North America :: Bermuda
  • Introduction :: Bermuda
  • Background:
    Bermuda was first settled in 1609 by shipwrecked English colonists heading for Virginia. Self-governing since 1620, Bermuda is the oldest and most populous of the British overseas territories. Vacationing to the island to escape North American winters first developed in Victorian times. Tourism continues to be important to the island's economy, although international business has overtaken it in recent years. Bermuda has also developed into a highly successful offshore financial center. A referendum on independence from the UK was soundly defeated in 1995.
  • Geography :: Bermuda
  • Location:
    North America, group of islands in the North Atlantic Ocean, east of South Carolina (US)
    Geographic coordinates:
    32 20 N, 64 45 W
    Map references:
    North America
    Area:
    total: 54 sq km
    land: 54 sq km
    water: 0 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 232
    Area - comparative:
    about one-third the size of Washington, DC
    Land boundaries:
    0 km
    Coastline:
    103 km
    Maritime claims:
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
    Climate:
    subtropical; mild, humid; gales, strong winds common in winter
    Terrain:
    low hills separated by fertile depressions
    Elevation:
    0 m lowest point: Atlantic Ocean
    79 highest point: Town Hill
    Natural resources:
    limestone, pleasant climate fostering tourism
    Land use:
    agricultural land: 14.8% (2011 est.)
    arable land: 14.8% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 0% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 0% (2011 est.)
    forest: 20% (2011 est.)
    other: 65.2% (2011 est.)
    Irrigated land:
    NA
    Population distribution:
    relatively even population distribution throughout
    Natural hazards:
    hurricanes (June to November)
    Environment - current issues:
    dense population and heavy vehicle traffic create serious congestion and air pollution problems; water resources scarce (most obtained as rainwater or from wells); solid waste disposal; hazardous waste disposal; sewage disposal; overfishing; oil spills
    Geography - note:
    consists of about 138 coral islands and islets with ample rainfall, but no rivers or freshwater lakes; some land was leased by the US Government from 1941 to 1995
  • People and Society :: Bermuda
  • Population:
    71,176 (July 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 203
    Nationality:
    noun: Bermudian(s)
    adjective: Bermudian
    Ethnic groups:
    black 53.8%, white 31%, mixed 7.5%, other 7.1%, unspecified 0.6% (2010 est.)
    Languages:
    English (official), Portuguese
    Religions:
    Protestant 46.2% (includes Anglican 15.8%, African Methodist Episcopal 8.6%, Seventh Day Adventist 6.7, Pentecostal 3.5%, Methodist 2.7%, Presbyterian 2.0%, Church of God 1.6%, Baptist 1.2%, Salvation Army 1.1%, Brethren 1.0%, other Protestant 2.0%), Roman Catholic 14.5%, Jehovah's Witness 1.3%, other Christian 9.1%, Muslim 1%, other 3.9%, none 17.8%, unspecified 6.2% (2010 est.)
    Age structure:
    0-14 years: 16.92% (male 6,088 /female 5,957)
    15-24 years: 11.95% (male 4,306 /female 4,197)
    25-54 years: 36.56% (male 13,049 /female 12,972)
    55-64 years: 16.04% (male 5,383 /female 6,034)
    65 years and over: 18.53% (male 5,596 /female 7,594) (2018 est.)
    population pyramid: population pyramid
    Median age:
    total: 43.5 years
    male: 41.5 years
    female: 45.4 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 18
    Population growth rate:
    0.43% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 158
    Birth rate:
    11.3 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 172
    Death rate:
    8.7 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 71
    Net migration rate:
    1.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 50
    Population distribution:
    relatively even population distribution throughout
    Urbanization:
    urban population: 100% of total population (2018)
    rate of urbanization: -0.44% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    Major urban areas - population:
    10,000 HAMILTON (capital) (2018)
    Sex ratio:
    at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    15-24 years: 1.01 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    55-64 years: 0.89 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    65 years and over: 0.73 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    Infant mortality rate:
    total: 2.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    male: 2.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    female: 2.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 217
    Life expectancy at birth:
    total population: 81.5 years (2018 est.)
    male: 78.3 years (2018 est.)
    female: 84.7 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 26
    Total fertility rate:
    1.92 children born/woman (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 128
