Africa :: Burundi
  • Introduction :: Burundi
  • Background:
    Burundi is a small country in Central-East Africa bordered by Tanzania, Rwanda, the Democratic Republic of Congo, and Lake Tanganyika. Burundi gained its independence from Belgium in 1962. Much of its history has been marked by political violence and non-democratic transfers of power; Burundi's first democratically elected president, a Hutu, was assassinated in October 1993 after only 100 days in office. The internationally brokered Arusha Agreement, signed in 2000, and subsequent ceasefire agreements with armed movements ended the 1993-2005 civil war. Burundi’s second democratic elections were held in 2005. Pierre NKURUNZIZA was elected president in 2005 and 2010, and again in a controversial election in 2015. Burundi continues to face many economic and political challenges.
  • Geography :: Burundi
  • Location:
    Central Africa, east of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, west of Tanzania
    Geographic coordinates:
    3 30 S, 30 00 E
    Map references:
    Africa
    Area:
    total: 27,830 sq km
    land: 25,680 sq km
    water: 2,150 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 147
    Area - comparative:
    slightly smaller than Maryland
    Land boundaries:
    total: 1,140 km
    border countries (3): Democratic Republic of the Congo 236 km, Rwanda 315 km, Tanzania 589 km
    Coastline:
    0 km (landlocked)
    Maritime claims:
    none (landlocked)
    Climate:
    equatorial; high plateau with considerable altitude variation (772 m to 2,670 m above sea level); average annual temperature varies with altitude from 23 to 17 degrees Celsius but is generally moderate as the average altitude is about 1,700 m; average annual rainfall is about 150 cm; two wet seasons (February to May and September to November), and two dry seasons (June to August and December to January)
    Terrain:
    hilly and mountainous, dropping to a plateau in east, some plains
    Elevation:
    mean elevation: 1,504 m
    elevation extremes: 772 m lowest point: Lake Tanganyika
    2670 highest point: Heha
    Natural resources:
    nickel, uranium, rare earth oxides, peat, cobalt, copper, platinum, vanadium, arable land, hydropower, niobium, tantalum, gold, tin, tungsten, kaolin, limestone
    Land use:
    agricultural land: 73.3% (2011 est.)
    arable land: 38.9% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 15.6% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 18.8% (2011 est.)
    forest: 6.6% (2011 est.)
    other: 20.1% (2011 est.)
    Irrigated land:
    230 sq km (2012)
    Population distribution:
    one of Africa's most densely populated countries; concentrations tend to be in the north and along the northern shore of Lake Tanganyika in the west; most people live on farms near areas of fertile volcanic soil
    Natural hazards:
    flooding; landslides; drought
    Environment - current issues:
    soil erosion as a result of overgrazing and the expansion of agriculture into marginal lands; deforestation (little forested land remains because of uncontrolled cutting of trees for fuel); habitat loss threatens wildlife populations
    Environment - international agreements:
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
    Geography - note:
    landlocked; straddles crest of the Nile-Congo watershed; the Kagera, which drains into Lake Victoria, is the most remote headstream of the White Nile
  • People and Society :: Burundi
  • Population:
    11,844,520 (July 2018 est.)

    note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected

    country comparison to the world: 76
    Nationality:
    noun: Burundian(s)
    adjective: Burundian
    Ethnic groups:
    Hutu 85%, Tutsi 14%, Twa (Pygmy) 1%, Europeans 3,000, South Asians 2,000
    Languages:
    Kirundi 29.7% (official), Kirundi and other language 9.1%, French (official); French and other language 0.3%, Swahili; Swahili and other language 0.2% (along Lake Tanganyika and in the Bujumbura area), English (official); English and other language 0.06%, more than 2 languages 3.7%, unspecified 56.9% (2008 est.)

    note: data represent language read and written by people 10 years of age or older; spoken Kirundi is nearly universal

    Religions:
    Roman Catholic 62.1%, Protestant 23.9% (includes Adventist 2.3% and other Protestant 21.6%), Muslim 2.5%, other 3.6%, unspecified 7.9% (2008 est.)
    Demographic profile:

    Burundi is a densely populated country with a high population growth rate, factors that combined with land scarcity and poverty place a large share of its population at risk of food insecurity. About 90% of the population relies on subsistence agriculture. Subdivision of land to sons, and redistribution to returning refugees, results in smaller, overworked, and less productive plots. Food shortages, poverty, and a lack of clean water contribute to a 60% chronic malnutrition rate among children. A lack of reproductive health services has prevented a significant reduction in Burundi’s maternal mortality and fertility rates, which are both among the world’s highest. With two-thirds of its population under the age of 25 and a birth rate of about 6 children per woman, Burundi’s population will continue to expand rapidly for decades to come, putting additional strain on a poor country.

