2012 est.)
    22.1% (2014)
    5.3% of GDP (2011)
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 95.7%
    male: 97.1%
    female: 94.4% (2015 est.)
    total: 16 years
    male: 16 years
    female: 17 years (2012)
    total number: 36,569
    percentage: 3%
    note: data represents children ages 6-14 (2001 est.)
    total: 37.6%
    male: 36.4%
    female: 39.1% (2012 est.)
  • Government :: PORTUGAL

  • conventional long form: Portuguese Republic
    conventional short form: Portugal
    local long form: Republica Portuguesa
    local short form: Portugal
    republic; parliamentary democracy
    name: Lisbon
    geographic coordinates: 38 43 N, 9 08 W
    time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
    18 districts (distritos, singular - distrito) and 2 autonomous regions* (regioes autonomas, singular - regiao autonoma); Aveiro, Acores (Azores)*, Beja, Braga, Braganca, Castelo Branco, Coimbra, Evora, Faro, Guarda, Leiria, Lisboa (Lisbon), Madeira*, Portalegre, Porto, Santarem, Setubal, Viana do Castelo, Vila Real, Viseu
    1143 (Kingdom of Portugal recognized); 5 October 1910 (republic proclaimed)
    Portugal Day (Dia de Portugal), 10 June (1580); note - also called Camoes Day, the day that revered national poet Luis de Camoes (1524-80) died
    several previous; latest adopted 2 April 1976, effective 25 April 1976; amended several times, last in 2005 (2013)
    civil law system; Constitutional Court review of legislative acts
    accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: President Anibal CAVACO SILVA (since 9 March 2006)
    head of government: Prime Minister Pedro Manuel PASSOS COELHO Mamede (since 21 June 2011)
    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
    note: there is also a Council of State that acts as a consultative body to the president
    elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 23 January 2011 (next to be held in January 2016); following legislative elections which must be held by October 2015, the leader of the majority party or leader of a majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the president
    election results: Anibal CAVACO SILVA reelected president; percent of vote - Anibal CAVACO SILVA 53%, Manuel ALEGRE 19.8%, Fernando NOBRE 14.1%, Francisco LOPES 7.1%, Manuel COELHO 4.5%, Defensor MOURA 1.6%
    description: unicameral Assembly of the Republic or Assembleia da Republica (230 seats; 226 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 4 members - 2 each in 2 constituencies representing Portuguese living abroad - directly elected by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)
    elections: last held on 5 June 2011 (next to be held by October 2015)
    election results: percent of vote by party - PPD/PSD 38%, PS 28%, CDS/PP 11%, PCP/PEV (see CDU) 7%, BE 5%, other 11%; seats by party - PPD/PSD 108, PS 74, CDS/PP 24, PCP/PEV (see CDU) 16, BE 8
    highest court(s): Supreme Court or Supremo Tribunal de Justica (consists of 12 justices); Constitutional Court or Tribunal Constitucional (consists of 13 judges)