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
    NA
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
    NA
    HIV/AIDS - deaths:
    NA
    Education expenditures:
    1.5% of GDP (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 175
    School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
    total: 12 years (2015)
    male: 11 years (2015)
    female: 12 years (2015)
    Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
    total: 29.3% (2014 est.)
    male: 29.7% (2014 est.)
    female: 29% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 35
  • Government :: Bermuda
  • Country name:
    conventional long form: none
    conventional short form: Bermuda
    former: Somers Islands
    etymology: the islands making up Bermuda are named after Juan de BERMUDEZ, an early 16th century Spanish sea captain and the first European explorer of the archipelago
    Dependency status:
    overseas territory of the UK
    Government type:
    parliamentary democracy (Parliament); self-governing overseas territory of the UK
    Capital:
    name: Hamilton
    geographic coordinates: 32 17 N, 64 47 W
    time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: +1hr, begins second Sunday in March; ends first Sunday in November
    Administrative divisions:
    9 parishes and 2 municipalities*; Devonshire, Hamilton, Hamilton*, Paget, Pembroke, Saint George*, Saint George's, Sandys, Smith's, Southampton, Warwick
    Independence:
    none (overseas territory of the UK)
    National holiday:
    Bermuda Day, 24 May; note - formerly known as Victoria Day, Empire Day, and Commonwealth Day
    Constitution:
    history: several previous (dating to 1684); latest entered into force 8 June 1968 (Bermuda Constitution Order 1968) (2018)
    amendments: proposal procedure - NA; passage by an Order in Council in the UK; amended several times, last in 2012 (2018)
    International law organization participation:
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
    Citizenship:
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of the UK
    dual citizenship recognized: yes
    residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years
    Suffrage:
    18 years of age; universal
    Executive branch:
    chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor John RANKIN (since 5 December 2016)
    head of government: Premier David BURT (since 19 July 2017)
    cabinet: Cabinet nominated by the premier, appointed by the governor
    elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed premier by the governor
    Legislative branch:
    description: bicameral Parliament consists of:
    Senate (11 seats; 3 members appointed by the governor, 5 by the premier, and 3 by the opposition party; members serve 5-year terms) and the House of Assembly (36 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve up to 5-year terms)
    House of Assembly (36 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve up to 5-year terms)
    elections:
    House of Assembly - last held on 18 July 2017 (next to be held not later than 2022)
    election results:
    percent of vote by party - PLP 58.9%, OBA 40.6%, other 0.5%; seats by party - PLP 24, OBA 12
    Judicial branch:
    highest courts: Court of Appeal (consists of the court president and at least 2 justices); Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice, 4 puisne judges, and 1 associate justice); note - the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in London is the court of final appeal
    judge selection and term of office: Court of Appeal justice appointed by the governor; justice tenure by individual appointment; Supreme Court judges nominated by the Judicial and Legal Services Commission and appointed by the governor; judge tenure based on terms of appointment
    subordinate courts: commercial court (began in 2006); magistrates' courts
    Political parties and leaders:
    One Bermuda Alliance or OBA (vacant)
    Progressive Labor Party or PLP [E. David BURT]
    International organization participation:
    Caricom (associate), ICC (NGOs), Interpol (subbureau), IOC, ITUC (NGOs), UPU, WCO
    Diplomatic representation in the US:
    none (overseas territory of the UK)
    Diplomatic representation from the US:
    chief of mission: Consul General Mary Ellen KOENIG (since 28 November 2015)
    mailing address: P. O. Box HM325, Hamilton HMBX; American Consulate General Hamilton, US Department of State, 5300 Hamilton Place, Washington, DC 20520-5300
    telephone: [1] (441) 295-1342
    FAX: [1] (441) 295-1592, 296-9233
    consulate(s) general: Crown Hill, 16 Middle Road, Devonshire DVO3
    Flag description:
    red, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the Bermudian coat of arms (a white shield with a red lion standing on a green grassy field holding a scrolled shield showing the sinking of the ship Sea Venture off Bermuda in 1609) centered on the outer half of the flag; it was the shipwreck of the vessel, filled with English colonists originally bound for Virginia, that led to the settling of Bermuda

