South Asia :: Bangladesh
  • Introduction :: Bangladesh
  • Background:

    The huge delta region formed at the confluence of the Ganges and Brahmaputra River systems - now referred to as Bangladesh - was a loosely incorporated outpost of various empires centered on the Gangetic plain for much of the first millennium A.D. Muslim conversions and settlement in the region began in the 10th century, primarily from Arab and Persian traders and preachers. Europeans established trading posts in the area in the 16th century. Eventually the area known as Bengal, primarily Hindu in the western section and mostly Muslim in the eastern half, became part of British India. Partition in 1947 resulted in an eastern wing of Pakistan in the Muslim-majority area, which became East Pakistan. Calls for greater autonomy and animosity between the eastern and western wings of Pakistan led to a Bengali independence movement. That movement, led by the Awami League (AL) and supported by India, won the independence war for Bangladesh in 1971.

    The post-independence AL government faced daunting challenges and in 1975 was overthrown by the military, triggering a series of military coups that resulted in a military-backed government and subsequent creation of the Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP) in 1978. That government also ended in a coup in 1981, followed by military-backed rule until democratic elections occurred in 1991. The BNP and AL alternated in power between 1991 and 2013, with the exception of a military-backed, emergency caretaker regime that suspended parliamentary elections planned for January 2007 in an effort to reform the political system and root out corruption. That government returned the country to fully democratic rule in December 2008 with the election of the AL and Prime Minister Sheikh HASINA. In January 2014, the incumbent AL won the national election by an overwhelming majority after the BNP boycotted, extending HASINA's term as prime minister. With the help of international development assistance, Bangladesh has reduced the poverty rate from over half of the population to less than a third, achieved Millennium Development Goals for maternal and child health, and made great progress in food security since independence. The economy has grown at an annual average of about 6% over the last two decades and the country reached World Bank lower-middle income status in 2014.

  • Geography :: Bangladesh
  • Location:
    Southern Asia, bordering the Bay of Bengal, between Burma and India
    Geographic coordinates:
    24 00 N, 90 00 E
    Map references:
    Asia
    Area:
    total: 148,460 sq km
    land: 130,170 sq km
    water: 18,290 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 95
    Area - comparative:
    slightly larger than Pennsylvania and New Jersey combined; slightly smaller than Iowa
    Land boundaries:
    total: 4,413 km
    border countries (2): Burma 271 km, India 4142 km
    Coastline:
    580 km
    Maritime claims:
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    contiguous zone: 18 nm
    continental shelf: to the outer limits of the continental margin
    Climate:
    tropical; mild winter (October to March); hot, humid summer (March to June); humid, warm rainy monsoon (June to October)
    Terrain:
    mostly flat alluvial plain; hilly in southeast
    Elevation:
    mean elevation: 85 m
    elevation extremes: 0 m lowest point: Indian Ocean
    1230 highest point: Keokradong
    Natural resources:
    natural gas, arable land, timber, coal
    Land use:
    agricultural land: 70.1% (2014 est.)
    arable land: 59% (2014 est.) / permanent crops: 6.5% (2014 est.) / permanent pasture: 4.6% (2014 est.)
    forest: 11.1% (2014 est.)
    other: 18.8% (2014 est.)
    Irrigated land:
    53,000 sq km (2012)
    Natural hazards:
    droughts; cyclones; much of the country routinely inundated during the summer monsoon season
    Environment - current issues:
    many people are landless and forced to live on and cultivate flood-prone land; waterborne diseases prevalent in surface water; water pollution, especially of fishing areas, results from the use of commercial pesticides; ground water contaminated by naturally occurring arsenic; intermittent water shortages because of falling water tables in the northern and central parts of the country; soil degradation and erosion; deforestation; destruction of wetlands; severe overpopulation with noise pollution
    Environment - international agreements:
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    Geography - note:
    most of the country is situated on deltas of large rivers flowing from the Himalayas: the Ganges unites with the Jamuna (main channel of the Brahmaputra) and later joins the Meghna to eventually empty into the Bay of Bengal
  • People and Society :: Bangladesh
  • Population:
    159,453,001 (July 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 8
    Nationality:
    noun: Bangladeshi(s)
    adjective: Bangladeshi
    Ethnic groups:
    Bengali at least 98%, indigenous ethnic groups 1.1% (2011 est.)

    note: Bangladesh's government recognizes 27 indigenous ethnic groups under the 2010 Cultural Institution for Small Anthropological Groups Act; other sources estimate there are about 75 ethnic groups; critics of the 2011 census claim that it underestimates the size of Bangladesh's ethnic population

    Languages:
    Bangla 98.8% (official, also known as Bengali), other 1.2% (2011 est.)
    Religions:
    Muslim 89.1%, Hindu 10%, other 0.9% (includes Buddhist, Christian) (2013 est.)
    Age structure:
    0-14 years: 27.29% (male 22,135,349 /female 21,373,470)
    15-24 years: 19.14% (male 15,313,674 /female 15,200,861)
    25-54 years: 40.07% (male 30,626,005 /female 33,267,339)
    55-64 years: 7.09% (male 5,582,450 /female 5,716,763)
    65 years and over: 6.42% (male 4,844,612 /female 5,392,478) (2018 est.)
    population pyramid: population pyramid
    Dependency ratios:
    total dependency ratio: 52.6 (2015 est.)
    youth dependency ratio: 44.9 (2015 est.)
    elderly dependency ratio: 7.7 (2015 est.)
    potential support ratio: 13 (2015 est.)
    Median age:
    total: 27.1 years
    male: 26.3 years
    female: 27.8 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 146
    Population growth rate:
    1.02% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 105
    Birth rate:
    18.6 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 89
    Death rate:
    5.4 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 179
    Net migration rate:
    -3.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 175
    Urbanization:
    urban population: 36.6% of total population (2018)
    rate of urbanization: 3.17% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    Major urban areas - population:
    19.578 million DHAKA (capital), 4.816 million Chittagong, 975,000 Khulna, 880,000 Rajshahi, 776,000 Sylhet (2018)
    Sex ratio:
    at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    25-54 years: 0.93 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    55-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    65 years and over: 0.97 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    Mother's mean age at first birth:
    18.5 years (2014 est.)

    note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

    Maternal mortality rate:
    176 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 55
    Infant mortality rate:
    total: 30.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    male: 32.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    female: 28.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 60
    Life expectancy at birth:
    total population: 73.7 years (2018 est.)
    male: 71.5 years (2018 est.)
    female: 75.9 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 133
    Total fertility rate:
    2.15 children born/woman (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 98
    Contraceptive prevalence rate:
    62.3% (2014)
    Health expenditures:
    2.8% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 183
    Physicians density:
    0.47 physicians/1,000 population (2015)
    Hospital bed density:
    0.8 beds/1,000 population (2015)
    Drinking water source:
    improved: urban: 86.5% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 87% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 86.9% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 13.5% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 13% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 13.1% of population (2015 est.)
    Sanitation facility access:
    improved: urban: 57.7% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 62.1% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 60.6% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 42.3% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 37.9% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 39.4% of population (2015 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
    <.1% (2017 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
    13,000 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 92
    HIV/AIDS - deaths:
    1,100 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 62
    Major infectious diseases:
    degree of risk: high (2016)
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever (2016)
    vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria are high risks in some locations (2016)
    water contact diseases: leptospirosis (2016)
    animal contact diseases: rabies (2016)
    Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
    3.6% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 191
    Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
    32.6% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 5
    Education expenditures:
    2.5% of GDP (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 164
    Literacy:
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2016 est.)
    total population: 72.8% (2016 est.)
    male: 75.6% (2016 est.)
    female: 69.9% (2016 est.)
    School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
    total: 10 years (2011)
    male: 10 years (2011)
    female: 10 years (2011)
    Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
    total: 11.4% (2016 est.)
    male: 10.1% (2016 est.)
    female: 14.1% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 112
  • Government :: Bangladesh
  • Country name:
    conventional long form: People's Republic of Bangladesh
    conventional short form: Bangladesh
    local long form: Gana Prajatantri Bangladesh
    local short form: Bangladesh
    former: East Bengal, East Pakistan
    etymology: the name - a compound of the Bengali words "Bangla" (Bengal) and "desh" (country) - means "Country of Bengal"
    Government type:
    parliamentary republic
    Capital:
    name: Dhaka
    geographic coordinates: 23 43 N, 90 24 E
    time difference: UTC+6 (11 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    etymology: the origins of the name are unclear, but some sources state that the city's site was originally called "dhakka," meaning "watchtower," and that the area served as a watch-station for Bengal rulers
    Administrative divisions:
    8 divisions; Barisal, Chittagong, Dhaka, Khulna, Mymensingh, Rajshahi, Rangpur, Sylhet
    Independence:
    16 December 1971 (from West Pakistan)
    National holiday:
    Independence Day, 26 March (1971); Victory Day, 16 December (1971); note - 26 March 1971 is the date of the Awami League's declaration of an independent Bangladesh, and 16 December (Victory Day) memorializes the military victory over Pakistan and the official creation of the state of Bangladesh
    Constitution:
    history: previous 1935, 1956, 1962 (preindependence); latest enacted 4 November 1972, effective 16 December 1972, suspended March 1982, restored November 1986 (2017)
    amendments: proposed by the House of the Nation; approval requires at least two-thirds majority vote by the House membership and assent to by the president of the republic; amended many times, last in 2014 (2017)
    International law organization participation:
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    Citizenship:
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Bangladesh
    dual citizenship recognized: yes, but limited to select countries
    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
    Suffrage:
    18 years of age; universal
    Executive branch:
    chief of state: President Abdul HAMID (since 24 April 2013); note - Abdul HAMID served as acting president following the death of Zillur RAHMAN in March 2013; HAMID was subsequently indirectly elected by the National Parliament and sworn in 24 April 2013
    head of government: Prime Minister Sheikh HASINA (since 6 January 2009)
    cabinet: Cabinet selected by the prime minister, appointed by the president
    elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the National Parliament for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 7 February 2018 (next to be held by 2023); the president appoints as prime minister the majority party leader in the National Parliament
    election results: President Abdul HAMID (AL) reelected by the National Parliament unopposed for a second term; Sheikh HASINA reappointed prime minister as leader of the majority AL party following parliamentary elections in 2014
    Legislative branch:
    description: unicameral House of the Nation or Jatiya Sangsad (350 seats; 300 members in single-seat territorial constituencies directly elected by simple majority popular vote; 50 members - reserved for women only - indirectly elected by the elected members by proportional representation vote using single transferable vote; all members serve 5-year terms)
    elections: last held on 5 January 2014 (next to be held by January 2019); note - the 5 January 2014 poll was marred by widespread violence, boycotts, general strikes, and low voter turnout
    election results: percent of vote by party - AL 79.1%, JP (Ershad) 11.3%, WP 2.1%, JSD 1.8%, other 1%, independent 4.8%; seats by party - AL 234, JP 34, WP 6, JSD 5, other 5, independent 15; 1 seat repolled; composition - men 281, women 69, percent of women 19.7%
    Judicial branch:
    highest courts: Supreme Court of Bangladesh (organized into the Appellate Division with 7 justices and the High Court Division with 99 justices)
    judge selection and term of office: chief justice and justices appointed by the president; justices serve until retirement at age 67
    subordinate courts: subordinate courts: civil courts include: Assistant Judge's Court; Joint District Judge's Court; Additional District Judge's Court; District Judge's Court; criminal courts include: Court of Sessions; Court of Metropolitan Sessions; Metropolitan Magistrate Courts; Magistrate Court; special courts/tribunals
    Political parties and leaders:
    Awami League or AL [Sheikh HASINA]
    Bangladesh Nationalist Front or BNF [Abdul Kalam AZADI]Bangladesh Nationalist Party or BNP [Khaleda ZIA]
    Bangladesh Tariqat Federation or BTF [Syed Nozibul Bashar MAIZBHANDARI]
    Jamaat-i-Islami Bangladesh or JIB (Makbul AHMAD)
    Jatiya Party or JP (Ershad faction) [Hussain Mohammad ERSHAD]
    Jatiya Party or JP (Manju faction) [Anwar Hossain MANJU]Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Oli AHMED]
    National Socialist Party or JSD [KHALEQUZZAMAN]
    Workers Party or WP [Rashed Khan MENON]
    International organization participation:
    ADB, ARF, BIMSTEC, C, CD, CICA (observer), CP, D-8, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM, OIC, OPCW, PCA, SAARC, SACEP, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    Diplomatic representation in the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador Mohammad ZIAUDDIN (since 18 September 2014)
    chancery: 3510 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 244-0183
    FAX: [1] (202) 244-2771
    consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York
    Diplomatic representation from the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador Earl Robert MILLER (since 29 November 2018)
    embassy: Madani Avenue, Baridhara, Dhaka 1212
    mailing address: G. P. O. Box 323, Dhaka 1000
    telephone: [880] (2) 5566-2000
    FAX: [880] (2) 5566-2915
    Flag description:
    green field with a large red disk shifted slightly to the hoist side of center; the red disk represents the rising sun and the sacrifice to achieve independence; the green field symbolizes the lush vegetation of Bangladesh
    National symbol(s):
    Bengal tiger, water lily; national colors: green, red
    National anthem:
    name: "Amar Shonar Bangla" (My Golden Bengal)
    lyrics/music: Rabindranath TAGORE

    note: adopted 1971; Rabindranath TAGORE, a Nobel laureate, also wrote India's national anthem

  • Economy :: Bangladesh
  • Economy - overview:

    Bangladesh's economy has grown roughly 6% per year since 2005 despite prolonged periods of political instability, poor infrastructure, endemic corruption, insufficient power supplies, and slow implementation of economic reforms. Although more than half of GDP is generated through the services sector, almost half of Bangladeshis are employed in the agriculture sector, with rice as the single-most-important product.

    Garments, the backbone of Bangladesh's industrial sector, accounted for more than 80% of total exports in FY 2016-17. The industrial sector continues to grow, despite the need for improvements in factory safety conditions. Steady export growth in the garment sector, combined with $13 billion in remittances from overseas Bangladeshis, contributed to Bangladesh's rising foreign exchange reserves in FY 2016-17.

    The recent influx of over 700,000 additional refugees from Burma will place pressure on the Bangladeshi government’s budget and the country’s rice supplies, which declined in 2017 in part because of record flooding. Recent improvements to energy infrastructure, including the start of liquefied natural gas imports in 2018, represent a major step forward in resolving a key growth bottleneck.

    GDP (purchasing power parity):
    $690.3 billion (2017 est.)
    $642.7 billion (2016 est.)
    $599.5 billion (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 33
    GDP (official exchange rate):
    $261.5 billion (2017 est.) (2017 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate:
    7.4% (2017 est.)
    7.2% (2016 est.)
    6.8% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 13
    GDP - per capita (PPP):
    $4,200 (2017 est.)
    $4,000 (2016 est.)
    $3,800 (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 176
    Gross national saving:
    30.2% of GDP (2017 est.)
    30.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
    30.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 30
    GDP - composition, by end use:
    household consumption: 68.7% (2017 est.)
    government consumption: 6% (2017 est.)
    investment in fixed capital: 30.5% (2017 est.)
    investment in inventories: 1% (2017 est.)
    exports of goods and services: 15% (2017 est.)
    imports of goods and services: -20.3% (2017 est.)
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
    agriculture: 14.2% (2017 est.)
    industry: 29.3% (2017 est.)
    services: 56.5% (2017 est.)
    Agriculture - products:
    rice, jute, tea, wheat, sugarcane, potatoes, tobacco, pulses, oilseeds, spices, fruit; beef, milk, poultry
    Industries:
    jute, cotton, garments, paper, leather, fertilizer, iron and steel, cement, petroleum products, tobacco, pharmaceuticals, ceramics, tea, salt, sugar, edible oils, soap and detergent, fabricated metal products, electricity, natural gas
    Industrial production growth rate:
    10.2% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 15
    Labor force:
    66.64 million (2017 est.)