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court justices nominated by the president and appointed by the Assembly of the Republic; judges appointed for life; Constitutional Court judges - 10 elected by the Assembly and 3 elected by the other Constitutional Court judges; judges elected for 6-year non-renewable terms
    subordinate courts: Supreme Administrative Court (Supremo Tribunal Administrativo); Audit Court (Tribunal de Contas); appellate, district, and municipal courts
    Democratic and Social Center/Popular Party or CDS/PP [Paulo PORTAS]
    Social Democratic Party or PPD/PSD [Pedro PASSOS COELHO]
    Socialist Party or PS [Antonio COSTA]
    The Left Bloc or BE [Catarina Soares MARTINS]
    Unitarian Democratic Coalition or CDU [Jeronimo DE SOUSA] (includes Portuguese Communist Party or PCP and Ecologist Party ("The Greens") or PEV)
    Armed Forces Officers' Association (AOFA) [Colonel Pereira CRACEL]
    the Desperate Generation (youth movement protesting against low wages, precarious labor conditions, and unemployment)
    the General Workers Union or General Confederation of Portuguese Workers (UGT) [Carlos SILVA]
    Portuguese National Workers' Conference (CGTP) [Armenio CARLOS]
    TugaLeaks (a website that has become a mouthpiece for publicizing diverse protest action)
    other: the media; labor unions
    ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Australia Group, BIS, CD, CE, CERN, CPLP, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAIA (observer), MIGA, MINUSMA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club (associate), PCA, Schengen Convention, SELEC (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
    chief of mission: Ambassador Nuno Filipe Alves Salvador e BRITO (since 10 February 2011)
    chancery: 2012 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
    telephone: [1] (202) 328-8610
    FAX: [1] (202) 462-3726
    consulate(s) general: Boston, New York, San Francisco
    consulate(s): New Bedford (MA), Newark (NJ), Providence (RI)
    chief of mission: Ambassador Robert A. SHERMAN (since 30 May 2014)
    embassy: Avenida das Forcas Armadas, 1600-081 Lisbon
    mailing address: Apartado 43033, 1601-301 Lisboa; PSC 83, APO AE 09726
    telephone: [351] (21) 727-3300
    FAX: [351] (21) 726-9109
    consulate(s): Ponta Delgada (Azores)
    two vertical bands of green (hoist side, two-fifths) and red (three-fifths) with the national coat of arms (armillary sphere and Portuguese shield) centered on the dividing line; explanations for the color meanings are ambiguous, but a popular interpretation has green symbolizing hope and red the blood of those defending the nation
    armillary sphere (a spherical astrolabe modeling objects in the sky and representing the Republic); national colors: red, green
    name: "A Portugesa" (The Song of the Portuguese)
    lyrics/music: Henrique LOPES DE MENDOCA/Alfredo KEIL
    note: adopted 1910; "A Portuguesa" was originally written to protest the Portuguese monarchy's acquiescence to the 1890 British ultimatum forcing Portugal to give up areas of Africa; the lyrics refer to the "insult" that resulted from the event
  • Economy :: PORTUGAL

