Europe :: Andorra
  • Introduction :: Andorra
  • Background:

    The landlocked Principality of Andorra is one of the smallest states in Europe, nestled high in the Pyrenees between the French and Spanish borders. For 715 years, from 1278 to 1993, Andorrans lived under a unique coprincipality, ruled by French and Spanish leaders (from 1607 onward, the French chief of state and the Bishop of Urgell). In 1993, this feudal system was modified with the introduction of a modern constitution; the co-princes remained as titular heads of state, but the government transformed into a parliamentary democracy.

    Andorra has become a popular tourist destination visited by approximately 8 million people each year drawn by the winter sports, summer climate, and duty-free shopping. Andorra has also become a wealthy international commercial center because of its mature banking sector and low taxes. As part of its effort to modernize its economy, Andorra has opened to foreign investment, and engaged in other reforms, such as advancing tax initiatives aimed at supporting a broader infrastructure. Although not a member of the EU, Andorra enjoys a special relationship with the bloc that is governed by various customs and cooperation agreements and uses the euro as its national currency.

  • Geography :: Andorra
  • Location:
    Southwestern Europe, Pyrenees mountains, on the border between France and Spain
    Geographic coordinates:
    42 30 N, 1 30 E
    Map references:
    total: 468 sq km
    land: 468 sq km
    water: 0 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 196
    Area - comparative:
    2.5 times the size of Washington, DC
    Area comparison map: Area comparison map
    Land boundaries:
    total: 118 km
    border countries (2): France 55 km, Spain 63 km
    0 km (landlocked)
    Maritime claims:
    none (landlocked)
    temperate; snowy, cold winters and warm, dry summers
    rugged mountains dissected by narrow valleys
    mean elevation: 1,996 m
    lowest point: Riu Runer 840 m
    highest point: Pic de Coma Pedrosa 2,946 m
    Natural resources:
    hydropower, mineral water, timber, iron ore, lead
    Land use:
    agricultural land: 40% (2016 est.)
    arable land: 1.7% (2016 est.) / permanent crops: 0% (2016 est.) / permanent pasture: 38.3% (2016 est.)
    forest: 34% (2016 est.)
    other: 26% (2016 est.)
    Irrigated land:
    0 sq km (2012)
    Population distribution:
    population is unevenly distributed and is concentrated in the seven urbanized valleys that make up the country's parishes (political administrative divisions)
    Natural hazards:
    Environment - current issues:
    deforestation; overgrazing of mountain meadows contributes to soil erosion; air pollution; wastewater treatment and solid waste disposal
    Environment - international agreements:
    party to: Biodiversity, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    Geography - note:
    landlocked; straddles a number of important crossroads in the Pyrenees
  • People and Society :: Andorra
  • Population:
    77,000 (2019 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 201
    noun: Andorran(s)
    adjective: Andorran
    Ethnic groups:
    Andorran 48.8%, Spanish 25.1%, Portuguese 12%, French 4.4%, other 9.7% (2017 est.)

