South America :: BRAZIL
  • Introduction :: BRAZIL

  • Following more than three centuries under Portuguese rule, Brazil gained its independence in 1822, maintaining a monarchical system of government until the abolition of slavery in 1888 and the subsequent proclamation of a republic by the military in 1889. Brazilian coffee exporters politically dominated the country until populist leader Getulio VARGAS rose to power in 1930. By far the largest and most populous country in South America, Brazil underwent more than a half century of populist and military government until 1985, when the military regime peacefully ceded power to civilian rulers. Brazil continues to pursue industrial and agricultural growth and development of its interior. Having successfully weathered a period of global financial difficulty in the late 20th century, Brazil was seen as one of the world’s strongest emerging markets and a contributor to global growth. The awarding of the 2014 FIFA World Cup and 2016 Summer Olympic Games, the first ever to be held in South America, was seen as symbolic of the country’s rise. However, since about 2013, Brazil has been plagued by a shrinking economy, growing unemployment, and rising inflation. Political scandal resulted in the impeachment of President Dilma ROUSSEFF in May 2016, a conviction that was upheld by the Senate in August 2016; her vice president, Michel TEMER, will serve as president until 2018, completing her second term.
  • Geography :: BRAZIL

  • Eastern South America, bordering the Atlantic Ocean
    10 00 S, 55 00 W
    South America
    total: 8,515,770 sq km
    land: 8,358,140 sq km
    water: 157,630 sq km
    note: includes Arquipelago de Fernando de Noronha, Atol das Rocas, Ilha da Trindade, Ilhas Martin Vaz, and Penedos de Sao Pedro e Sao Paulo
    country comparison to the world: 6
    slightly smaller than the US
    total: 16,145 km
    border countries (10): Argentina 1,263 km, Bolivia 3,403 km, Colombia 1,790 km, French Guiana 649 km, Guyana 1,308 km, Paraguay 1,371 km, Peru 2,659 km, Suriname 515 km, Uruguay 1,050 km, Venezuela 2,137 km
    7,491 km
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    contiguous zone: 24 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    continental shelf: 200 nm or to edge of the continental margin
    mostly tropical, but temperate in south
    mostly flat to rolling lowlands in north; some plains, hills, mountains, and narrow coastal belt
    mean elevation: 320 m
    elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
    highest point: Pico da Neblina 2,994 m
    bauxite, gold, iron ore, manganese, nickel, phosphates, platinum, tin, rare earth elements, uranium, petroleum, hydropower, timber
    agricultural land: 32.9%
    arable land 8.6%; permanent crops 0.8%; permanent pasture 23.5%
    forest: 61.9%
    other: 5.2% (2011 est.)
    54,000 sq km (2012)
    the vast majority of people live along, or relatively near, the Atlantic coast in the east; the population core is in the southeast, anchored by the cities of Sao Paolo, Brasilia, and Rio de Janeiro
    recurring droughts in northeast; floods and occasional frost in south
    deforestation in Amazon Basin destroys the habitat and endangers a multitude of plant and animal species indigenous to the area; there is a lucrative illegal wildlife trade; air and water pollution in Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, and several other large cities; land degradation and water pollution caused by improper mining activities; wetland degradation; severe oil spills
    party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    largest country in South America and in the Southern Hemisphere; shares common boundaries with every South American country except Chile and Ecuador; most of the Pantanal, the world's largest tropical wetland, extends through the west central part of the country; shares Iguazu Falls, the world's largest waterfalls system, with Argentina
  • People and Society :: BRAZIL

  • 207,353,391 (July 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 5
    noun: Brazilian(s)
    adjective: Brazilian
    white 47.7%, mulatto (mixed white and black) 43.1%, black 7.6%, Asian 1.1%, indigenous 0.4% (2010 est.)
    Portuguese (official and most widely spoken language)
    note: less common languages include Spanish (border areas and schools), German, Italian, Japanese, English, and a large number of minor Amerindian languages
    Roman Catholic 64.6%, other Catholic 0.4%, Protestant 22.2% (includes Adventist 6.5%, Assembly of God 2.0%, Christian Congregation of Brazil 1.2%, Universal Kingdom of God 1.0%, other Protestant 11.5%), other Christian 0.7%, Spiritist 2.2%, other 1.4%, none 8%, unspecified 0.4% (2010 est.)
    Brazil's rapid fertility decline since the 1960s is the main factor behind the country's slowing population growth rate, aging population, and fast-paced demographic transition. Brasilia has not taken full advantage of its large working-age population to develop its human capital and strengthen its social and economic institutions but is funding a study abroad program to bring advanced skills back to the country. The current favorable age structure will begin to shift around 2025, with the labor force shrinking and the elderly starting to compose an increasing share of the total population. Well-funded public pensions have nearly wiped out poverty among the elderly, and Bolsa Familia and other social programs have lifted tens of millions out of poverty. More than half of Brazil's population is considered middle class, but poverty and income inequality levels remain high; the Northeast, North, and Center-West, women, and black, mixed race, and indigenous populations are disproportionately affected. Disparities in opportunities foster social exclusion and contribute to Brazil's high crime rate, particularly violent crime in cities and favelas.
    Brazil has traditionally been a net recipient of immigrants, with its southeast being the prime destination. After the importation of African slaves was outlawed in the mid-19th century, Brazil sought Europeans (Italians, Portuguese, Spaniards, and Germans) and later Asians (Japanese) to work in agriculture, especially coffee cultivation. Recent immigrants come mainly from Argentina, Chile, and Andean countries (many are unskilled illegal migrants) or are returning Brazilian nationals. Since Brazil's economic downturn in the 1980s, emigration to the United States, Europe, and Japan has been rising but is negligible relative to Brazil's total population. The majority of these emigrants are well-educated and middle-class. Fewer Brazilian peasants are emigrating to neighboring countries to take up agricultural work.
    0-14 years: 22.33% (male 23,599,867/female 22,696,756)
    15-24 years: 16.36% (male 17,212,048/female 16,721,295)
    25-54 years: 43.86% (male 45,114,076/female 45,836,147)
    55-64 years: 9.12% (male 8,931,065/female 9,974,723)
    65 years and over: 8.33% (male 7,356,838/female 9,910,576) (2017 est.)
    total dependency ratio: 43.8
    youth dependency ratio: 32.4
    elderly dependency ratio: 11.4
    potential support ratio: 8.7 (2015 est.)
    total: 31.6 years
    male: 30.7 years
    female: 32.4 years (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 104
    0.7% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 144
    14.1 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 136
    6.7 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 139
    -0.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 103
    the vast majority of people live along, or relatively near, the Atlantic coast in the east; the population core is in the southeast, anchored by the cities of Sao Paolo, Brasilia, and Rio de Janeiro
    urban population: 86.2% of total population (2017)
    rate of urbanization: 0.99% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    Sao Paulo 21.066 million; Rio de Janeiro 12.902 million; Belo Horizonte 5.716 million; BRASILIA (capital) 4.155 million; Fortaleza 3.88 million; Recife 3.739 million (2015)
    at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.89 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
    44 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 103
    total: 18 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 21.2 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 14.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 94
    total population: 73.8 years
    male: 70.2 years
    female: 77.5 years (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 127
    1.75 children born/woman (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 160
    8.3% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 51
    1.85 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
    2.3 beds/1,000 population (2012)
    improved:
    urban: 100% of population
    rural: 87% of population
    total: 98.1% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 0% of population
    rural: 13% of population
    total: 1.9% of population (2015 est.)
    improved:
    urban: 88% of population
    rural: 51.5% of population
    total: 82.8% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 12% of population
    rural: 48.5% of population
    total: 17.2% of population (2015 est.)