    note: extensive migration of labor to Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, UAE, Oman, Qatar, and Malaysia

    country comparison to the world: 7
    Labor force - by occupation:
    agriculture: 42.7%
    industry: 20.5%
    services: 36.9% (2016 est.)
    Unemployment rate:
    4.4% (2017 est.)
    4.4% (2016 est.)

    note: about 40% of the population is underemployed; many persons counted as employed work only a few hours a week and at low wages

    country comparison to the world: 58
    Population below poverty line:
    24.3% (2016 est.)
    Household income or consumption by percentage share:
    lowest 10%: 27% (2010 est.)
    highest 10%: 27% (2010 est.)
    Distribution of family income - Gini index:
    32.1 (2010)
    33.2 (2005)
    country comparison to the world: 118
    Budget:
    revenues: 25.1 billion (2017 est.)
    expenditures: 33.5 billion (2017 est.)
    Taxes and other revenues:
    9.6% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 214
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
    -3.2% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 137
    Public debt:
    33.1% of GDP (2017 est.)
    33.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 159
    Fiscal year:
    1 July - 30 June
    Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    5.6% (2017 est.)
    5.7% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 180
    Central bank discount rate:
    5% (11 December 2017)
    5% (30 October 2015)
    country comparison to the world: 80
    Commercial bank prime lending rate:
    9.54% (31 December 2017 est.)
    10.41% (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 87
    Stock of narrow money:
    $28.68 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $25.98 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 64
    Stock of broad money:
    $28.68 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $25.98 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 64
    Stock of domestic credit:
    $152.1 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $135.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 49
    Market value of publicly traded shares:
    $92.33 billion (30 September 2017 est.)
    $77.99 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    $71.73 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 41
    Current account balance:
    -$5.322 billion (2017 est.)
    $1.391 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 184
    Exports:
    $35.3 billion (2017 est.)
    $34.14 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 59
    Exports - partners:
    Germany 12.9%, US 12.2%, UK 8.7%, Spain 5.3%, France 5.1%, Italy 4.1% (2017)
    Exports - commodities:
    garments, knitwear, agricultural products, frozen food (fish and seafood), jute and jute goods, leather
    Imports:
    $47.56 billion (2017 est.)
    $40.28 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 56
    Imports - commodities:
    cotton, machinery and equipment, chemicals, iron and steel, foodstuffs
    Imports - partners:
    China 21.9%, India 15.3%, Singapore 5.7% (2017)
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
    $33.42 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $32.28 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 49
    Debt - external:
    $50.26 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $41.85 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 66
    Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
    $14.62 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $13.24 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 91
    Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
    $369.6 million (31 December 2017 est.)
    $228.5 million (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 100
    Exchange rates:
    taka (BDT) per US dollar -
    80.69 (2017 est.)
    78.468 (2016 est.)
    78.468 (2015 est.)
    77.947 (2014 est.)
    77.614 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: Bangladesh
  • Electricity access:
    population without electricity: 60.3 million (2013)
    electrification - total population: 60% (2013)
    electrification - urban areas: 90% (2013)
    electrification - rural areas: 49% (2013)
    Electricity - production:
    60.51 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 49
    Electricity - consumption:
    53.65 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 48
    Electricity - exports:
    0 kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 103
    Electricity - imports:
    0 kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 124
    Electricity - installed generating capacity:
    11.9 million kW (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 56
    Electricity - from fossil fuels:
    97% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 32
    Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
    0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 45
    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
    2% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 136
    Electricity - from other renewable sources:
    2% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 134
    Crude oil - production:
    3,666 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 82
    Crude oil - exports:
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 91
    Crude oil - imports:
    21,860 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 63
    Crude oil - proved reserves:
    28 million bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 81
    Refined petroleum products - production:
    26,280 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 86
    Refined petroleum products - consumption:
    106,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 77
    Refined petroleum products - exports:
    901 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 108
    Refined petroleum products - imports:
    81,570 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 63
    Natural gas - production:
    29.53 billion cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 27
    Natural gas - consumption:
    29.53 billion cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 32
    Natural gas - exports:
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 65
    Natural gas - imports:
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 89
    Natural gas - proved reserves:
    185.8 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 44
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
    79.97 million Mt (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 48
  • Communications :: Bangladesh
  • Telephones - fixed lines:
    total subscriptions: 710,189 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 87
    Telephones - mobile cellular:
    total subscriptions: 145,113,669 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 92 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 8
    Telephone system:
    general assessment: inadequate for a modern country; introducing digital systems; trunk systems include VHF and UHF microwave radio relay links, and some fiber-optic cable in cities; fixed broadband penetration in Bangladesh remains very low mainly due to the dominance of the mobile platform; in July 2018  first test run of 5G technology in Bangladesh took place in Dhaka (2017)