    note: data represent population by nationality

    Catalan (official), French, Castilian, Portuguese
    Roman Catholic (predominant)
    Age structure:
    0-14 years: 13.37% (male 5,901/female 5,551)
    15-24 years: 10.16% (male 4,474/female 4,227)
    25-54 years: 43.19% (male 18,857/female 18,131)
    55-64 years: 15.91% (male 7,184/female 6,443)
    65 years and over: 17.36% (male 7,544/female 7,323) (2020 est.)
    population pyramid: population pyramid
    Median age:
    total: 46.2 years
    male: 46.3 years
    female: 46.1 years (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 6
    Population growth rate:
    -0.06% (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 200
    Birth rate:
    7 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 227
    Death rate:
    7.7 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 99
    Net migration rate:
    0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 75
    Population distribution:
    population is unevenly distributed and is concentrated in the seven urbanized valleys that make up the country's parishes (political administrative divisions)
    urban population: 87.9% of total population (2020)
    rate of urbanization: -0.31% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030: PDF
    Major urban areas - population:
    23,000 ANDORRA LA VELLA (capital) (2018)
    Sex ratio:
    at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 1.12 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 1.03 male(s)/female
    total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
    Infant mortality rate:
    total: 3.5 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 3.5 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 3.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 197
    Life expectancy at birth:
    total population: 83 years
    male: 80.8 years
    female: 85.4 years (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 9
    Total fertility rate:
    1.43 children born/woman (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 213
    Drinking water source:
    improved: urban: 100% of population
    rural: 100% of population
    total: 100% of population
    unimproved: urban: 0% of population
    rural: 0% of population
    total: 0% of population (2017 est.)
    Current Health Expenditure:
    10.3% (2017)
    Physicians density:
    3.33 physicians/1,000 population (2015)
    Hospital bed density:
    2.5 beds/1,000 population (2009)
    Sanitation facility access:
    improved: urban: 100% of population
    rural: 100% of population
    total: 100% of population
    unimproved: urban: 0% of population
    rural: 0% of population
    total: 0% of population (2017 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
    HIV/AIDS - deaths:
    Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
    25.6% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 49
    Education expenditures:
    3.2% of GDP (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 129
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 100%
    male: 100%
    female: 100% (2016)
  • Government :: Andorra
  • Country name:
    conventional long form: Principality of Andorra
    conventional short form: Andorra
    local long form: Principat d'Andorra
    local short form: Andorra
    etymology: the origin of the country's name is obscure; the name may derive from the Arabic "ad-darra" meaning "the forest," a reference to its location as part of the Spanish March (defensive buffer zone) against the invading Moors in the 8th century
    Government type:
    parliamentary democracy (since March 1993) that retains its chiefs of state in the form of a co-principality; the two princes are the President of France and Bishop of Seu d'Urgell, Spain
    name: Andorra la Vella
    geographic coordinates: 42 30 N, 1 31 E
    time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
    etymology: translates as "Andorra the Old" in Catalan
    Administrative divisions:
    7 parishes (parroquies, singular - parroquia); Andorra la Vella, Canillo, Encamp, Escaldes-Engordany, La Massana, Ordino, Sant Julia de Loria
    1278 (formed under the joint sovereignty of the French Count of Foix and the Spanish Bishop of Urgell)
    National holiday:
    Our Lady of Meritxell Day, 8 September (1278)
    history: drafted 1991, approved by referendum 14 March 1993, effective 28 April 1993
    amendments: proposed by the coprinces jointly or by the General Council; passage requires at least a two-thirds majority vote by the General Council, ratification in a referendum, and sanctioning by the coprinces
    International law organization participation:
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: the mother must be an Andorran citizen or the father must have been born in Andorra and both parents maintain permanent residence in Andorra
    dual citizenship recognized: no
    residency requirement for naturalization: 25 years
    18 years of age; universal
    Executive branch:
    chief of state: Co-prince Emmanuel MACRON (since 14 May 2017); represented by Patrick STROZDA (since 14 May 2017); and Co-prince Archbishop Joan-Enric VIVES i Sicilia (since 12 May 2003); represented by Josep Maria MAURI (since 20 July 2012)
    head of government: Head of Government (or Cap de Govern) Xaviar Espot ZAMORA (since 16 May 2019)
    cabinet: Executive Council of 12 ministers designated by the head of government
    elections/appointments: head of government indirectly elected by the General Council (Andorran parliament), formally appointed by the coprinces for a 4-year term; election last held on 7 April 2019 (next to be held in April 2023); the leader of the majority party in the General Council is usually elected head of government
    election results: Xaviar Espot ZAMORA (DA) elected head of government; percent of General Council vote - 60.7%
    Legislative branch:
    description: unicameral General Council of the Valleys or Consell General de les Valls (a minimum of 28 seats; 14 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies (parishes) by simple majority vote and 14 directly elected in a single national constituency by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms); note - voters cast two separate ballots - one for a national list and one for a parish list
    elections: last held on 7 April 2019 (next to be held on April 2023)
    election results: percent of vote by party - DA 35.1%, PS 30.6%, L'A 12.5%, Third Way/Lauredian Union 10.4%, other 22.4%; seats by party - DA 11, PS 7, L'A 4, Third Way/Lauredian Union 4, other 2; composition - men 14, women 14, percent of women 50%
    Judicial branch:
    highest courts: Supreme Court of Justice of Andorra or Tribunal Superior de la Justicia d'Andorra (consists of the court president and 8 judges organized into civil, criminal, and administrative chambers); Constitutional Court or Tribunal Constitucional (consists of 4 magistrates)
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court president and judges appointed by the Supreme Council of Justice, a 5-member judicial policy and administrative body appointed 1 each by the coprinces, 1 by the General Council, 1 by the executive council president, and 1 by the courts; judges serve 6-year renewable terms; Constitutional magistrates - 2 appointed by the coprinces and 2 by the General Council; magistrates' appointments limited to 2 consecutive 8-year terms
    subordinate courts: Tribunal of Judges or Tribunal de Batlles; Tribunal of the Courts or Tribunal de Corts
    Political parties and leaders:
    Democrats for Andorra or DA [Xaviar ESPOT ZAMORA]
    Social Democratic Party or PS [Vicenc ALFY FERRER]
    Liberals of Andorra or L'A [Jordi GALLARDO FERNANDEZ]
    Third Way/Lauredian Union [Josep PINTAT FORNE]
    Social Democracy and Progress or SDP [Victor NAUDI ZAMORA]
    United for the Progress of Andorra or UPA [Alfons CLAVERA ARIZTI]