    0.6% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 60
    830,000 (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 11
    14,000 (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 18
    degree of risk: very high
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea and hepatitis A
    vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria
    water contact disease: schistosomiasis
    note: active local transmission of Zika virus by Aedes species mosquitoes has been identified in this country (as of August 2016); it poses an important risk (a large number of cases possible) among US citizens if bitten by an infective mosquito; other less common ways to get Zika are through sex, via blood transfusion, or during pregnancy, in which the pregnant woman passes Zika virus to her fetus (2016)
    20.1% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 102
    2.2% (2007)
    country comparison to the world: 121
    6% of GDP (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 49
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 92.6%
    male: 92.2%
    female: 92.9% (2015 est.)
    total: 15 years
    male: 15 years
    female: 16 years (2014)
    total number: 959,942
    percentage: 3%
    note: data represent children ages 5-13 (2009 est.)
    total: 16.1%
    male: 13.8%
    female: 21.2% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 76
  • Government :: BRAZIL

  • conventional long form: Federative Republic of Brazil
    conventional short form: Brazil
    local long form: Republica Federativa do Brasil
    local short form: Brasil
    etymology: the country name derives from the brazilwood tree that used to grow plentifully along the coast of Brazil and that was used to produce a deep red dye
    federal presidential republic
    name: Brasilia
    geographic coordinates: 15 47 S, 47 55 W
    time difference: UTC-3 (2 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: +1hr, begins third Sunday in October; ends third Sunday in February
    note: Brazil has three time zones, including one for the Fernando de Noronha Islands
    26 states (estados, singular - estado) and 1 federal district* (distrito federal); Acre, Alagoas, Amapa, Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara, Distrito Federal*, Espirito Santo, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Para, Paraiba, Parana, Pernambuco, Piaui, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Norte, Rio Grande do Sul, Rondonia, Roraima, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo, Sergipe, Tocantins
    7 September 1822 (from Portugal)
    Independence Day, 7 September (1822)
    several previous; latest ratified 5 October 1988; amended many times, last in 2016 (2016)
    civil law; note - a new civil law code was enacted in 2002 replacing the 1916 code
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    citizenship by birth: yes
    citizenship by descent: yes
    dual citizenship recognized: yes
    residency requirement for naturalization: 4 years
    voluntary between 16 to 18 years of age, over 70, and the illiterate; compulsory between 18 to 70 years of age; note - military conscripts by law cannot vote
    chief of state: President Michel Miguel Elias TEMER Lulia (since 31 August 2016); Vice President (vacant); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
    head of government: President Michel Miguel Elias TEMER Lulia (since 31 August 2016); Vice President (vacant)
    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
    elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a single 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 5 October 2014 with runoff on 26 October 2014 (next to be held in October 2018)
    election results: Dilma ROUSSEFF reelected president in a runoff election; percent of vote - Dilma ROUSSEFF (PT) 51.6%, Aecio NEVES (PSDB) 48.4%
    note: on 12 May 2016, Brazil's Senate voted to hold an impeachment trial of President Dilma ROUSSEFF, who was then suspended from her executive duties; Vice President Michel TEMER then took over as acting president; on 31 August 2016 the Senate voted 61-20 in favor of conviction and her removal from office; TEMER will now serve as president for the remainder of ROUSSEFF's term until 1 January 2019
    description: bicameral National Congress or Congresso Nacional consists of the Federal Senate or Senado Federal (81 seats; 3 members each from 26 states and 3 from the federal district directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 8-year terms, with one-third and two-thirds of the membership elected alternately every 4 years) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camara dos Deputados (513 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms)
    elections: Federal Senate - last held on 5 October 2014 for one-third of the Senate (next to be held in October 2018 for two-thirds of the Senate); Chamber of Deputies - last held on 5 October 2014 (next to be held in October 2018)
    election results: Federal Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PMDB 5, PSDB 4, PDT 4, PSB 3, DEM (formerly PFL) 3, PT 2, PSD 2, PTB 2, PP 1, PR 1; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PT 70, PMDB 66, PSDB 54, PSD 37, PP 36, PR 34, PSB 34, PTB 25, DEM (formerly PFL) 22, PRB 21, PDT 19, SD 15, PSC 12, PROS 11, PCdoB 10, PPS 10, PV 8, PHS 5, PSOL 5, PTN 4, PMN 3, PRP 3, PEN 2, PTC 2, PSDC 2, PTdoB 1, PSL 1, PRTB 1
    highest court(s): Supreme Federal Court or Supremo Tribunal Federal (consists of 11 justices)
    judge selection and term of office: justices appointed by the president and approved by the Federal Senate; justices appointed to serve until mandatory retirement at age 75
    subordinate courts: Tribunal of the Union, Federal Appeals Court, Superior Court of Justice, Superior Electoral Court, regional federal courts; state court system
    Brazilian Communist Party or PCB [Ivan Martins PINHEIRO]
    Brazilian Democratic Movement Party or PMDB [Michel TEMER]
    Brazilian Labor Party or PTB [Cristiane BRASIL]
    Brazilian Renewal Labor Party or PRTB [Jose Levy FIDELIX da Cruz]
    Brazilian Republican Party or PRB [Marcos Antonio PEREIRA]
    Brazilian Social Democracy Party or PSDB [Aecio NEVES]
    Brazilian Socialist Party or PSB [Carlos Roberto SIQUEIRA de Barros]
    Christian Labor Party or PTC [Daniel TOURINHO]
    Christian Social Democratic Party or PSDC [Jose Maria EYMAEL]
    Communist Party of Brazil or PCdoB [Jose Renato RABELO]
    Democratic Labor Party or PDT [Carlos Roberto LUPI]
    The Democrats or DEM [Jose AGRIPINO] (formerly Liberal Front Party or PFL)
    Free Homeland Party or PPL [Sergio RUBENS]
    Green Party or PV [Jose Luiz PENNA]
    Humanist Party of Solidarity or PHS [Eduardo MACHADO]
    Labor Party of Brazil or PTdoB [Luis Henrique de Oliveira RESENDE]
    National Ecologic Party or PEN [Adilson Barroso OLIVEIRA]
    National Labor Party or PTN [Jose Masci de ABREU]
    National Mobilization Party or PMN [Telma RIBEIRO dos Santos]
    Party of the Republic or PR [Alfredo NASCIMENTO]
    Popular Socialist Party or PPS [Roberto Joao Pereira FREIRE]
    Progressive Party or PP [Ciro NOGUEIRA]
    Progressive Republican Party or PRP [Ovasco Roma Altimari RESENDE]
    Republican Social Order Party or PROS [Euripedes JUNIOR]
    Social Christian Party or PSC [Vitor Jorge Abdala NOSSEIS]
    Social Democratic Party or PSD [Guilherme CAMPOS]
    Social Liberal Party or PSL [Luciano Caldas BIVAR]
    Socialism and Freedom Party or PSOL [Luiz ARAUJO]
    Solidarity or SD [Paulo PEREIRA DA SILVA]
    United Socialist Workers' Party or PSTU [Jose Maria DE ALMEIDA]
    Workers' Cause Party or PCO [Rui Costa PIMENTA]
    Workers' Party or PT [Rui FALCAO]
    Landless Workers' Movement or MST
    other: industrial federations; labor unions and federations; large farmers' associations; religious groups including evangelical Christian churches and the Catholic Church
    AfDB (nonregional member), BIS, BRICS, CAN (associate), CD, CELAC, CPLP, FAO, FATF, G-15, G-20, G-24, G-5, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, LAS (observer), Mercosur, MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS, OECD (enhanced engagement), OPANAL, OPCW, Paris Club (associate), PCA, SICA (observer), UN, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, Union Latina, UNISFA, UNITAR, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    chief of mission: Ambassador Sergio Silva do AMARAL (since 16 September 2016)
    chancery: 3006 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 238-2700
    FAX: [1] (202) 238-2827
    consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Hartford (CT), Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, San Francisco, Washington, DC
    chief of mission: Ambassador Liliana AYALDE (since 31 October 2013)
    embassy: Avenida das Nacoes, Quadra 801, Lote 3, Distrito Federal Cep 70403-900, Brasilia
    mailing address: Unit 7500, DPO, AA 34030
    telephone: [55] (61) 3312-7000
    FAX: [55] (61) 3225-9136
    consulate(s) general: Recife, Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo
    green with a large yellow diamond in the center bearing a blue celestial globe with 27 white five-pointed stars; the globe has a white equatorial band with the motto ORDEM E PROGRESSO (Order and Progress); the current flag was inspired by the banner of the former Empire of Brazil (1822-1889); on the imperial flag, the green represented the House of Braganza of Pedro I, the first Emperor of Brazil, while the yellow stood for the Habsburg Family of his wife; on the modern flag the green represents the forests of the country and the yellow rhombus its mineral wealth (the diamond shape roughly mirrors that of the country); the blue circle and stars, which replaced the coat of arms of the original flag, depict the sky over Rio de Janeiro on the morning of 15 November 1889 - the day the Republic of Brazil was declared; the number of stars has changed with the creation of new states and has risen from an original 21 to the current 27 (one for each state and the Federal District)
    note: one of several flags where a prominent component of the design reflects the shape of the country; other such flags are those of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Eritrea, and Vanuatu
    Southern Cross constellation; national colors: green, yellow, blue
    name: "Hino Nacional Brasileiro" (Brazilian National Anthem)
    lyrics/music: Joaquim Osorio Duque ESTRADA/Francisco Manoel DA SILVA
    note: music adopted 1890, lyrics adopted 1922; the anthem's music, composed in 1822, was used unofficially for many years before it was adopted
  • Economy :: BRAZIL

  • Brazil is the eighth-largest economy in the world, but is recovering from a recession in 2015 and 2016 that ranks as the worst in the country’s history. Falling commodity prices reduced export revenues and investment, which weakened the Brazilian real and cut tax revenues. The weaker real made existing public debt, which was largely denominated in foreign currency, more expensive. Lower tax revenues strained the government budget.
    Economic reforms proposed in 2016 aim to slow the growth of government spending and reduce barriers to foreign investment. Government spending growth helped to push public debt to 70% of GDP at the end of 2016 up from 50% in 2012. Policies to strengthen Brazil’s workforce and industrial sector, such as local content requirements, may have boosted employment at the expense of investment.
    Former President Dilma ROUSSEFF was impeached and convicted in August 2016 for moving funds among government budgets; the economy has also been affected by multiple corruption scandals involving private companies and government officials. Sanctions against the firms involved — some of the largest in Brazil — has limited their business opportunities, producing a ripple effect on associated businesses and contractors. In addition, investment in these companies has declined because of the scandals.
    Brazil is a member of the Common Market of the South (Mercosur), a trade bloc including Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay, and Venezuela. After the Asian and Russian financial crises, Mercosur adopted a protectionist stance to guard against exposure to the volatility of foreign markets. Brazil and its Mercosur partners have pledged to open the bloc to more trade and investment, but changes require approval of all five members, which makes policy adjustments too difficult to enact.
    $3.141 trillion (2016 est.)
    $3.258 trillion (2015 est.)
    $3.386 trillion (2014 est.)
    note: data are in 2016 dollars
    country comparison to the world: 8
    $1.799 trillion (2016 est.)
    -3.6% (2016 est.)
    -3.8% (2015 est.)
    0.5% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 210
    $15,200 (2016 est.)
    $15,900 (2015 est.)
    $16,700 (2014 est.)
    note: data are in 2016 dollars
    country comparison to the world: 107
    16.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
    15.9% of GDP (2015 est.)
    16.8% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 116
    household consumption: 62.2%
    government consumption: 20%
    investment in fixed capital: 19.8%
    investment in inventories: -0.5%
    exports of goods and services: 12.8%
    imports of goods and services: -14.3% (2016 est.)
    agriculture: 5.2%
    industry: 22.7%
    services: 72%
    (2016 est.)
    coffee, soybeans, wheat, rice, corn, sugarcane, cocoa, citrus; beef
    textiles, shoes, chemicals, cement, lumber, iron ore, tin, steel, aircraft, motor vehicles and parts, other machinery and equipment
    -8.4% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 200
    101.9 million (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 6
    agriculture: 10%
    industry: 39.8%
    services: 50.2%
    (2016 est.)
    11.8% (2016 est.)
    8.9% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 141
    3.7%
    note: approximately 4% of the population are below the "extreme" poverty line (2016 est.)
    lowest 10%: 1.2%
    highest 10%: 41.6% (2014 est.)
    49.7 (2014)
    55.3 (2001)
    country comparison to the world: 19
    revenues: $311.9 billion
    expenditures: $262.6 billion (2016 est.)
    17.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 167
    2.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 13
    73.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
    66.4% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 40
    calendar year
    8.7% (2016 est.)
    9% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 201
    13.75% (31 December 2016 est.)
    14.25% (31 December 2015)
    country comparison to the world: 14
    47.4% (31 December 2016 est.)
    43.96% (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 2
    $107 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    $85.64 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 34
    $928.9 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $835.3 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 18
    $2.076 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
    $1.644 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 13
    $490.5 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $843.9 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $1.02 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 21
    -$23.51 billion (2016 est.)
    -$58.88 billion (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 190
    $189.7 billion (2016 est.)
    $191.1 billion (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 23
    transport equipment, iron ore, soybeans, footwear, coffee, automobiles
    China 19%, US 12.6%, Argentina 7.3%, Netherlands 5.6% (2016)
    $134.2 billion (2016 est.)
    $171.4 billion (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 30
    machinery, electrical and transport equipment, chemical products, oil, automotive parts, electronics
    US 17.6%, China 16.9%, Argentina 6.7%, Germany 6.6%, South Korea 4.4% (2016)
    $373.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    $368.7 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 7
    $544.1 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    $542.3 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 21
    $753.2 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    $615 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 15
    $295 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    $288.5 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 23
    reals (BRL) per US dollar -
    3.39 (2016 est.)
    3.33 (2015 est.)
    3.33 (2014 est.)
    2.35 (2013 est.)
    1.95 (2012 est.)
  • Energy :: BRAZIL

  • population without electricity: 800,000
    electrification - total population: 99.5%
    electrification - urban areas: 100%
    electrification - rural areas: 97% (2013)
    577 billion kWh (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 8
    518 billion kWh (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 8
    3 million kWh (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 95
    34 billion kWh (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 5
    135 million kW (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 9
    18.7% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 195
    1.5% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 32
    69.3% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 25
    10.5% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 35
    2.532 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 10
    397,100 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 24
    394,400 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 24
    16 billion bbl (1 January 2016 es)
    country comparison to the world: 15
    2.811 million bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 8
    3.144 million bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 7
    296,200 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 27
    519,800 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 17
    20.35 billion cu m (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 33
    37.57 billion cu m (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 26
    100 million cu m (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 46
    17.32 billion cu m (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 21
    471.1 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
    country comparison to the world: 32
    535 million Mt (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 13
  • Communications :: BRAZIL

  • total subscriptions: 41,846,846
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 20 (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 6
    total: 244,066,759
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 119 (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 6
    general assessment: good working system including an extensive microwave radio relay system and a domestic satellite system with 64 earth stations
    domestic: fixed-line connections have remained relatively stable in recent years and stand at about 20 per 100 persons; less-expensive mobile-cellular technology has been a major driver in expanding telephone service to the lower-income segments of the population with mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 120 per 100 persons
    international: country code - 55; landing point for a number of submarine cables, including Americas-1, Americas-2, Atlantis-2, GlobeNet, South America-1, South American Crossing/Latin American Nautilus, and UNISUR that provide direct connectivity to South and Central America, the Caribbean, the US, Africa, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean region east), connected by microwave relay system to Mercosur Brazilsat B3 satellite earth station (2016)
    state-run Radiobras operates a radio and a TV network; more than 1,000 radio stations and more than 100 TV channels operating - mostly privately owned; private media ownership highly concentrated (2007)
    .br
    total: 122,841,218
    percent of population: 59.7% (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 6
  • Transportation :: BRAZIL

  • number of registered air carriers: 9
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 443
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 102,039,359
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 149.393 million mt-km (2015)
    PP (2016)
    4,093 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 2
    total: 698
    over 3,047 m: 7
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 27
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 179
    914 to 1,523 m: 436
    under 914 m: 49 (2017)
    total: 3,395
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 92
    914 to 1,523 m: 1,619
    under 914 m: 1,684 (2013)
    13 (2013)
    condensate/gas 251 km; gas 17,312 km; liquid petroleum gas 352 km; oil 4,831 km; refined products 4,722 km (2013)
    total: 29,849.9 km
    broad gauge: 5,822.3 km 1.600-m gauge (498.3 km electrified)
    dual gauge: 492 km 1.600-1.000-m gauge
    standard gauge: 194 km 1.435-m gauge
    narrow gauge: 23,341.6 km 1.000-m gauge (24 km electrified) (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 10
    total: 1,580,964 km
    paved: 212,798 km
    unpaved: 1,368,166 km
    note: does not include urban roads (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 4
    50,000 km (most in areas remote from industry and population) (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 3
    total: 109
    by type: bulk carrier 18, cargo 16, chemical tanker 7, container 13, liquefied gas 11, petroleum tanker 39, roll on/roll off 5
    foreign-owned: 27 (Chile 1, Denmark 3, Germany 6, Greece 1, Norway 3, Spain 12, Turkey 1)
    registered in other countries: 36 (Argentina 1, Bahamas 1, Ghana 1, Liberia 20, Marshall Islands 1, Panama 3, Singapore 9) (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 50
    major seaport(s): Belem, Paranagua, Rio Grande, Rio de Janeiro, Santos, Sao Sebastiao, Tubarao
    river port(s): Manaus (Amazon)
    dry bulk cargo port(s): Sepetiba ore terminal, Tubarao
    container port(s) (TEUs): Santos (3,780,000) (2015)
    oil terminal(s): DTSE/Gegua oil terminal, Ilha Grande (Gebig), Guaiba Island terminal, Guamare oil terminal
    LNG terminal(s) (import): Pecem, Rio de Janiero
  • Military and Security :: BRAZIL

  • 1.32% of GDP (2016)
    1.36% of GDP (2015)
    1.33% of GDP (2014)
    1.33% of GDP (2013)
    1.38% of GDP (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 65
    Brazilian Army (Exercito Brasileiro, EB), Brazilian Navy (Marinha do Brasil, MB, includes Naval Air and Marine Corps (Corpo de Fuzileiros Navais)), Brazilian Air Force (Forca Aerea Brasileira, FAB) (2011)
    18-45 years of age for compulsory military service; conscript service obligation is 10-12 months; 17-45 years of age for voluntary service; an increasing percentage of the ranks are "long-service" volunteer professionals; women were allowed to serve in the armed forces beginning in early 1980s, when the Brazilian Army became the first army in South America to accept women into career ranks; women serve in Navy and Air Force only in Women's Reserve Corps (2012)
  • Transnational Issues :: BRAZIL

  • uncontested boundary dispute between Brazil and Uruguay over Braziliera/Brasiliera Island in the Quarai/Cuareim River leaves the tripoint with Argentina in question; smuggling of firearms and narcotics continues to be an issue along the Uruguay-Brazil border; Colombian-organized illegal narcotics and paramilitary activities penetrate Brazil's border region with Venezuela
    second-largest consumer of cocaine in the world; illicit producer of cannabis; trace amounts of coca cultivation in the Amazon region, used for domestic consumption; government has a large-scale eradication program to control cannabis; important transshipment country for Bolivian, Colombian, and Peruvian cocaine headed for Europe; also used by traffickers as a way station for narcotics air transshipments between Peru and Colombia; upsurge in drug-related violence and weapons smuggling; important market for Colombian, Bolivian, and Peruvian cocaine; illicit narcotics proceeds are often laundered through the financial system; significant illicit financial activity in the Tri-Border Area