    Historically, migration flows into and out of Burundi have consisted overwhelmingly of refugees from violent conflicts. In the last decade, more than a half million Burundian refugees returned home from neighboring countries, mainly Tanzania. Reintegrating the returnees has been problematic due to their prolonged time in exile, land scarcity, poor infrastructure, poverty, and unemployment. Repatriates and existing residents (including internally displaced persons) compete for limited land and other resources. To further complicate matters, international aid organizations reduced their assistance because they no longer classified Burundi as a post-conflict country. Conditions have deteriorated since renewed violence erupted in April 2015, causing another outpouring of refugees. In addition to refugee out-migration, Burundi has hosted thousands of refugees from neighboring countries, mostly from the Democratic Republic of the Congo and lesser numbers from Rwanda.

    Age structure:
    0-14 years: 45.52% (male 2,712,836 /female 2,678,223)
    15-24 years: 19.21% (male 1,135,145 /female 1,139,717)
    25-54 years: 28.7% (male 1,694,547 /female 1,704,369)
    55-64 years: 3.89% (male 218,272 /female 242,855)
    65 years and over: 2.69% (male 137,590 /female 180,966) (2018 est.)
    population pyramid: population pyramid
    Dependency ratios:
    total dependency ratio: 89.6 (2015 est.)
    youth dependency ratio: 84.8 (2015 est.)
    elderly dependency ratio: 4.7 (2015 est.)
    potential support ratio: 21.1 (2015 est.)
    Median age:
    total: 17.1 years
    male: 16.8 years
    female: 17.3 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 221
    Population growth rate:
    3.23% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 4
    Birth rate:
    40.9 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 7
    Death rate:
    8.6 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 74
    Net migration rate:
    0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 77
    Population distribution:
    one of Africa's most densely populated countries; concentrations tend to be in the north and along the northern shore of Lake Tanganyika in the west; most people live on farms near areas of fertile volcanic soil
    Urbanization:
    urban population: 13% of total population (2018)
    rate of urbanization: 5.68% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    Major urban areas - population:
    899,000 BUJUMBURA (capital) (2018)
    Sex ratio:
    at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    55-64 years: 0.89 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    Mother's mean age at first birth:
    21.3 years (2010 est.)

    note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

    Maternal mortality rate:
    712 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 8
    Infant mortality rate:
    total: 57.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    male: 63.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    female: 50.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 18
    Life expectancy at birth:
    total population: 61.4 years (2018 est.)
    male: 59.6 years (2018 est.)
    female: 63.2 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 203
    Total fertility rate:
    5.93 children born/woman (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 3
    Contraceptive prevalence rate:
    28.5% (2016/17)
    Health expenditures:
    7.5% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 65
    Hospital bed density:
    0.8 beds/1,000 population (2014)
    Drinking water source:
    improved: urban: 91.1% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 73.8% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 75.9% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 8.9% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 26.2% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 24.1% of population (2015 est.)
    Sanitation facility access:
    improved: urban: 43.8% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 48.6% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 48% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 56.2% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 51.4% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 52% of population (2015 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
    1.1% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 41
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
    78,000 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 48
    HIV/AIDS - deaths:
    1,700 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 56
    Major infectious diseases:
    degree of risk: very high (2016)
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever (2016)
    vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever (2016)
    water contact diseases: schistosomiasis (2016)
    animal contact diseases: rabies (2016)
    Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
    5.4% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 178
    Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
    29.3% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 10
    Education expenditures:
    5.4% of GDP (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 54
    Literacy:
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)
    total population: 85.6% (2015 est.)
    male: 88.2% (2015 est.)
    female: 83.1% (2015 est.)
    School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
    total: 11 years (2013)
    male: 11 years (2013)
    female: 10 years (2013)
    Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
    total: 2.9% (2014 est.)
    male: 4.4% (2014 est.)
    female: 2% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 164
  • Government :: Burundi
  • Country name:
    conventional long form: Republic of Burundi
    conventional short form: Burundi
    local long form: Republique du Burundi/Republika y'u Burundi
    local short form: Burundi
    former: Urundi, German East Africa, Kingdom of Burundi
    etymology: name derived from the pre-colonial Kingdom of Burundi (17th-19th century)
    Government type:
    presidential republic
    Capital:
    name: Bujumbura
    geographic coordinates: 3 22 S, 29 21 E
    time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    Administrative divisions:
    18 provinces; Bubanza, Bujumbura Mairie, Bujumbura Rural, Bururi, Cankuzo, Cibitoke, Gitega, Karuzi, Kayanza, Kirundo, Makamba, Muramvya, Muyinga, Mwaro, Ngozi, Rumonge, Rutana, Ruyigi
    Independence:
    1 July 1962 (from UN trusteeship under Belgian administration)
    National holiday:
    Independence Day, 1 July (1962)
    Constitution:
    history: several previous; latest ratified by referendum 28 February 2005 (2018)
    amendments: proposed by the president of the republic after consultation with the government or by absolute majority support of the membership in both houses of Parliament; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote by the Senate membership and at least four-fifths majority vote by the National Assembly; the president can opt to submit amendment bills to a referendum; constitutional articles including those on national unity, the secularity of Burundi, its democratic form of government, and its sovereignty cannot be amended; amended 2018 (2018)
    International law organization participation:
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; withdrew from ICCt in October 2017
    Citizenship:
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Burundi
    dual citizenship recognized: no
    residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years
    Suffrage:
    18 years of age; universal
    Executive branch:
    chief of state: President Pierre NKURUNZIZA (since 26 August 2005); First Vice President Gaston SINDIMWO (since 20 August 2015); Second Vice President Joseph BUTORE (since 20 August 2015); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
    head of government: President Pierre NKURUNZIZA (since 26 August 2005); First Vice President Gaston SINDIMWO (since 20 August 2015); Second Vice President Joseph BUTORE (since 20 August 2015)
    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by president
    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 21 July 2015 (next to be held in 2020); vice presidents nominated by the president, endorsed by Parliament; note - a 2018 constitutional referendum effective for the 2020 election, approved reinstatement of the prime minister position, reduced the number of vice presidents from 2 to 1, and increased the presidential term from 5 to 7 years with a 2-consecutive-term limit
    election results: Pierre NKURUNZIZA reelected president; percent of vote - Pierre NKURUNZIZA (CNDD-FDD) 69.4%, Agathon RWASA (Hope of Burundians - Amizerio y'ABARUNDI) 19%, other 11.6%
    Legislative branch:
    description: bicameral Parliament or Parlement consists of:
    Senate or Inama Nkenguzamateka (43 seats in the July 2015 election; 36 members indirectly elected by an electoral college of provincial councils using a three-round voting system, which requires a two-thirds majority vote in the first two rounds and simple majority vote for the two leading candidates in the final round; 4 seats reserved for former heads of state, 3 seats reserved for Twas, and 30% of all votes reserved for women; members serve 5-year terms)
    National Assembly or Inama Nshingamateka (121 seats in the June 2015 election; 100 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 21 co-opted members; 60% of seats allocated to Hutu and 40% to Tutsi; 3 seats reserved for Twas; 30% of total seats reserved for women; members serve 5-year terms)
    elections:
    Senate - last held on 24 July 2015 (next to be held in 2019)
    National Assembly - last held on 29 June 2015 (next to be held in 2020)
    election results:
    Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - CNDD-FDD 33, FRODEBU 2, CNDD 1, former heads of state 4, Twas 3, women 8
    National Assembly - percent of vote by party - CNDD-FDD 60.3%, Independents of Hope 11.2%, UPRONA 2.5%, other 26%; seats by party - CNDD-FDD 77, Independents of Hope 21, UPRONA 2, women 18, Twas 3
    Judicial branch:
    highest courts: Supreme Court (consists of 9 judges and organized into judicial, administrative, and cassation chambers); Constitutional Court (consists of 7 members)
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges nominated by the Judicial Service Commission, a 15-member independent body of judicial and legal profession officials), appointed by the president and confirmed by the Senate; judge tenure NA; Constitutional Court judges appointed by the president and confirmed by the Senate and serve 6-year nonrenewable terms
    subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; County Courts; Courts of Residence; Martial Court; Court Against Corruption; Commercial Court; Commerce Court
    Political parties and leaders:
    Front for Democracy in Burundi or FRODEBU [Keffa NIBIZI]
    Hope of Burundians (Amizero y'Abarundi) [Agathon RWASA, Charles NDITIJE]
    Movement for Solidarity and Development or MSD [Alexis SINDUHIJE]
    National Council for the Defense of Democracy or CNDD [Leonard NYANGOMA]
    National Council for the Defense of Democracy - Front for the Defense of Democracy or CNDD-FDD [Evariste NDAYISHIMIYE]
    National Liberation Forces or FNL [Jacques BIGITIMANA]
    Union for National Progress (Union pour le Progress Nationale) or UPRONA [Abel GASHATSI]
    International organization participation:
    ACP, AfDB, AU, CEMAC, CEPGL, CICA, COMESA, EAC, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    Diplomatic representation in the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge D’Affaires Benjamin MANIRAKIZA (since 7 December 2017)
    chancery: 2233 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Suite 408, Washington, DC 20007
    telephone: [1] (202) 342-2574
    FAX: [1] (202) 342-2578
    Diplomatic representation from the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador Anne S. CASPER (since 20 October 2016)
    embassy: Avenue Des Etats-Unis, Bujumbura
    mailing address: B.P. 1720, Bujumbura
    telephone: [257] 22-207-000
    FAX: [257] 22-222-926
    Flag description:
    divided by a white diagonal cross into red panels (top and bottom) and green panels (hoist side and fly side) with a white disk superimposed at the center bearing three red six-pointed stars outlined in green arranged in a triangular design (one star above, two stars below); green symbolizes hope and optimism, white purity and peace, and red the blood shed in the struggle for independence; the three stars in the disk represent the three major ethnic groups: Hutu, Twa, Tutsi, as well as the three elements in the national motto: unity, work, progress
    National symbol(s):
    lion; national colors: red, white, green
    National anthem:
    name: "Burundi Bwacu" (Our Beloved Burundi)
    lyrics/music: Jean-Baptiste NTAHOKAJA/Marc BARENGAYABO

    note: adopted 1962

  • Economy :: Burundi
  • Economy - overview:

    Burundi is a landlocked, resource-poor country with an underdeveloped manufacturing sector. Agriculture accounts for over 40% of GDP and employs more than 90% of the population. Burundi's primary exports are coffee and tea, which account for more than half of foreign exchange earnings, but these earnings are subject to fluctuations in weather and international coffee and tea prices, Burundi is heavily dependent on aid from bilateral and multilateral donors, as well as foreign exchange earnings from participation in the African Union Mission to Somalia (AMISOM). Foreign aid represented 48% of Burundi's national income in 2015, one of the highest percentages in Sub-Saharan Africa, but this figure decreased to 33.5% in 2016 due to political turmoil surrounding President NKURUNZIZA’s bid for a third term. Burundi joined the East African Community (EAC) in 2009.

    Burundi faces several underlying weaknesses – low governmental capacity, corruption, a high poverty rate, poor educational levels, a weak legal system, a poor transportation network, and overburdened utilities – that have prevented the implementation of planned economic reforms. The purchasing power of most Burundians has decreased as wage increases have not kept pace with inflation, which reached approximately 18% in 2017.

    Real GDP growth dropped precipitously following political events in 2015 and has yet to recover to pre-conflict levels. Continued resistance by donors and the international community will restrict Burundi’s economic growth as the country deals with a large current account deficit.

    GDP (purchasing power parity):
    $8.007 billion (2017 est.)
    $8.007 billion (2016 est.)
    $8.091 billion (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 164
    GDP (official exchange rate):
    $3.396 billion (2017 est.) (2017 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate:
    0% (2017 est.)
    -1% (2016 est.)
    -4% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 196
    GDP - per capita (PPP):
    $700 (2017 est.)
    $800 (2016 est.)
    $800 (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 227
    Gross national saving:
    -5.3% of GDP (2017 est.)
    -4.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
    -6.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 183
    GDP - composition, by end use:
    household consumption: 83% (2017 est.)
    government consumption: 20.8% (2017 est.)
    investment in fixed capital: 16% (2017 est.)
    investment in inventories: 0% (2017 est.)
    exports of goods and services: 5.5% (2017 est.)
    imports of goods and services: -25.3% (2017 est.)
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
    agriculture: 39.5% (2017 est.)
    industry: 16.4% (2017 est.)
    services: 44.2% (2017 est.)
    Agriculture - products:
    coffee, cotton, tea, corn, beans, sorghum, sweet potatoes, bananas, cassava (manioc, tapioca); beef, milk, hides
    Industries:
    light consumer goods (sugar, shoes, soap, beer); cement, assembly of imported components; public works construction; food processing (fruits)
    Industrial production growth rate:
    -2% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 182
    Labor force:
    5.012 million (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 83
    Labor force - by occupation:
    agriculture: 93.6%
    industry: 2.3%
    services: 4.1% (2002 est.)
    Unemployment rate:

    NA

    Population below poverty line:
    64.6% (2014 est.)
    Household income or consumption by percentage share:
    lowest 10%: 28% (2006)
    highest 10%: 28% (2006)
    Distribution of family income - Gini index:
    42.4 (1998)
    country comparison to the world: 51
    Budget:
    revenues: 536.7 million (2017 est.)
    expenditures: 729.6 million (2017 est.)
    Taxes and other revenues:
    15.8% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 186
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
    -5.7% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 177
    Public debt:
    51.7% of GDP (2017 est.)
    48.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 96
    Fiscal year:
    calendar year
    Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    16.6% (2017 est.)
    5.5% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 214
    Central bank discount rate:
    11.25% (31 December 2010)
    10% (31 December 2009)
    country comparison to the world: 16
    Commercial bank prime lending rate:
    14.8% (31 December 2017 est.)
    14.24% (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 43
    Stock of narrow money:
    $540 million (31 December 2017 est.)
    $476.7 million (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 169
    Stock of broad money:
    $540 million (31 December 2017 est.)
    $476.7 million (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 174
    Stock of domestic credit:
    $1.116 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $1.03 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 167
    Market value of publicly traded shares:

    NA

    Current account balance:
    -$418 million (2017 est.)
    -$411 million (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 114
    Exports:
    $119 million (2017 est.)
    $109.7 million (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 195
    Exports - partners:
    Democratic Republic of the Congo 25.5%, Switzerland 18.4%, UAE 14.9%, Belgium 6% (2017)
    Exports - commodities:
    coffee, tea, sugar, cotton, hides
    Imports:
    $603.8 million (2017 est.)
    $527.2 million (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 194
    Imports - commodities:
    capital goods, petroleum products, foodstuffs
    Imports - partners:
    India 18.5%, China 13%, Kenya 7.9%, UAE 6.8%, Saudi Arabia 6.8%, Uganda 6%, Tanzania 5.4%, Zambia 4.6% (2017)
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
    $97.4 million (31 December 2017 est.)
    $95.17 million (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 181
    Debt - external:
    $610.9 million (31 December 2017 est.)
    $622.4 million (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 174
    Exchange rates:
    Burundi francs (BIF) per US dollar -
    1,731 (2017 est.)
    1,654.63 (2016 est.)
    1,654.63 (2015 est.)
    1,571.9 (2014 est.)
    1,546.7 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: Burundi
  • Electricity access:
    population without electricity: 9.7 million (2013)
    electrification - total population: 5% (2013)
    electrification - urban areas: 28% (2013)
    electrification - rural areas: 2% (2013)
    Electricity - production:
    304 million kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 183
    Electricity - consumption:
    382.7 million kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 176
    Electricity - exports:
    0 kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 114
    Electricity - imports:
    100 million kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 100
    Electricity - installed generating capacity:
    68,000 kW (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 186
    Electricity - from fossil fuels:
    14% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 200
    Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
    0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 59
    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
    73% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 14
    Electricity - from other renewable sources:
    14% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 61
    Crude oil - production:
    0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 116
    Crude oil - exports:
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 101
    Crude oil - imports:
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 104
    Crude oil - proved reserves:
    0 bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 113
    Refined petroleum products - production:
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 125
    Refined petroleum products - consumption:
    1,500 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 200
    Refined petroleum products - exports:
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 138
    Refined petroleum products - imports:
    1,374 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 196
    Natural gas - production:
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 111
    Natural gas - consumption:
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 127
    Natural gas - exports:
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 76
    Natural gas - imports:
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 100
    Natural gas - proved reserves:
    0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 117
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
    217,000 Mt (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 199
  • Communications :: Burundi
  • Telephones - fixed lines:
    total subscriptions: 23,409 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 170
    Telephones - mobile cellular:
    total subscriptions: 5,920,612 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 52 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 115
    Telephone system:
    general assessment: with the great population density Burundi remains one of the most alluring telecom markets in Africa for investors; the government in early 2018 began the Burundi Broadband project, which plans to deliver nationwide  connectivity by 2025; mobile operators have launched 3G and LTE mobile services to capitalise on the expanding demand for Internet access (2018)
    domestic: telephone density one of the lowest in the world; fixed-line connections stand at well less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular usage is approaching 52 per 100 persons (2017)
    international: country code - 257; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean); the government, supported by the Word Bank, has backed a joint venture with a number of prominent telcos to build a national fibre backbone network, offering onward connectivity to submarine cable infrastructure landings in Kenya and Tanzania (2017)
    Broadcast media:
    state-controlled Radio Television Nationale de Burundi (RTNB) operates a TV station and a national radio network; 3 private TV stations and about 10 privately owned radio stations; transmissions of several international broadcasters are available in Bujumbura (2017)
    Internet country code:
    .bi
    Internet users:
    total: 574,236 (July 2016 est.)
    percent of population: 5.2% (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 147
    Broadband - fixed subscriptions:
    total: 3,914 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 178
  • Transportation :: Burundi
  • Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
    9U (2016)
    Airports:
    7 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 165
    Airports - with paved runways:
    total: 1 (2017)
    over 3,047 m: 1 (2017)
    Airports - with unpaved runways:
    total: 6 (2013)
    914 to 1,523 m: 4 (2013)
    under 914 m: 2 (2013)
    Heliports:
    1 (2012)
    Roadways:
    total: 12,322 km (2016)
    paved: 1,500 km (2016)
    unpaved: 10,822 km (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 129
    Waterways:
    (mainly on Lake Tanganyika between Bujumbura, Burundi's principal port, and lake ports in Tanzania, Zambia, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo) (2011)
    Ports and terminals:
    lake port(s): Bujumbura (Lake Tanganyika)
  • Military and Security :: Burundi
  • Military expenditures:
    2.21% of GDP (2016)
    2.14% of GDP (2015)
    2.01% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 45
    Military branches:
    National Defense Forces (Forces de Defense Nationale, FDN): Army (includes maritime wing, air wing), National Police (Police Nationale du Burundi) (2017)
    Military service age and obligation:
    18 years of age for voluntary military service; the armed forces law of 31 December 2004 did not specify a minimum age for enlistment, but the government claimed that no one younger than 18 was being recruited; mandatory retirement ages: 45 (enlisted), 50 (NCOs), 55 (officers), and 60 (officers with the rank of general) (2017)
  • Transnational Issues :: Burundi
  • Disputes - international:
    Burundi and Rwanda dispute two sq km (0.8 sq mi) of Sabanerwa, a farmed area in the Rukurazi Valley where the Akanyaru/Kanyaru River shifted its course southward after heavy rains in 1965cross-border conflicts persist among Tutsi, Hutu, other ethnic groups, associated political rebels, armed gangs, and various government forces in the Great Lakes region
    Refugees and internally displaced persons:
    refugees (country of origin): 74,625 (Democratic Republic of the Congo) (refugees and asylum seekers) (2018)
    IDPs: 147,086 (some ethnic Tutsis remain displaced from intercommunal violence that broke out after the 1,993 coup and fighting between government forces and rebel groups; violence since April 2015) (2018)
    stateless persons: 974 (2017)
    Trafficking in persons:
    current situation: Burundi is a source country for children and possibly women subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; business people recruit Burundian girls for prostitution domestically, as well as in Rwanda, Kenya, Uganda, and the Middle East, and recruit boys and girls for forced labor in Burundi and Tanzania; children and young adults are coerced into forced labor in farming, mining, informal commerce, fishing, or collecting river stones for construction; sometimes family, friends, and neighbors are complicit in exploiting children, at times luring them in with offers of educational or job opportunities
    tier rating: Tier 3 – Burundi does not comply fully with the minimum standards for the elimination of human trafficking and is not making significant efforts to do so; corruption, a lack of political will, and limited resources continue to hamper efforts to combat human trafficking; in 2014, the government did not inform judicial and law enforcement officials of the enactment of an anti-trafficking law or how to implement it and approved – but did not fund – its national anti-trafficking action plan; authorities again failed to identify trafficking victims or to provide them with adequate protective services; the government has focused on transnational child trafficking but gave little attention to its domestic child trafficking problem and adult trafficking victims (2015)