  • Portugal has become a diversified and increasingly service-based economy since joining the European Community - the EU's predecessor - in 1986. Over the following two decades, successive governments privatized many state-controlled firms and liberalized key areas of the economy, including the financial and telecommunications sectors. The country joined the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) in 1999 and began circulating the euro on 1 January 2002 along with 11 other EU members. The economy grew by more than the EU average for much of the 1990s, but the rate of growth slowed in 2001-08. The economy contracted in 2009, and fell again from 2011 to 2014, as the government implemented spending cuts and tax increases to comply with conditions of an EU-IMF financial rescue package, signed in May 2011. A modest recovery began in 2013 and gathered steam in in 2014 due to strong export performance and a rebound in private consumption. Although austerity measures were instituted to reduce the large budget deficit, they contributed to record unemployment and a wave of emigration not seen since the 1960s. A continued reduction in private- and public-sector debt could weigh on consumption and investment in 2015, holding back a stronger recovery. The government of Pedro PASSOS COELHO has passed legislation aimed at reducing labor market rigidity, and, this, along with sustained fiscal discipline, could make Portugal more attractive to foreign direct investment. The government reduced the budget deficit from 11.2% of GDP in 2010 to 4.8% in 2014, a figure that is significantly higher than the EU-IMF target of 4%. The government has pledged to lower the deficit to under 3% of GDP in 2015 in order to comply with EU fiscal obligations, under the excessive deficit procedure. Legislative elections in 2015 could increase the risk of fiscal slippage and undermine investor confidence in Portugal’s economy, which has improved over the course of the EU-IMF program. EU-IMF financing expired in May 2014.
    $276 billion (2014 est.)
    $273.3 billion (2013 est.)
    $277.2 billion (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2014 US dollars
    $228.2 billion (2014 est.)
    0.9% (2014 est.)
    -1.4% (2013 est.)
    -3.3% (2012 est.)
    $26,300 (2014 est.)
    $26,100 (2013 est.)
    $26,200 (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2013 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 64
    15.4% of GDP (2014 est.)
    15.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
    13.7% of GDP (2012 est.)
    household consumption: 64.6%
    government consumption: 19.1%
    investment in fixed capital: 15%
    investment in inventories: -0.1%
    exports of goods and services: 39.6%
    imports of goods and services: -38.2%
    (2014 est.)
    agriculture: 2.6%
    industry: 22.4%
    services: 75% (2014 est.)
    grain, potatoes, tomatoes, olives, grapes; sheep, cattle, goats, pigs, poultry, dairy products; fish
    textiles, clothing, footwear, wood and cork, paper and pulp, chemicals, lubricants, automobiles and auto parts, base metals, minerals, porcelain and ceramics, glassware, technology, telecommunications; dairy products, wine, other foodstuffs; ship construction and refurbishment; tourism, plastics, financial services, optics
    -1.3% (2014 est.)
    5.226 million (2014 est.)
    agriculture: 8.6%
    industry: 23.9%
    services: 67.5% (2014 est.)
    13.9% (2014 est.)
    16.2% (2013 est.)
    18.7% (2012)
    lowest 10%: 3.1%
    highest 10%: 28.4% (1995 est.)
    34.2 (2013 est.)
    34.2 (2012 est.)
    revenues: $99.6 billion
    expenditures: $110.7 billion (2014 est.)
    43.7% of GDP (2014 est.)
    -4.8% of GDP (2014 est.)
    128.7% of GDP (2014 est.)
    128% of GDP (2013 est.)
    note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions
    calendar year
    -0.3% (2014 est.)
    0.3% (2013 est.)
    0.05% (31 December 2014)
    0.25% (31 December 2013)
    note: this is the European Central Bank's rate on the marginal lending facility, which offers overnight credit to banks in the euro area
    5.08% (31 December 2014 est.)
    5.69% (31 December 2013 est.)
    $91.4 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $97.65 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    note: see entry for the European Union for money supply for the entire euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 18 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money circulating within their own borders
    $296.1 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $316.2 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    $394 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $428.7 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    $126.8 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $57.04 billion (31 December 2013)
    $65.53 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    $1.044 billion (2014 est.)
    $2.404 billion (2013 est.)
    $66.3 billion (2014 est.)
    $62.98 billion (2013 est.)
    agricultural products, foodstuffs, wine, oil products, chemical products, plastics and rubber, hides, leather, wood and cork, wood pulp and paper, textile materials, clothing, footwear, machinery and tools, base metals
    Spain 23.9%, Germany 11.7%, France 11.7%, Angola 6.5%, UK 5.5%, US 4.1%, Netherlands 4.1% (2013)
    $76.11 billion (2014 est.)
    $72.63 billion (2013 est.)
    agricultural products, chemical products, vehicles and other transport material, optical and precision instruments, computer accessories and parts, semi-conductors and related devices, oil products, base metals, food products, textile materials
    Spain 32.6%, Germany 11.5%, France 6.8%, Italy 5.2%, Netherlands 5%, Angola 4.7% (2013)
    $14.92 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $17.55 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    $508.3 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    $482.2 billion (31 December 2011)
    $152.5 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $146.2 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    $99.55 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $99.55 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    euros (EUR) per US dollar -
    0.75 (2014 est.)
    0.76 (2013 est.)
    0.78 (2012 est.)
    0.72 (2011 est.)
    0.76 (2010 est.)
  • Energy :: PORTUGAL

  • 51.67 billion kWh (2013 est.)
    46.25 billion kWh (2013 est.)
    5.324 billion kWh (2013 est.)
    8.1 billion kWh (2013 est.)
    19.62 million kW (2013 est.)
    42.4% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
    0% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
    28.2% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
    29.4% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
    0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    233,600 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    538,100 bbl (1 January 2014 est.)
    239,900 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    240,800 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    168,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    86,720 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    4.043 billion cu m (2013 est.)
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    4.174 billion cu m (2013 est.)
    0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    68.8 million Mt (2012 est.)
  • Communications :: PORTUGAL

  • 4.558 million (2012)
    12.312 million (2012)
    general assessment: Portugal's telephone system has a state-of-the-art network with broadband, high-speed capabilities
    domestic: integrated network of coaxial cables, open-wire, microwave radio relay, and domestic satellite earth stations
    international: country code - 351; a combination of submarine cables provide connectivity to Europe, North and East Africa, South Africa, the Middle East, Asia, and the US; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), NA Eutelsat; tropospheric scatter to Azores (2010)
    Radio e Televisao de Portugal (RTP),the publicly-owned TV broadcaster, operates 2 domestic channels and external service channels to Africa; overall, roughly 40 domestic TV stations; viewers have widespread access to international broadcasters with more than half of all households connected to multi-channel cable or satellite TV systems; publicly owned radio operates 3 national networks and provides regional and external services; several privately owned national radio stations and some 300 regional and local commercial radio stations (2008)
    AM 2, FM 63, shortwave 1 (2008)
    42 (2008)
    3.748 million (2012)
    5.168 million (2009)
  • Transportation :: PORTUGAL

  • 64 (2013)
    total: 43
    over 3,047 m: 5
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 8
    914 to 1,523 m: 15
    under 914 m: 8 (2013)
    total: 21
    914 to 1,523 m: 1
    under 914 m:
    20 (2013)
    gas 1,344 km; oil 11 km; refined products 188 km (2013)
    total: 3,319 km
    broad gauge: 2,700 km 1.668-m gauge (1,436 km electrified)
    narrow gauge: 192 km 1.000-m gauge; 427 km 0.760-m gauge (2008)
    total: 82,900 km
    paved: 71,294 km (includes 2,613 km of expressways)
    unpaved: 11,606 km (2008)
    210 km (on Douro River from Porto) (2011)
    total: 109
    by type: bulk carrier 8, cargo 35, carrier 1, chemical tanker 21, container 7, liquefied gas 6, passenger 13, passenger/cargo 5, petroleum tanker 3, roll on/roll off 1, vehicle carrier 9
    foreign-owned: 81 (Belgium 8, Colombia 1, Denmark 4, Germany 14, Greece 2, Italy 12, Japan 9, Mexico 1, Norway 2, Spain 18, Sweden 3, Switzerland 3, US 4)
    registered in other countries: 15 (Cyprus 2, Malta 3, Panama 10) (2010)
    major seaport(s): Leixoes, Lisbon, Setubal, Sines
    LNG terminal (import): Sines
  • Military :: PORTUGAL

  • Portuguese Army (Exercito Portuguesa), Portuguese Navy (Marinha Portuguesa; includes Marine Corps), Portuguese Air Force (Forca Aerea Portuguesa, FAP) (2013)
    18-30 years of age for voluntary military service; no compulsory military service, but conscription possible if insufficient volunteers available; women serve in the armed forces, on naval ships since 1993, but are prohibited from serving in some combatant specialties; reserve obligation to age 35 (2012)
    males age 16-49: 2,566,264
    females age 16-49: 2,458,297 (2010 est.)
    males age 16-49: 2,103,080
    females age 16-49: 2,018,004 (2010 est.)
    male: 62,208
    female: 54,786 (2010 est.)
    1.29% of GDP (2014)
    1.2% of GDP (2013)
    1.78% of GDP (2012)
  • Transnational Issues :: PORTUGAL

  • Portugal does not recognize Spanish sovereignty over the territory of Olivenza based on a difference of interpretation of the 1815 Congress of Vienna and the 1801 Treaty of Badajoz
    stateless persons: 14 (2014)
    seizing record amounts of Latin American cocaine destined for Europe; a European gateway for Southwest Asian heroin; transshipment point for hashish from North Africa to Europe; consumer of Southwest Asian heroin