    domestic: fixed-line teledensity remains less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular telephone subscribership has been increasing rapidly and now exceeds 92 telephones per 100 persons; slow to moderate mobile subscriber growth is anticipated over the next five years to 2023; strong local competition (2017)
    international: country code - 880; landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-4 fiber-optic submarine cable system that provides links to Europe, the Middle East, and Asia; satellite earth stations - 6; international radiotelephone communications and landline service to neighboring countries (2016)
    Broadcast media:
    state-owned Bangladesh Television (BTV) broadcasts throughout the country. Some channels, such as BTV World, operate via satellite. The government also owns a medium wave radio channel and some private FM radio broadcast news channels. Of the 41 Bangladesh approved TV stations, 26 are currently being used to broadcast. Of those, 23 operate under private management via cable distribution. Collectively, TV channels can reach more than 50 million people across the country. (2018)
    Internet country code:
    .bd
    Internet users:
    total: 28,499,324 (July 2016 est.)
    percent of population: 18.2% (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 26
    Broadband - fixed subscriptions:
    total: 7.296 million (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 5 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 21
  • Transportation :: Bangladesh
  • National air transport system:
    number of registered air carriers: 6 (2015)
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 30 (2015)
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 2,906,799 (2015)
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 182,692,553 mt-km (2015)
    Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
    S2 (2016)
    Airports:
    18 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 139
    Airports - with paved runways:
    total: 16 (2017)
    over 3,047 m: 2 (2017)
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 (2017)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 6 (2017)
    914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2017)
    under 914 m: 5 (2017)
    Airports - with unpaved runways:
    total: 2 (2013)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)
    under 914 m: 1 (2013)
    Heliports:
    3 (2013)
    Pipelines:
    2950 km gas (2013)
    Railways:
    total: 2,460 km (2014)
    narrow gauge: 1,801 km 1.000-m gauge (2014)
    broad gauge: 659 km 1.676-m gauge (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 68
    Roadways:
    total: 21,269 km (2010)
    paved: 2,021 km (2010)
    unpaved: 19,248 km (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 107
    Waterways:
    8,370 km (includes up to 3,060 km of main cargo routes; network reduced to 5,200 km in the dry season) (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 16
    Merchant marine:
    total: 306 (2017)
    by type: bulk carrier 28, container ship 4, general cargo 75, oil tanker 110, other 89 (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 52
    Ports and terminals:
    major seaport(s): Chittagong
    container port(s) (TEUs): Chittagong (2,346,909) (2016)
    river port(s): Mongla Port (Sela River)
  • Military and Security :: Bangladesh
  • Military expenditures:
    1.44% of GDP (2017)
    1.44% of GDP (2016)
    1.46% of GDP (2015)
    country comparison to the world: 79
    Military branches:
    Bangladesh Defense Force: Bangladesh Army (Sena Bahini), Bangladesh Navy (Noh Bahini, BN), Bangladesh Air Force (Biman Bahini, BAF) (2013)
    Military service age and obligation:
    16-21 years of age for voluntary military service; Bangladeshi nationality and 10th grade education required; officers: 17-21 years of age, Bangladeshi nationality, and 12th grade education required (2018)
    Maritime threats:
    the International Maritime Bureau reports the territorial waters of Bangladesh remain a risk for armed robbery against ships; in 2017, the number of attacks against commercial vessels increased to 11 over three such incidents in 2016
  • Terrorism :: Bangladesh
  • Terrorist groups - home based:
    Harakat ul-Jihad-i-Islami/Bangladesh (HUJI-B):
    aim(s): install an Islamic state in Bangladesh
    area(s) of operation: headquartered in Bangladesh and mostly active in the southeast; maintains a network of madrassas in Bangladesh (April 2018)
    Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham (ISIS) networks in Bangladesh:
    aim(s): replace the Bangladesh Government with an Islamic state and implement ISIS's strict interpretation of Sharia; ISIS operates in Bangladesh under the name Islamic State in Bangladesh (ISB)
    area(s) of operation: operates primarily in Dhaka
    note: targets foreigners, foreign aid workers, university professors, students, and secular bloggers for assassination; core ISIS refers to its Bangladesh branch as Bengal (April 2018)
    Terrorist groups - foreign based:
    al-Qa'ida (AQ):
    aim(s): overthrow the Bangladesh Government and, ultimately, establish a pan-Islamic caliphate under a strict Salafi Muslim interpretation of sharia
    area(s) of operation:
    operates in collaboration with its al-Qa'ida in the Indian Subcontinent affiliate (April 2018)
    al-Qa'ida in the Indian Subcontinent (AQIS):
    aim(s): protect Muslims in Bangladesh from perceived injustices and, ultimately, establish an Islamic caliphate in the Indian subcontinent
    area(s) of operation:
    active throughout the country, targeting primarily military and security personnel and US interests (April 2018)
  • Transnational Issues :: Bangladesh
  • Disputes - international:
    Bangladesh referred its maritime boundary claims with Burma and India to the International Tribunal on the Law of the SeaIndian Prime Minister Singh's September 2011 visit to Bangladesh resulted in the signing of a Protocol to the 1974 Land Boundary Agreement between India and Bangladesh, which had called for the settlement of longstanding boundary disputes over undemarcated areas and the exchange of territorial enclaves, but which had never been implementedBangladesh is struggling to accommodate more than 700,000 newly arrived Rohingya, a Burmese Muslim minority from Arakan State, who fled violence in Rakhine State, Burma, since 2017, joining a Rohingya refugee population of 200,000-300,000 living in Cox's Bazar District that arrived after bouts of violence in the 1990s and 2000sthe Bangladesh-Burma border remains tense, with a Burmese military build-up along the border and a 200 km (124 mi) wire fence the Burmese border authorities are constructing designed to deter illegal cross-border transit
    Refugees and internally displaced persons:
    refugees (country of origin): 923,000 (Burma) (2018) (includes an estimated 710,000 Rohingya refugees who have fled conflict since 25 August 2017)
    IDPs: 432,000 (conflict, development, human rights violations, religious persecution, natural disasters) (2017)
    Illicit drugs:
    transit country for illegal drugs produced in neighboring countries