    note: Andorra has several smaller parties at the parish level (one is Lauredian Union)

    International organization participation:
    Diplomatic representation in the US:
    Ambassador Elisenda VIVES BALMANA (since 2 March 2016)
    chancery: 2 United Nations Plaza, 27th Floor, New York, NY 10017
    telephone: [1] (212) 750-8064
    FAX: [1] (212) 750-6630
    Diplomatic representation from the US:
    the US does not have an embassy in Andorra; the US ambassador to Spain is accredited to Andorra; US interests in Andorra are represented by the US Consulate General's office in Barcelona (Spain); mailing address: Paseo Reina Elisenda de Montcada, 23, 08034 Barcelona, Spain; telephone: [34] (93) 280-2227; FAX: [34] (93) 280-6175
    Flag description:
    three vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red, with the national coat of arms centered in the yellow band; the latter band is slightly wider than the other 2 so that the ratio of band widths is 8:9:8; the coat of arms features a quartered shield with the emblems of (starting in the upper left and proceeding clockwise): Urgell, Foix, Bearn, and Catalonia; the motto reads VIRTUS UNITA FORTIOR (Strength United is Stronger); the flag combines the blue and red French colors with the red and yellow of Spain to show Franco-Spanish protection

    note: similar to the flags of Chad and Romania, which do not have a national coat of arms in the center, and the flag of Moldova, which does bear a national emblem

    National symbol(s):
    red cow (breed unspecified); national colors: blue, yellow, red
    National anthem:
    name: "El Gran Carlemany" (The Great Charlemagne)
    lyrics/music: Joan BENLLOCH i VIVO/Enric MARFANY BONS

    note: adopted 1921; the anthem provides a brief history of Andorra in a first person narrative

  • Economy :: Andorra
  • Economy - overview:

    Andorra has a developed economy and a free market, with per capita income above the European average and above the level of its neighbors, Spain and France. The country has developed a sophisticated infrastructure including a one-of-a-kind micro-fiber-optic network for the entire country. Tourism, retail sales, and finance comprise more than three-quarters of GDP. Duty-free shopping for some products and the country’s summer and winter resorts attract millions of visitors annually. Andorra uses the euro and is effectively subject to the monetary policy of the European Central Bank. Andorra's comparative advantage as a tax haven eroded when the borders of neighboring France and Spain opened and the government eased bank secrecy laws under pressure from the EU and OECD.

    Agricultural production is limited - only about 5% of the land is arable - and most food has to be imported, making the economy vulnerable to changes in fuel and food prices. The principal livestock is sheep. Manufacturing output and exports consist mainly of perfumes and cosmetic products, products of the printing industry, electrical machinery and equipment, clothing, tobacco products, and furniture. Andorra is a member of the EU Customs Union and is treated as an EU member for trade in manufactured goods (no tariffs) and as a non-EU member for agricultural products.

    To provide incentives for growth and diversification in the economy, the Andorran government began sweeping economic reforms in 2006. The Parliament approved three laws to complement the first phase of economic openness: on companies (October 2007), on business accounting (December 2007), and on foreign investment (April 2008 and June 2012). From 2011 to 2015, the Parliament also approved direct taxes in the form of taxes on corporations, on individual incomes of residents and non-residents, and on capital gains, savings, and economic activities. These regulations aim to establish a transparent, modern, and internationally comparable regulatory framework, in order to attract foreign investment and businesses that offer higher value added.