    note: the flag is unusual in that it is only British overseas territory that uses a red ensign, all others use blue

    National symbol(s):
    red lion
    National anthem:
    name: Hail to Bermuda
    lyrics/music: Bette JOHNS

    note: serves as a local anthem; as a territory of the United Kingdom, "God Save the Queen" is official (see United Kingdom)

  • Economy :: Bermuda
  • Economy - overview:

    International business, which consists primarily of insurance and other financial services, is the real bedrock of Bermuda's economy, consistently accounting for about 85% of the island's GDP. Tourism is the country’s second largest industry, accounting for about 5% of Bermuda's GDP but a much larger share of employment. Over 80% of visitors come from the US and the sector struggled in the wake of the global recession of 2008-09. Even the financial sector has lost roughly 5,000 high-paying expatriate jobs since 2008, weighing heavily on household consumption and retail sales. Bermuda must import almost everything. Agriculture and industry are limited due to the small size of the island.

    Bermuda's economy returned to negative growth in 2016, reporting a contraction of 0.1% GDP, after growing by 0.6% in 2015. Unemployment reached 7% in 2016 and 2017, public debt is growing and exceeds $2.4 billion, and the government continues to work on attracting foreign investment. Still, Bermuda enjoys one of the highest per capita incomes in the world.

    GDP (purchasing power parity):
    $6.127 billion (2016 est.)
    $6.133 billion (2015 est.)
    $6.097 billion (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 172
    GDP (official exchange rate):
    $6.127 billion (2016 est.) (2016 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate:
    -0.1% (2016 est.)
    0.6% (2015 est.)
    -0.3% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 198
    GDP - per capita (PPP):
    $99,400 (2016 est.)
    $95,500 (2015 est.)
    $87,500 (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 6
    GDP - composition, by end use:
    household consumption: 51.3% (2017 est.)
    government consumption: 15.7% (2017 est.)
    investment in fixed capital: 13.7% (2017 est.)
    investment in inventories: 0% (2017 est.)
    exports of goods and services: 49.8% (2017 est.)
    imports of goods and services: -30.4% (2017 est.)
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
    agriculture: 0.9% (2017 est.)
    industry: 5.3% (2017 est.)
    services: 93.8% (2017 est.)
    Agriculture - products:
    bananas, vegetables, citrus, flowers; dairy products, honey
    Industries:
    international business, tourism, light manufacturing
    Industrial production growth rate:
    2% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 129
    Labor force:
    33,480 (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 202
    Labor force - by occupation:
    agriculture: 2%
    industry: 13%
    services: 85% (2016 est.)
    Unemployment rate:
    7% (2017 est.)
    7% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 106
    Population below poverty line:
    11% (2008 est.)
    Household income or consumption by percentage share:
    lowest 10%: NA
    highest 10%: NA
    Budget:
    revenues: 999.2 million (2017 est.)
    expenditures: 1.176 billion (2017 est.)
    Taxes and other revenues:
    16.3% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 183
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
    -2.9% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 127
    Public debt:
    43% of GDP (FY14/15)
    country comparison to the world: 117
    Fiscal year:
    1 April - 31 March
    Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    1.9% (2017 est.)
    1.4% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 96
    Stock of narrow money:
    $3.374 billion (30 September 2014 est.)
    $3.422 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

    note: figures do not include US dollars, which also circulate freely

    country comparison to the world: 118
    Stock of broad money:
    $22.1 billion (30 September 2014 est.)
    $25.1 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 67
    Stock of domestic credit:

    NA

    Market value of publicly traded shares:
    $1.85 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $1.601 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $1.467 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 100
    Current account balance:
    $818.6 million (2017 est.)
    $763 million (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 53
    Exports:
    $19 million (2017 est.)
    $19 million (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 210
    Exports - partners:
    Jamaica 49.1%, Luxembourg 36.1%, US 4.9% (2017)
    Exports - commodities:
    reexports of pharmaceuticals
    Imports:
    $1.094 billion (2017 est.)
    $980 million (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 183
    Imports - commodities:
    clothing, fuels, machinery and transport equipment, construction materials, chemicals, food and live animals
    Imports - partners:
    US 72.1%, South Korea 9.7%, Canada 4.2% (2017)
    Debt - external:
    $2.515 billion (2017 est.)
    $2.435 billion (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 150
    Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
    $2.641 billion (2014 est.)
    $2.664 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 116
    Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
    $889 million (2014 est.)
    $835 million (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 90
    Exchange rates:
    Bermudian dollars (BMD) per US dollar -
    1 (2017 est.)
    1 (2016 est.)
    1 (2015 est.)
    1 (2014 est.)
    1 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: Bermuda
  • Electricity access:
    electrification - total population: 100% (2016)
    Electricity - production:
    650 million kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 159
    Electricity - consumption:
    604.5 million kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 166
    Electricity - exports:
    0 kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 107
    Electricity - imports:
    0 kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 126
    Electricity - installed generating capacity:
    171,000 kW (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 169
    Electricity - from fossil fuels:
    100% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 3
    Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
    0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 50
    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
    0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 158
    Electricity - from other renewable sources:
    0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)

    note: the Tynes Bay Waste Treatment Facility turns waste to electric energy

    country comparison to the world: 176
    Crude oil - production:
    0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 110
    Crude oil - exports:
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 94
    Crude oil - imports:
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 97
    Crude oil - proved reserves:
    0 bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 107
    Refined petroleum products - production:
    0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 119
    Refined petroleum products - consumption:
    5,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 178
    Refined petroleum products - exports:
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 131
    Refined petroleum products - imports:
    3,939 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 178
    Natural gas - production:
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 105
    Natural gas - consumption:
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 122
    Natural gas - exports:
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 70
    Natural gas - imports:
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 92
    Natural gas - proved reserves:
    0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 111
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
    793,700 Mt (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 174
  • Communications :: Bermuda
  • Telephones - fixed lines:
    total subscriptions: 21,883 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 31 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 173
    Telephones - mobile cellular:
    total subscriptions: 64,997 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 92 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 198
    Telephone system:
    general assessment: a good, fully automatic digital telephone system with fiber-optic trunk lines; telecom sector provides a relatively high contribution to overall GDP; numerous competitors licensed, but small and localized (2017)
    domestic: the system has a high fixed-line teledensity 31 per 100, coupled with a mobile-cellular teledensity of roughly 92 per 100 persons (2017)
    international: country code - 1-441; landing points for the GlobeNet, Gemini Bermuda, CBUS, and the Challenger Bermuda-1 (CB-1) submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 3 (2015)
    Broadcast media:
    3 TV stations; cable and satellite TV subscription services are available; roughly 13 radio stations operating (2012)
    Internet country code:
    .bm
    Internet users:
    total: 69,126 (July 2016 est.)
    percent of population: 98% (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 181
  • Transportation :: Bermuda
  • Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
    VP-B (2016)
    Airports:
    1 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 214
    Airports - with paved runways:
    total: 1 (2017)
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2017)
    Roadways:
    total: 447 km (2010)
    paved: 447 km (2010)

    note: 225 km public roads; 222 km private roads

    country comparison to the world: 198
    Merchant marine:
    total: 160 (2017)
    by type: bulk carrier 10, container ship 8, general cargo 1, oil tanker 18, other 123 (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 72
    Ports and terminals:
    major seaport(s): Hamilton, Ireland Island, Saint George
  • Military and Security :: Bermuda
  • Military branches:
    Bermuda Regiment (2012)
    Military service age and obligation:
    18-45 years of age for voluntary male or female enlistment in the Bermuda Regiment; males must register at age 18 and may be subject to conscription; term of service is 38 months for volunteers or conscripts (2012)
    Military - note:
    defense is the responsibility of the UK
  • Transnational Issues :: Bermuda
  • Disputes - international:
    none