South America :: Bolivia
  • Introduction :: Bolivia
  • Background:

    Bolivia, named after independence fighter Simon BOLIVAR, broke away from Spanish rule in 1825; much of its subsequent history has consisted of a series of coups and countercoups, with the last coup occurring in 1978. Democratic civilian rule was established in 1982, but leaders have faced difficult problems of deep-seated poverty, social unrest, and illegal drug production.

    In December 2005, Bolivians elected Movement Toward Socialism leader Evo MORALES president - by the widest margin of any leader since the restoration of civilian rule in 1982 - after he ran on a promise to change the country's traditional political class and empower the nation's poor, indigenous majority. In December 2009 and October 2014, President MORALES easily won reelection. His party maintained control of the legislative branch of the government, which has allowed him to continue his process of change. In February 2016, MORALES narrowly lost a referendum to approve a constitutional amendment that would have allowed him to compete in the 2019 presidential election. Despite the loss, MORALES has already been chosen by his party to run again in 2019, via a still-undetermined method for him to appear on the ballot.

    BOLIVIA SUMMARY: PDF
  • Geography :: Bolivia
  • Location:
    Central South America, southwest of Brazil
    Geographic coordinates:
    17 00 S, 65 00 W
    Map references:
    South America
    Area:
    total: 1,098,581 sq km
    land: 1,083,301 sq km
    water: 15,280 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 29
    Area - comparative:
    slightly less than three times the size of Montana
    Land boundaries:
    total: 7,252 km
    border countries (5): Argentina 942 km, Brazil 3403 km, Chile 942 km, Paraguay 753 km, Peru 1212 km
    Coastline:
    0 km (landlocked)
    Maritime claims:
    none (landlocked)
    Climate:
    varies with altitude; humid and tropical to cold and semiarid
    Terrain:
    rugged Andes Mountains with a highland plateau (Altiplano), hills, lowland plains of the Amazon Basin
    Elevation:
    mean elevation: 1,192 m
    elevation extremes: 90 m lowest point: Rio Paraguay
    6542 highest point: Nevado Sajama
    Natural resources:
    tin, natural gas, petroleum, zinc, tungsten, antimony, silver, iron, lead, gold, timber, hydropower
    Land use:
    agricultural land: 34.3% (2011 est.)
    arable land: 3.6% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 0.2% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 30.5% (2011 est.)
    forest: 52.5% (2011 est.)
    other: 13.2% (2011 est.)
    Irrigated land:
    3,000 sq km (2012)
    Population distribution:
    a high altitude plain in the west between two cordillera of the Andes, known as the Altiplano, is the focal area for most of the population; a dense settlement pattern is also found in and around the city of Santa Cruz, located on the eastern side of the Andes
    Natural hazards:

    flooding in the northeast (March to April)

    volcanism: volcanic activity in Andes Mountains on the border with Chile; historically active volcanoes in this region are Irruputuncu (5,163 m), which last erupted in 1995, and the Olca-Paruma volcanic complex (5,762 m to 5,167 m)

    Environment - current issues:
    the clearing of land for agricultural purposes and the international demand for tropical timber are contributing to deforestation; soil erosion from overgrazing and poor cultivation methods (including slash-and-burn agriculture); desertification; loss of biodiversity; industrial pollution of water supplies used for drinking and irrigation
    Environment - international agreements:
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Marine Life Conservation
    Geography - note:
    landlocked; shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest navigable lake (elevation 3,805 m), with Peru
  • People and Society :: Bolivia
  • Population:
    11,306,341 (July 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 80
    Nationality:
    noun: Bolivian(s)
    adjective: Bolivian
    Ethnic groups:
    mestizo (mixed white and Amerindian ancestry) 68%, indigenous 20%, white 5%, cholo/chola 2%, black 1%, other 1%, unspecified 3% ; 44% of respondents indicated feeling part of some indigenous group, predominantly Quechua or Aymara (2009 est.)

    note: results among surveys vary based on the wording of the ethnicity question and the available response choices; the 2001 national census did not provide "mestizo" as a response choice, resulting in a much higher proportion of respondents identifying themselves as belonging to one of the available indigenous ethnicity choices; the use of "mestizo" and "cholo" varies among response choices in surveys, with surveys using the terms interchangeably, providing one or the other as a response choice, or providing the two as separate response choices

    Languages:
    Spanish (official) 60.7%, Quechua (official) 21.2%, Aymara (official) 14.6%, foreign languages 2.4%, Guarani (official) 0.6%, other native languages 0.4%, none 0.1% (2001 est.)

    note: Bolivia's 2009 constitution designates Spanish and all indigenous languages as official; 36 indigenous languages are specified, including a few that are extinct

    Religions:
    Roman Catholic 76.8%, Evangelical and Pentecostal 8.1%, Protestant 7.9%, other 1.7%, none 5.5% (2012 est.)
    Demographic profile:

    Bolivia ranks at or near the bottom among Latin American countries in several areas of health and development, including poverty, education, fertility, malnutrition, mortality, and life expectancy. On the positive side, more children are being vaccinated and more pregnant women are getting prenatal care and having skilled health practitioners attend their births.

    Bolivia’s income inequality is the highest in Latin America and one of the highest in the world. Public education is of poor quality, and educational opportunities are among the most unevenly distributed in Latin America, with girls and indigenous and rural children less likely to be literate or to complete primary school. The lack of access to education and family planning services helps to sustain Bolivia’s high fertility rate—approximately three children per woman. Bolivia’s lack of clean water and basic sanitation, especially in rural areas, contributes to health problems.

    Between 7% and 16% of Bolivia’s population lives abroad (estimates vary in part because of illegal migration). Emigrants primarily seek jobs and better wages in Argentina (the principal destination), the US, and Spain. In recent years, more restrictive immigration policies in Europe and the US have increased the flow of Bolivian emigrants to neighboring countries. Fewer Bolivians migrated to Brazil in 2015 and 2016 because of its recession; increasing numbers have been going to Chile, mainly to work as miners.

    Age structure:
    0-14 years: 31.34% (male 1,805,765 /female 1,737,647)
    15-24 years: 19.37% (male 1,109,388 /female 1,080,662)
    25-54 years: 37.9% (male 2,098,847 /female 2,185,890)
    55-64 years: 5.96% (male 310,250 /female 363,403)
    65 years and over: 5.43% (male 270,435 /female 344,054) (2018 est.)
    population pyramid: population pyramid
    Dependency ratios:
    total dependency ratio: 63.7 (2015 est.)
    youth dependency ratio: 53.1 (2015 est.)
    elderly dependency ratio: 10.6 (2015 est.)
    potential support ratio: 9.4 (2015 est.)
    Median age:
    total: 24.6 years
    male: 23.9 years
    female: 25.4 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 161
    Population growth rate:
    1.48% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 74
    Birth rate:
    21.6 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 71
    Death rate:
    6.3 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 149
    Net migration rate:
    -0.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 122
    Population distribution:
    a high altitude plain in the west between two cordillera of the Andes, known as the Altiplano, is the focal area for most of the population; a dense settlement pattern is also found in and around the city of Santa Cruz, located on the eastern side of the Andes
    Urbanization:
    urban population: 69.4% of total population (2018)
    rate of urbanization: 1.97% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    Major urban areas - population:
    1.814 million LA PAZ (capital), 1.641 million Santa Cruz, 1.24 million Cochabamba, 278,000 Sucre (constitutional capital) (2018)
    Sex ratio:
    at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    25-54 years: 0.95 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    55-64 years: 0.86 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    Mother's mean age at first birth:
    21.2 years (2008 est.)

    note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

    Maternal mortality rate:
    206 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 51
    Infant mortality rate:
    total: 34.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    male: 37.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    female: 30.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 51
    Life expectancy at birth:
    total population: 69.8 years (2018 est.)
    male: 67 years (2018 est.)
    female: 72.8 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 161
    Total fertility rate:
    2.58 children born/woman (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 74
    Contraceptive prevalence rate:
    66.5% (2016)
    Health expenditures:
    6.3% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 100
    Physicians density:
    0.47 physicians/1,000 population (2011)
    Hospital bed density:
    1.1 beds/1,000 population (2014)
    Drinking water source:
    improved: urban: 96.7% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 75.6% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 90% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 3.3% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 24.4% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 10% of population (2015 est.)
    Sanitation facility access:
    improved: urban: 60.8% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 27.5% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 50.3% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 39.2% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 72.5% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 49.7% of population (2015 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
    0.3% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 78
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
    21,000 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 81
    HIV/AIDS - deaths:
    <1000 (2017 est.)
    Major infectious diseases:
    degree of risk: very high (2016)
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea and hepatitis A (2016)
    vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, malaria, and yellow fever (2016)

    note: active local transmission of Zika virus by Aedes species mosquitoes has been identified in this country (as of August 2016); it poses an important risk (a large number of cases possible) among US citizens if bitten by an infective mosquito; other less common ways to get Zika are through sex, via blood transfusion, or during pregnancy, in which the pregnant woman passes Zika virus to her fetus

    Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
    20.2% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 102
    Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
    3.4% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 93
    Education expenditures:
    7.3% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 16
    Literacy:
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)
    total population: 92.5% (2015 est.)
    male: 96.5% (2015 est.)
    female: 88.6% (2015 est.)
    Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
    total: 6.9% (2015 est.)
    male: 5.8% (2015 est.)
    female: 8.6% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 146
  • Government :: Bolivia
  • Country name:
    conventional long form: Plurinational State of Bolivia
    conventional short form: Bolivia
    local long form: Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia
    local short form: Bolivia
    etymology: the country is named after Simon BOLIVAR, a 19th-century leader in the South American wars for independence
    Government type:
    presidential republic
    Capital:
    name: La Paz (administrative capital); Sucre (constitutional [legislative and judicial] capital)
    geographic coordinates: 16 30 S, 68 09 W
    time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    note: at approximately 3,630 m above sea level, La Paz's elevation makes it the highest capital city in the world
    Administrative divisions:
    9 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Beni, Chuquisaca, Cochabamba, La Paz, Oruro, Pando, Potosi, Santa Cruz, Tarija
    Independence:
    6 August 1825 (from Spain)
    National holiday:
    Independence Day, 6 August (1825)
    Constitution:
    history: many previous; latest drafted 6 August 2006 to 9 December 2008, approved by referendum 25 January 2009, effective 7 February 2009; note - in late 2017, the Constitutional Tribunal declared inapplicable provisions of the constitution that prohibit elected officials, including the president, from serving more than 2 consecutive terms (2018)
    amendments: proposed through public petition by at least 20% of voters or by the Plurinational Legislative Assembly; passage requires approval by at least two-thirds majority vote of the total membership of the Assembly and approval in a referendum; amended 2013 (2018)
    International law organization participation:
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    Citizenship:
    citizenship by birth: yes
    citizenship by descent only: yes
    dual citizenship recognized: yes
    residency requirement for naturalization: 3 years
    Suffrage:
    18 years of age; universal and compulsory
    Executive branch:
    chief of state: President Juan Evo MORALES Ayma (since 22 January 2006); Vice President Alvaro GARCIA Linera (since 22 January 2006); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
    head of government: President Juan Evo MORALES Ayma (since 22 January 2006); Vice President Alvaro GARCIA Linera (since 22 January 2006)
    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
    elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot one of 3 ways: candidate wins at least 50% of the vote, or at least 40% of the vote and 10% more than the next highest candidate; otherwise a second round is held and the winner determined by simple majority vote; no term limits (changed from two consecutive term limit by Constitutional Court in late 2017); election last held on 12 October 2014 (next to be held in 2019)
    election results: Juan Evo MORALES Ayma reelected president; percent of vote - Juan Evo MORALES Ayma (MAS) 61%; Samuel DORIA MEDINA Arana (UN) 24.5%; Jorge QUIROGA Ramirez (POC) 9.1%; other 5.4%
    Legislative branch:
    description: bicameral Plurinational Legislative Assembly or Asamblea Legislativa Plurinacional consists of:
    Chamber of Senators or Camara de Senadores (36 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)
    Chamber of Deputies or Camara de Diputados (130 seats; 70 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 53 directly elected in single-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote, and 7 - apportioned to non-contiguous, rural areas in 7 of the 9 states - directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote; members serve 5-year terms)
    elections:
    Chamber of Senators - last held on 12 October 2014 (next to be held in 2019)
    Chamber of Deputies - last held on 12 October 2014 (next to be held in 2019)
    election results:
    Chamber of Senators - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - MAS 25, UD 9, PDC 2;
    Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - MAS 88, UD 32, PDC 10
    Judicial branch:
    highest courts: Supreme Court or Tribunal Supremo de Justicia (consists of 12 judges or ministros organized into civil, penal, social, and administrative chambers); Plurinational Constitutional Tribunal (consists of 7 primary and 7 alternate magistrates); Plurinational Electoral Organ (consists of 7 members and 6 alternates); National Agro-Environment Court (consists of 5 primary and 5 alternate judges; Council of the Judiciary (consists of 3 primary and 3 alternate judges)
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court, Plurinational Constitutional Tribunal, National Agro-Environmental Court, and Council of the Judiciary candidates pre-selected by the Plurinational Legislative Assembly and elected by direct popular vote; judges elected for 6-year terms; Plurinational Electoral Organ judges appointed - 6 by the Legislative Assembly and 1 by the president of the republic; members serve single 6-year terms
    subordinate courts: National Electoral Court; District Courts (in each of the 9 administrative departments); agro-environmental lower courts
    Political parties and leaders:
    Christian Democratic Party or PDC [Jorge Fernando QUIROGA Ramirez]
    Movement Toward Socialism or MAS [Juan Evo MORALES Ayma]
    National Unity or UN [Samuel DORIA MEDINA Arana]
    International organization participation:
    CAN, CD, CELAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate), MIGA, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNAMID, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    Diplomatic representation in the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Rafael Pablo CANEDO Daroca (since July 2017)
    chancery: 3014 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 328-4155
    FAX: [1] (202) 328-3712
    consulate(s) general: Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Washington, DC

    note: in September 2008, the US expelled the Bolivian ambassador to the US in reciprocity for Bolivia expelling the US ambassador to Bolivia

    Diplomatic representation from the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Bruce WILLIAMSON (since December 2017)
    embassy: Avenida Arce 2780, Casilla 425, La Paz
    mailing address: 3220 La Paz Place, Dulles, VA, 20189-3220
    telephone: [591] (2) 216-8000
    FAX: [591] (2) 216-8111

    note: in September 2008, the Bolivian Government expelled the US Ambassador to Bolivia, Philip GOLDBERG, and both countries have yet to reinstate their ambassadors

    Flag description:
    three equal horizontal bands of red (top), yellow, and green with the coat of arms centered on the yellow band; red stands for bravery and the blood of national heroes, yellow for the nation's mineral resources, and green for the fertility of the land

    note: similar to the flag of Ghana, which has a large black five-pointed star centered in the yellow band; in 2009, a presidential decree made it mandatory for a so-called wiphala - a square, multi-colored flag representing the country's indigenous peoples - to be used alongside the traditional flag

    National symbol(s):
    llama, Andean condor; national colors: red, yellow, green
    National anthem:
    name: "Cancion Patriotica" (Patriotic Song)
    lyrics/music: Jose Ignacio de SANJINES/Leopoldo Benedetto VINCENTI

    note: adopted 1852

  • Economy :: Bolivia
  • Economy - overview:

    Bolivia is a resource rich country with strong growth attributed to captive markets for natural gas exports – to Brazil and Argentina. However, the country remains one of the least developed countries in Latin America because of state-oriented policies that deter investment.

    Following an economic crisis during the early 1980s, reforms in the 1990s spurred private investment, stimulated economic growth, and cut poverty rates. The period 2003-05 was characterized by political instability, racial tensions, and violent protests against plans - subsequently abandoned - to export Bolivia's newly discovered natural gas reserves to large Northern Hemisphere markets. In 2005-06, the government passed hydrocarbon laws that imposed significantly higher royalties and required foreign firms then operating under risk-sharing contracts to surrender all production to the state energy company in exchange for a predetermined service fee; the laws engendered much public debate. High commodity prices between 2010 and 2014 sustained rapid growth and large trade surpluses with GDP growing 6.8% in 2013 and 5.4% in 2014. The global decline in oil prices that began in late 2014 exerted downward pressure on the price Bolivia receives for exported gas and resulted in lower GDP growth rates - 4.9% in 2015 and 4.3% in 2016 - and losses in government revenue as well as fiscal and trade deficits.

    A lack of foreign investment in the key sectors of mining and hydrocarbons, along with conflict among social groups, pose challenges for the Bolivian economy. In 2015, President Evo MORALES expanded efforts to court international investment and boost Bolivia’s energy production capacity. MORALES passed an investment law and promised not to nationalize additional industries in an effort to improve the investment climate. In early 2016, the Government of Bolivia approved the 2016-2020 National Economic and Social Development Plan aimed at maintaining growth of 5% and reducing poverty.

    GDP (purchasing power parity):
    $83.72 billion (2017 est.)
    $80.35 billion (2016 est.)
    $77.07 billion (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 94
    GDP (official exchange rate):
    $37.78 billion (2017 est.) (2017 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate:
    4.2% (2017 est.)
    4.3% (2016 est.)
    4.9% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 70
    GDP - per capita (PPP):
    $7,600 (2017 est.)
    $7,400 (2016 est.)
    $7,200 (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 154
    Gross national saving:
    15.7% of GDP (2017 est.)
    15.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
    14.2% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 132
    GDP - composition, by end use:
    household consumption: 67.7% (2017 est.)
    government consumption: 17% (2017 est.)
    investment in fixed capital: 21.3% (2017 est.)
    investment in inventories: 3.8% (2017 est.)
    exports of goods and services: 21.7% (2017 est.)
    imports of goods and services: -31.3% (2017 est.)
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
    agriculture: 13.8% (2017 est.)
    industry: 37.8% (2017 est.)
    services: 48.2% (2017 est.)
    Agriculture - products:
    soybeans, quinoa, Brazil nuts, sugarcane, coffee, corn, rice, potatoes, chia, coca
    Industries:
    mining, smelting, electricity, petroleum, food and beverages, handicrafts, clothing, jewelry
    Industrial production growth rate:
    2.2% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 123
    Labor force:
    5.719 million (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 73
    Labor force - by occupation:
    agriculture: 29.4%
    industry: 22%
    services: 48.6% (2015 est.)
    Unemployment rate:
    4% (2017 est.)
    4% (2016 est.)

    note: data are for urban areas; widespread underemployment

    country comparison to the world: 49
    Population below poverty line:
    38.6% (2015 est.)

    note: based on percent of population living on less than the international standard of $2/day

    Household income or consumption by percentage share:
    lowest 10%: 36.1% (2014 est.)
    highest 10%: 36.1% (2014 est.)
    Distribution of family income - Gini index:
    47 (2016 est.)
    57.9 (1999)
    country comparison to the world: 28
    Budget:
    revenues: 15.09 billion (2017 est.)
    expenditures: 18.02 billion (2017 est.)
    Taxes and other revenues:
    39.9% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 39
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
    -7.8% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 196
    Public debt:
    49% of GDP (2017 est.)
    44.9% of GDP (2016 est.)

    note: data cover general government debt and includes debt instruments issued by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities

    country comparison to the world: 104
    Fiscal year:
    calendar year
    Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    2.8% (2017 est.)
    3.6% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 127
    Central bank discount rate:
    2.5% (31 December 2017 est.)
    2.5% (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 114
    Commercial bank prime lending rate:
    8.11% (31 December 2017 est.)
    7.95% (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 106
    Stock of narrow money:
    $9.616 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $9.09 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 82
    Stock of broad money:
    $9.616 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $9.09 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 84
    Stock of domestic credit:
    $25.61 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $22.39 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 85
    Market value of publicly traded shares:
    $12.8 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $12.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    $11.11 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 70
    Current account balance:
    -$2.375 billion (2017 est.)
    -$1.932 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 171
    Exports:
    $7.746 billion (2017 est.)
    $7.214 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 99
    Exports - partners:
    Brazil 17.9%, Argentina 16%, US 7.8%, Japan 7.3%, India 6.6%, South Korea 6.3%, Colombia 5.8%, China 5.1%, UAE 4.7% (2017)
    Exports - commodities:
    natural gas, silver, zinc, lead, tin, gold, quinoa, soybeans and soy products
    Imports:
    $8.601 billion (2017 est.)
    $7.888 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 108
    Imports - commodities:
    machinery, petroleum products, vehicles, iron and steel, plastics
    Imports - partners:
    China 21.7%, Brazil 16.8%, Argentina 12.6%, US 8.4%, Peru 6.5% (2017)
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
    $10.26 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $10.08 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 74
    Debt - external:
    $12.81 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $7.268 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 106
    Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
    $12.31 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $11.6 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 93
    Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
    $0 (31 December 2017 est.)
    $0 (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 120
    Exchange rates:
    bolivianos (BOB) per US dollar -
    6.86 (2017 est.)
    6.86 (2016 est.)
    6.91 (2015 est.)
    6.91 (2014 est.)
    6.91 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: Bolivia
  • Electricity access:
    population without electricity: 1.2 million (2013)
    electrification - total population: 90% (2013)
    electrification - urban areas: 99% (2013)
    electrification - rural areas: 72% (2013)
    Electricity - production:
    8.951 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 107
    Electricity - consumption:
    7.785 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 105
    Electricity - exports:
    0 kWh (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 108
    Electricity - imports:
    0 kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 127
    Electricity - installed generating capacity:
    2.764 million kW (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 101
    Electricity - from fossil fuels:
    76% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 93
    Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
    0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 52
    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
    18% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 92
    Electricity - from other renewable sources:
    7% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 92
    Crude oil - production:
    59,330 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 49
    Crude oil - exports:
    1,274 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 72
    Crude oil - imports:
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 99
    Crude oil - proved reserves:
    211.5 million bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 54
    Refined petroleum products - production:
    65,960 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 75
    Refined petroleum products - consumption:
    83,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 86
    Refined petroleum products - exports:
    9,686 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 82
    Refined petroleum products - imports:
    20,620 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 118
    Natural gas - production:
    18.69 billion cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 32
    Natural gas - consumption:
    3.171 billion cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 71
    Natural gas - exports:
    15.46 billion cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 15
    Natural gas - imports:
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 94
    Natural gas - proved reserves:
    295.9 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 37
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
    17.66 million Mt (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 90
  • Communications :: Bolivia
  • Telephones - fixed lines:
    total subscriptions: 851,110 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 8 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 78
    Telephones - mobile cellular:
    total subscriptions: 10,106,216 (July 2016 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 91 (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 84
    Telephone system:
    general assessment: state-owned Empresa Nacional de Telecomunicaciones (Entel) is the country's incumbent long-distance operator, and offers local telephone service, DSL, and satellite TV;  its subsidiary Entel Movil is Bolivia's largest mobile network provider, reliability, and coverage have steadily improved, but some remote areas are still underserved; Entel plans to extend fibre to all 339 municipal capital cities by 2022; MNP (mobile number potability) launched in October 2018; Bolivian Space Agency planning to launch a second telecom satellite after 2020 (2018)
    domestic: most telephones are concentrated in La Paz, Santa Cruz, and other capital cities; 8 per 100 fixed-line, mobile-cellular telephone use expanding rapidly and teledensity stood at 91 per 100 persons (2017)
    international: country code - 591; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); Bolivia has no direct access to submarine cable networks and must therefore connect to the rest of the world either via satellite or through terrestrial links across neighbouring countries (2017)
    Broadcast media:
    large number of radio and TV stations broadcasting with private media outlets dominating; state-owned and private radio and TV stations generally operating freely, although both pro-government and anti-government groups have attacked media outlets in response to their reporting (2010)
    Internet country code:
    .bo
    Internet users:
    total: 4,354,678 (July 2016 est.)
    percent of population: 39.7% (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 83
    Broadband - fixed subscriptions:
    total: 358,680 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 3 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 90
  • Transportation :: Bolivia
  • National air transport system:
    number of registered air carriers: 7 (2015)
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 39 (2015)
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 2,578,959 (2015)
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 9,456,548 mt-km (2015)
    Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
    CP (2016)
    Airports:
    855 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 7
    Airports - with paved runways:
    total: 21 (2017)
    over 3,047 m: 5 (2017)
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 4 (2017)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 6 (2017)
    914 to 1,523 m: 6 (2017)
    Airports - with unpaved runways:
    total: 834 (2013)
    over 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 4 (2013)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 47 (2013)
    914 to 1,523 m: 151 (2013)
    under 914 m: 631 (2013)
    Pipelines:
    5457 km gas, 51 km liquid petroleum gas, 2511 km oil, 1627 km refined products (2013)
    Railways:
    total: 3,504 km (2014)
    narrow gauge: 3,504 km 1.000-m gauge (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 55
    Roadways:
    total: 90,568 km (2017)
    paved: 9,792 km (2017)
    unpaved: 80,776 km (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 54
    Waterways:
    10,000 km (commercially navigable almost exclusively in the northern and eastern parts of the country) (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 13
    Merchant marine:
    total: 55 (2017)
    by type: general cargo 41, oil tanker 3, other 11 (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 111
    Ports and terminals:
    river port(s): Puerto Aguirre (Paraguay/Parana)

    note: Bolivia has free port privileges in maritime ports in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Paraguay

  • Military and Security :: Bolivia
  • Military expenditures:
    1.5% of GDP (2017 est.)
    1.68% of GDP (2016)
    1.74% of GDP (2015)
    country comparison to the world: 76
    Military branches:
    Bolivian Armed Forces: Bolivian Army (Ejercito Boliviano, EB), Bolivian Naval Force (Fuerza Naval Boliviana, FNB, includes Marines), Bolivian Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Boliviana, FAB) (2017)
    Military service age and obligation:
    16-49 years of age for 12-month voluntary male and female military service; Bolivian citizenship required; minimum age of combat is 18; when annual number of volunteers falls short of goal, compulsory recruitment is effected, including conscription of boys as young as 14; 15-19 years of age for voluntary premilitary service, provides exemption from further military service (2017)
  • Transnational Issues :: Bolivia
  • Disputes - international:
    Chile and Peru rebuff Bolivia's reactivated claim to restore the Atacama corridor, ceded to Chile in 1884, but Chile offers instead unrestricted but not sovereign maritime access through Chile for Bolivian productscontraband smuggling, human trafficking, and illegal narcotic trafficking are problems in the porous areas of its border regions with all of its neighbors (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, and Peru)
    Trafficking in persons:
    current situation: Bolivia is a source country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking domestically and abroad; rural and poor Bolivians, most of whom are indigenous, and LGBT youth are particularly vulnerable; Bolivians perform forced labor domestically in mining, ranching, agriculture, and domestic service, and a significant number are in forced labor abroad in sweatshops, agriculture, domestic service, and the informal sector; women and girls are sex trafficked within Bolivia and in neighboring countries, such as Argentina, Peru, and Chile; a limited number of women from nearby countries are sex trafficked in Bolivia
    tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List – Bolivia does not comply fully with the minimum standards for the elimination of human trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; the government did not demonstrate overall increasing anti-trafficking efforts, and poor data collection made it difficult to assess the number of investigations, prosecutions, and victim identifications and referrals to care services; authorities did not adequately differentiate between human trafficking and other crimes, such as domestic violence and child abuse; law enforcement failed to implement an early detection protocol for identifying trafficking cases and lacked a formal process for identifying trafficking victims among vulnerable populations; specialized victim services were inadequately funded and virtually non-existent for adult women and male victims (2015)
    Illicit drugs:
    world's third-largest cultivator of coca (after Colombia and Peru) with an estimated 37,500 hectares under cultivation in 2016, a 3 percent increase over 2015; third largest producer of cocaine, estimated at 275 metric tons potential pure cocaine in 2016; transit country for Peruvian and Colombian cocaine destined for Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Paraguay, and Europe; weak border controls; some money-laundering activity related to narcotics trade; major cocaine consumption