    GDP (purchasing power parity):
    $3.327 billion (2015 est.)
    $3.363 billion (2014 est.)
    $3.273 billion (2013 est.)

    note: data are in 2012 US dollars

    country comparison to the world: 186
    GDP (official exchange rate):
    $2.712 billion (2016 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate:
    -1.1% (2015 est.)
    1.4% (2014 est.)
    -0.1% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 203
    GDP - per capita (PPP):
    $49,900 (2015 est.)
    $51,300 (2014 est.)
    $50,300 (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 32
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
    agriculture: 11.9% (2015 est.)
    industry: 33.6% (2015 est.)
    services: 54.5% (2015 est.)
    Agriculture - products:
    small quantities of rye, wheat, barley, oats, vegetables, tobacco; sheep, cattle
    tourism (particularly skiing), banking, timber, furniture
    Industrial production growth rate:
    Labor force:
    39,750 (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 196
    Labor force - by occupation:
    agriculture: 0.5%
    industry: 4.4%
    services: 95.1% (2015)
    Unemployment rate:
    3.7% (2016 est.)
    4.1% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 44
    Household income or consumption by percentage share:
    lowest 10%: NA
    highest 10%: NA
    revenues: 1.872 billion (2016)
    expenditures: 2.06 billion (2016)
    Taxes and other revenues:
    69% (of GDP) (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 5
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
    -6.9% (of GDP) (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 192
    Public debt:
    41% of GDP (2014 est.)
    41.4% of GDP (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 122
    Fiscal year:
    calendar year
    Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    -0.9% (2015 est.)
    -0.1% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 1
    $78.71 million (2015 est.)
    $79.57 million (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 200
    Exports - commodities:
    tobacco products, furniture
    $1.257 billion (2015 est.)
    $1.264 billion (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 178
    Imports - commodities:
    consumer goods, food, fuel, electricity
    Debt - external:
    $0 (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 203
    Exchange rates:
    euros (EUR) per US dollar -
    0.885 (2017 est.)
    0.903 (2016 est.)
    0.9214 (2015 est.)
    0.885 (2014 est.)
    0.7634 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: Andorra
  • Electricity access:
    electrification - total population: 100% (2016)
    Electricity - production:
    99.48 million kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 201
    Electricity - consumption:
    221.6 million kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 190
    Electricity - exports:
    6,000 kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 95
    Electricity - imports:
    471.3 million kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 81
    Electricity - installed generating capacity:
    520,000 kW (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 147
    Electricity - from fossil fuels:
    61% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 126
    Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
    0% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 36
    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
    23% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 82
    Electricity - from other renewable sources:
    15% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 56
    Crude oil - production:
    0 bbl/day (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 103
    Crude oil - exports:
    0 bbl/day (2016) (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 84
    Crude oil - imports:
    0 bbl/day (2016) (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 87
    Crude oil - proved reserves:
    0 bbl (2016) (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 101
    Refined petroleum products - production:
    0 bbl/day (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 112
    Natural gas - production:
    0 cu m (2016) (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 98
    Natural gas - consumption:
    0 cu m (2016) (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 118
    Natural gas - exports:
    0 cu m (2016) (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 60
    Natural gas - imports:
    0 cu m (2016) (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 85
    Natural gas - proved reserves:
    0 cu m (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 104
  • Communications :: Andorra
  • Telephones - fixed lines:
    total subscriptions: 39,375
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 46 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 163
    Telephones - mobile cellular:
    total subscriptions: 82,614
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 96 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 196
    Telecommunication systems:
    general assessment: modern automatic telephone system; broadband Internet and LTE mobile lines for both consumer and enterprise customers available (2019)
    domestic: 46 per 100 fixed-line, 96 per 100 mobile-cellular (2019)
    international: country code - 376; landline circuits to France and Spain; modern system with microwave radio relay connections between exchanges (2019)
    note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
    Broadcast media:
    1 public TV station and 2 public radio stations; about 10 commercial radio stations; good reception of radio and TV broadcasts from stations in France and Spain; upgraded to terrestrial digital TV broadcasting in 2007; roughly 25 international TV channels available (2019)
    Internet country code:
    Internet users:
    total: 78,483
    percent of population: 91.57% (July 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 182
    Broadband - fixed subscriptions:
    total: 35,663
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 42 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 139
  • Military and Security :: Andorra
  • Military and security forces:
    no regular military forces; Police Corps of Andorra
    Military - note:
    defense is the responsibility of France and Spain
  • Transportation :: Andorra
  • Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
    C3 (2016)
    total: 320 km (2019)
    country comparison to the world: 201
  • Transnational Issues :: Andorra
  • Disputes - international: