Europe :: Cyprus
  • Introduction :: Cyprus
  • Background:
    A former British colony, Cyprus became independent in 1960 following years of resistance to British rule. Tensions between the Greek Cypriot majority and Turkish Cypriot minority came to a head in December 1963, when violence broke out in the capital of Nicosia. Despite the deployment of UN peacekeepers in 1964, sporadic intercommunal violence continued, forcing most Turkish Cypriots into enclaves throughout the island. In 1974, a Greek Government-sponsored attempt to overthrow the elected president of Cyprus was met by military intervention from Turkey, which soon controlled more than a third of the island. In 1983, the Turkish Cypriot administered area declared itself the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" ("TRNC"), but it is recognized only by Turkey. A UN-mediated agreement, the Annan Plan, failed to win approval by both communities in 2004. In February 2014, after a hiatus of nearly two years, the leaders of the two communities resumed formal discussions under UN auspices aimed at reuniting the divided island. Talks were suspended in October 2014, but resumed in earnest in May 2015 following the election of a new Turkish Cypriot "president." The entire island entered the EU on 1 May 2004, although the EU acquis - the body of common rights and obligations - applies only to the areas under the internationally recognized government, and is suspended in the area administered by Turkish Cypriots. However, individual Turkish Cypriots able to document their eligibility for Republic of Cyprus citizenship legally enjoy the same rights accorded to other citizens of EU states.
  • Geography :: Cyprus
  • Location:
    Middle East, island in the Mediterranean Sea, south of Turkey; note - Cyprus views itself as part of Europe; geopolitically, it can be classified as falling within Europe, the Middle East, or both
    Geographic coordinates:
    35 00 N, 33 00 E
    Map references:
    Middle East
    Area:
    total: 9,251 sq km (of which 3,355 sq km are in north Cyprus)
    land: 9,241 sq km
    water: 10 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 170
    Area - comparative:
    about 0.6 times the size of Connecticut
    Land boundaries:
    total: 156 km
    border sovereign base areas: Akrotiri 48 km, Dhekelia 108 km
    Coastline:
    648 km
    Maritime claims:
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    contiguous zone: 24 nm
    continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
    Climate:
    temperate; Mediterranean with hot, dry summers and cool winters
    Terrain:
    central plain with mountains to north and south; scattered but significant plains along southern coast
    Elevation:
    mean elevation: 91 m
    elevation extremes: 0 m lowest point: Mediterranean Sea
    1951 highest point: Mount Olympus
    Natural resources:
    copper, pyrites, asbestos, gypsum, timber, salt, marble, clay earth pigment
    Land use:
    agricultural land: 13.4% (2011 est.)
    arable land: 9.8% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 3.2% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 0.4% (2011 est.)
    forest: 18.8% (2011 est.)
    other: 67.8% (2011 est.)
    Irrigated land:
    460 sq km (2012)
    Population distribution:
    population concentrated in central Nicosia and in the major cities of the south: Paphos, Limassol, and Larnaca
    Natural hazards:
    moderate earthquake activity; droughts
    Environment - current issues:
    water resource problems (no natural reservoir catchments, seasonal disparity in rainfall, sea water intrusion to island's largest aquifer, increased salination in the north); water pollution from sewage, industrial wastes, and pesticides; coastal degradation; erosion; loss of wildlife habitats from urbanization
    Environment - international agreements:
    party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    Geography - note:
    the third largest island in the Mediterranean Sea (after Sicily and Sardinia); several small Cypriot enclaves exist within the Dhekelia Sovereign Base Area
  • People and Society :: Cyprus
  • Population:
    1,237,088 (July 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 158
    Nationality:
    noun: Cypriot(s)
    adjective: Cypriot
    Ethnic groups:
    Greek 98.8%, other 1% (includes Maronite, Armenian, Turkish-Cypriot), unspecified 0.2% (2011 est.)

    note: data represent only the government-controlled area of Cyprus

    Languages:
    Greek (official) 80.9%, Turkish (official) 0.2%, English 4.1%, Romanian 2.9%, Russian 2.5%, Bulgarian 2.2%, Arabic 1.2%, Filipino 1.1%, other 4.3%, unspecified 0.6% (2011 est.)

    note: data represent only the government-controlled area of Cyprus

    Religions:
    Orthodox Christian 89.1%, Roman Catholic 2.9%, Protestant/Anglican 2%, Muslim 1.8%, Buddhist 1%, other (includes Maronite, Armenian Church, Hindu) 1.4%, unknown 1.1%, none/atheist 0.6% (2011 est.)

    note: data represent only the government-controlled area of Cyprus

    Age structure:
    0-14 years: 15.64% (male 99,390 /female 94,053)
    15-24 years: 13.25% (male 89,265 /female 74,607)
    25-54 years: 47.11% (male 308,190 /female 274,632)
    55-64 years: 11.62% (male 68,952 /female 74,842)
    65 years and over: 12.38% (male 66,209 /female 86,948) (2018 est.)
    population pyramid: population pyramid
    Dependency ratios:
    total dependency ratio: 42.3 (2015 est.)
    youth dependency ratio: 24 (2015 est.)
    elderly dependency ratio: 18.3 (2015 est.)
    potential support ratio: 5.5 (2015 est.)

    note: data represent the whole country

    Median age:
    total: 37.2 years
    male: 35.9 years
    female: 38.7 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 68
    Population growth rate:
    1.27% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 86
    Birth rate:
    11.2 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 174
    Death rate:
    6.8 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 133
    Net migration rate:
    8.7 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 12
    Population distribution:
    population concentrated in central Nicosia and in the major cities of the south: Paphos, Limassol, and Larnaca
    Urbanization:
    urban population: 66.8% of total population (2018)
    rate of urbanization: 0.75% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    Major urban areas - population:
    269,000 NICOSIA (capital) (2018)
    Sex ratio:
    at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    15-24 years: 1.19 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    25-54 years: 1.11 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    55-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    total population: 1.04 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    Mother's mean age at first birth:
    28.8 years (2014 est.)

    note: data represent only government-controlled areas

    Maternal mortality rate:
    7 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 162
    Infant mortality rate:
    total: 7.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    male: 9 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    female: 6.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 155
    Life expectancy at birth:
    total population: 79 years (2018 est.)
    male: 76.2 years (2018 est.)
    female: 81.9 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 52
    Total fertility rate:
    1.47 children born/woman (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 202
    Health expenditures:
    7.4% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 68
    Physicians density:
    2.5 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
    Hospital bed density:
    3.4 beds/1,000 population (2013)
    Drinking water source:
    improved: urban: 100% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 100% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 100% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 0% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 0% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
    Sanitation facility access:
    improved: urban: 100% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 100% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 100% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 0% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 0% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
    0.1% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 109
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
    <1000 (2017 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - deaths:
    <100 (2017 est.)
    Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
    21.8% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 84
    Education expenditures:
    6.1% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 33
    Literacy:
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)
    total population: 99.1% (2015 est.)
    male: 99.5% (2015 est.)
    female: 98.7% (2015 est.)
    School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
    total: 15 years (2015)
    male: 14 years (2015)
    female: 15 years (2015)
    Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
    total: 29.1% (2016 est.)
    male: 25.8% (2016 est.)
    female: 31.8% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 38
    People - note:
    demographic data for Cyprus represent the population of the government-controlled area and the area administered by Turkish Cypriots, unless otherwise indicated
  • Government :: Cyprus
  • Country name:
    conventional long form: Republic of Cyprus
    conventional short form: Cyprus
    local long form: Kypriaki Dimokratia/Kibris Cumhuriyeti
    local short form: Kypros/Kibris
    etymology: the derivation of the name "Cyprus" is unknown, but the extensive mining of copper metal on the island in antiquity gave rise to the Latin word "cuprum" for copper

    note: the Turkish Cypriot community, which administers the northern part of the island, refers to itself as the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" or "TRNC" ("Kuzey Kibris Turk Cumhuriyeti" or "KKTC")

    Government type:
    Republic of Cyprus - presidential democracy; Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (self-declared) - semi-presidential democracy

    note: a separation of the two main ethnic communities inhabiting the island began following the outbreak of communal strife in 1963; this separation was further solidified when a Greek military-junta-supported coup attempt prompted the Turkish intervention in July 1974 that gave the Turkish Cypriots de facto control in the north; Greek Cypriots control the only internationally recognized government on the island; on 15 November 1983, then Turkish Cypriot "President" Rauf DENKTAS declared independence and the formation of a "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" ("TRNC"), which is recognized only by Turkey

    Capital:
    name: Nicosia (Lefkosia/Lefkosa)
    geographic coordinates: 35 10 N, 33 22 E
    time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
    Administrative divisions:
    6 districts; Ammochostos (Famagusta); (all but a small part located in the Turkish Cypriot community), Keryneia (Kyrenia; the only district located entirely in the Turkish Cypriot community), Larnaka (Larnaca; with a small part located in the Turkish Cypriot community), Lefkosia (Nicosia; a small part administered by Turkish Cypriots), Lemesos (Limassol), Pafos (Paphos); note - the 5 "districts" of the "TRNC" are Gazimagusa (Famagusta), Girne (Kyrenia), Guzelyurt (Morphou), Iskele (Trikomo), Lefkosa (Nicosia)
    Independence:
    16 August 1960 (from the UK); note - Turkish Cypriots proclaimed self-rule on 13 February 1975 and independence in 1983, but these proclamations are recognized only by Turkey
    National holiday:
    Independence Day, 1 October (1960); note - Turkish Cypriots celebrate 15 November (1983) as "Republic Day"
    Constitution:
    history: ratified 16 August 1960; note - in 1963, the constitution was partly suspended as Turkish Cypriots withdrew from the government; Turkish-held territory in 1983 was declared the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" ("TRNC"); in 1985, the "TRNC" approved its own constitution (2016)
    amendments: constitution of the Republic of Cyprus - proposed by the House of Representatives; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote of the total membership of the "Greek Community" and the "Turkish Community"; however, all seats of Turkish Cypriot members have remained vacant since 1964; amended several times, last in 2016 (2016)
    constitution of the “Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus” - proposed by at least 10 members of the Assembly of the Republic; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote of the total Assembly membership and approval by referendum; amended 2014
    International law organization participation:
    accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    Citizenship:
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Cyprus
    dual citizenship recognized: yes
    residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years
    Suffrage:
    18 years of age; universal
    Executive branch:
    chief of state: President Nikos ANASTASIADES (since 28 February 2013); the president is both chief of state and head of government; note - vice presidency reserved for a Turkish Cypriot, but vacant since 1974 because Turkish Cypriots do not participate in the Cyprus Government
    head of government: President Nikos ANASTASIADES (since 28 February 2013)
    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president; note - under the 1960 constitution, 3 of the ministerial posts reserved for Turkish Cypriots, appointed by the vice president; positions currently filled by Greek Cypriots
    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term; election last held on 28 January 2018 with a runoff on 4 February 2018 (next to be held in February 2023)
    election results: Nikos ANASTASIADES reelected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Nikos ANASTASIADES (DISY) 35.5%, Stavros MALAS (AKEL) 30.2%, Niolas PAPADOPOULOS (DIKO) 25.7%, other 8.6%; percent of vote in second round - Nikos ANASTASIADES 56%, Savros MALAS 44%

    note: Mustafa AKINCI assumed office as "president" of the "TRNC" on 30 April 2015; percent of vote in first round (19 April 2015) - Dervis EROGLU 28.2%, Mustafa AKINCI 26.9%, other 44.9%; percent of vote in runoff (26 April 2015) - AKINCI 60.5%, EROGLU 39.5%; Tufan ERHURMAN is "TRNC prime minister" (since 2 February 2018)

    Legislative branch:
    description: area under government control: unicameral House of Representatives or Vouli Antiprosopon (80 seats; 56 assigned to Greek Cypriots, 24 to Turkish Cypriots, but only those assigned to Greek Cypriots are filled; members directly elected by both proportional representation and preferential vote; members serve 5-year terms); area administered by Turkish Cypriots: unicameral Assembly of the Republic or Cumhuriyet Meclisi (50 seats; members directly elected by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms)
    elections: area under government control: last held on 22 May 2016 (next to be held in May 2021); area administered by Turkish Cypriots: last held on 7 January 2018 (next to be held in 2023)
    election results: area under government control: House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - DISY 30.7%, AKEL 25.7%, DIKO 14.5%, KS-EDEK 6.2%, SP 6% Solidarity Movement 5.2%, other 11.7%; seats by party - DISY 18, AKEL 16, DIKO 9, KS-EDEK 3, Citizen's Alliance 3 (2 left the party in 2017 and 2018 due to disagreements over the party's policy regarding the presidential election campaign; the two became independent MPs), Solidarity Movement 3, other 4; area administered by Turkish Cypriots: "Assembly of the Republic" - percent of vote by party - UBP 35.6%, CTP 20.9%, HP 17.1%, TDP 8.6%, DP 7.8%, YDP 7%, 3%; seats by party - UBP 21, CTP 12, HP 9, DP 3, TDP 3, YDP 2
    Judicial branch:
    highest courts: Supreme Court of Cyprus (consists of 13 judges including the court president); note - the highest court in the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC)" is the "Supreme Court" (consists of 8 "judges" including the "court president")
    judge selection and term of office: Republic of Cyprus Supreme Court judges appointed by the president of the republic upon the recommendation of the Supreme Court judges; judges can serve until age 68; "TRNC Supreme Court" judges appointed by the "Supreme Council of Judicature," a 12-member body of judges, the attorney general, appointees - 1 each by the president of the "TRNC" and by the "Legislative Assembly" - and 1 member elected by the bar association; judge tenure NA
    subordinate courts: Republic of Cyprus district courts; Assize Courts; Administrative Court; specialized courts for issues relating to family, industrial disputes, military, and rent control; "TRNC Assize Courts"; "district and family courts"
    Political parties and leaders:
    area under government control:
    Citizens' Alliance or SP [Giorgos LILLIKAS];
    Democratic Party or DIKO [Nicolas PAPADOPOULOS];
    Democratic Rally or DISY [Averof NEOPHYTOU];
    Ecological and Environmental Movement or KOP (Green party) [Giorgos PERDIKIS];
    Movement of Social Democrats-United Democratic Center Union or KS-EDEK [Marinos SIZOPOULOS];
    National Popular Front or ELAM [Christos CHRISTOU];
    Progressive Party of the Working People or AKEL (Communist party) [Andros KYPRIANOU];
    Solidarity Movement [Eleni THEOCHAROUS];
    United Democrats or EDI [Praxoula ANTONIADOU];
    area administered by Turkish Cypriots:
    Communal Democracy Party or TDP [Cemal OZYIGIT];
    Communist Liberation Party-New Forces or TKP-YG [Mehmet CAKICI];
    Democratic Party or DP [Serdar DENKTAS];
    National Democratic Party or NDP [Buray BUSKUVUTCU];
    National Unity Party or UBP [Huseyin OZGURGUN];
    People's Party or HP [Kudret OZERSAY];
    Rebirth Party or YDP [Erhan ARIKLI];
    Republican Turkish Party or CTP [Tufan ERHURMAN];
    United Cyprus Party or BKP [Izzet IZCAN]
    International organization participation:
    Australia Group, C, CD, CE, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, EU, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, NSG, OAS (observer), OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    Diplomatic representation in the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador Mario LYSIOTIS (since 17 September 2018)
    chancery: 2211 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 462-5772, 462-0873
    FAX: [1] (202) 483-6710
    consulate(s) general: New York

    note: representative of the Turkish Cypriot community in the US is Ismet KORUKOGLU; office at 1667 K Street NW, Washington, DC; telephone [1] (202) 887-6198

    Diplomatic representation from the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador Kathleen Ann DOHERTY (since 7 October 2015)
    embassy: corner of Metochiou and Ploutarchou Streets, 2407 Engomi, Nicosia
    mailing address: P. O. Box 24536, 1385 Nicosia
    telephone: [357] (22) 393939
    FAX: [357] (22) 393344
    Flag description:
    centered on a white field is a copper-colored silhouette of the island (the island has long been famous for its copper deposits) above two olive-green-colored, crossed olive branches; the branches symbolize the hope for peace and reconciliation between the Greek and Turkish communities

    note: one of only two national flags that uses a map as a design element; the flag of Kosovo is the other

    note: the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" flag retains the white field of the Cyprus national flag but displays narrow horizontal red stripes positioned a small distance from the top and bottom edges between which are centered a red crescent and a red five-pointed star; the banner is modeled after the Turkish national flag but with the colors reversed

    National symbol(s):
    Cypriot mouflon (wild sheep), white dove; national colors: blue, white
    National anthem:
    name: "Ymnos eis tin Eleftherian" (Hymn to Liberty)
    lyrics/music: Dionysios SOLOMOS/Nikolaos MANTZAROS

    note: adopted 1960; Cyprus adopted the Greek national anthem as its own; the Turkish Cypriot community in Cyprus uses the anthem of Turkey

  • Economy :: Cyprus
  • Economy - overview:

    The area of the Republic of Cyprus under government control has a market economy dominated by a services sector that accounts for more than four-fifths of GDP. Tourism, finance, shipping, and real estate have traditionally been the most important services. Cyprus has been a member of the EU since May 2004 and adopted the euro as its national currency in January 2008.

    During the first five years of EU membership, the Cyprus economy grew at an average rate of about 4%, with unemployment between 2004 and 2008 averaging about 4%. However, the economy tipped into recession in 2009 as the ongoing global financial crisis and resulting low demand hit the tourism and construction sectors. An overextended banking sector with excessive exposure to Greek debt added to the contraction. Cyprus’ biggest two banks were among the largest holders of Greek bonds in Europe and had a substantial presence in Greece through bank branches and subsidiaries. Following numerous downgrades of its credit rating, Cyprus lost access to international capital markets in May 2011. In July 2012, Cyprus became the fifth euro-zone government to request an economic bailout program from the European Commission, European Central Bank and the International Monetary Fund - known collectively as the "Troika."

    Shortly after the election of President Nikos ANASTASIADES in February 2013, Cyprus reached an agreement with the Troika on a $13 billion bailout that triggered a two-week bank closure and the imposition of capital controls that remained partially in place until April 2015. Cyprus' two largest banks merged and the combined entity was recapitalized through conversion of some large bank deposits to shares and imposition of losses on bank bondholders. As with other EU countries, the Troika conditioned the bailout on passing financial and structural reforms and privatizing state-owned enterprises. Despite downsizing and restructuring, the Cypriot financial sector remains burdened by the largest stock of non-performing loans in the euro zone, equal to nearly half of all loans. Since the bailout, Cyprus has received positive appraisals by the Troika and outperformed fiscal targets but has struggled to overcome political opposition to bailout-mandated legislation, particularly regarding privatizations. The rate of non-performing loans (NPLs) is still very high at around 49%, and growth would accelerate if Cypriot banks could increase the pace of resolution of the NPLs.

    In October 2013, a US-Israeli consortium completed preliminary appraisals of hydrocarbon deposits in Cyprus’ exclusive economic zone (EEZ), which estimated gross mean reserves of about 130 billion cubic meters. Though exploration continues in Cyprus’ EEZ, no additional commercially exploitable reserves have been identified. Developing offshore hydrocarbon resources remains a critical component of the government’s economic recovery efforts, but development has been delayed as a result of regional developments and disagreements about exploitation methods.

    GDP (purchasing power parity):
    $31.78 billion (2017 est.)
    $30.59 billion (2016 est.)
    $29.58 billion (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 129
    GDP (official exchange rate):
    $21.7 billion (2017 est.) (2017 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate:
    3.9% (2017 est.)
    3.4% (2016 est.)
    2% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 81
    GDP - per capita (PPP):
    $37,200 (2017 est.)
    $36,100 (2016 est.)
    $34,900 (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 53
    Gross national saving:
    13.7% of GDP (2017 est.)
    11.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
    12.8% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 140
    GDP - composition, by end use:
    household consumption: 68.7% (2017 est.)
    government consumption: 14.9% (2017 est.)
    investment in fixed capital: 21.1% (2017 est.)
    investment in inventories: -0.7% (2017 est.)
    exports of goods and services: 63.8% (2017 est.)
    imports of goods and services: -67.8% (2017 est.)
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
    agriculture: 2% (2017 est.)
    industry: 12.5% (2017 est.)
    services: 85.5% (2017 est.)
    Agriculture - products:
    citrus, vegetables, barley, grapes, olives, vegetables; poultry, pork, lamb; dairy, cheese
    Industries:
    tourism, food and beverage processing, cement and gypsum, ship repair and refurbishment, textiles, light chemicals, metal products, wood, paper, stone and clay products
    Industrial production growth rate:
    13.4% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 5
    Labor force:
    426,600 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 158
    Labor force - by occupation:
    agriculture: 3.8%
    industry: 15.2%
    services: 81% (2014 est.)
    Unemployment rate:
    11.1% (2017 est.)
    13% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 150
    Population below poverty line:
    NA
    Household income or consumption by percentage share:
    lowest 10%: 28.8% (2014)
    highest 10%: 28.8% (2014)
    Distribution of family income - Gini index:
    34.8 (2014 est.)
    32.4 (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 99
    Budget:
    revenues: 8.663 billion (2017 est.)
    expenditures: 8.275 billion (2017 est.)
    Taxes and other revenues:
    39.9% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 40
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
    1.8% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 17
    Public debt:
    97.5% of GDP (2017 est.)
    106.6% of GDP (2016 est.)

    note: data cover general government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data exclude debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment

    country comparison to the world: 19
    Fiscal year:
    calendar year
    Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    0.7% (2017 est.)
    -1.2% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 35
    Central bank discount rate:
    0% (31 December 2017)
    0% (31 December 2010)

    note: this is the European Central Bank's rate on the marginal lending facility, which offers overnight credit to banks in the euro area

    country comparison to the world: 150
    Commercial bank prime lending rate:
    4.13% (31 December 2017 est.)
    4.33% (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 164
    Stock of narrow money:
    $5.152 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $4.174 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

    note: see entry for the European Union for money supply for the entire euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 18 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money circulating within their own borders

    country comparison to the world: 102
    Stock of broad money:
    $5.152 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $4.174 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 105
    Stock of domestic credit:
    $55.61 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $50.84 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 63
    Market value of publicly traded shares:
    $2.692 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $4.031 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $2.105 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 96
    Current account balance:
    -$1.458 billion (2017 est.)
    -$984 million (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 154
    Exports:
    $2.805 billion (2017 est.)
    $2.7 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 131
    Exports - partners:
    Libya 9.4%, Greece 7.7%, Norway 6.7%, UK 5.3%, Germany 4.1% (2017)
    Exports - commodities:
    citrus, potatoes, pharmaceuticals, cement, clothing
    Imports:
    $7.935 billion (2017 est.)
    $7.153 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 111
    Imports - commodities:
    consumer goods, petroleum and lubricants, machinery, transport equipment
    Imports - partners:
    Greece 19%, Italy 7.5%, China 7.4%, South Korea 7.3%, Germany 7%, Netherlands 5.1%, UK 5%, Israel 4.1% (2017)
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
    $888.2 million (31 December 2017 est.)
    $817.7 million (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 136
    Debt - external:
    $95.28 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    $103.5 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 50
    Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
    $232.5 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $174.5 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 28
    Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
    $222.9 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $175.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 26
    Exchange rates:
    euros (EUR) per US dollar -
    0.885 (2017 est.)
    0.903 (2016 est.)
    0.9214 (2015 est.)
    0.885 (2014 est.)
    0.7634 (2013 est.)
    Economy of the area administered by Turkish Cypriots:

    Economy - overview: Even though the whole of the island is part of the EU, implementation of the EU "acquis communautaire" has been suspended in the area administered by Turkish Cypriots, known locally as the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" ("TRNC"), until political conditions permit the reunification of the island. The market-based economy of the "TRNC" is roughly one-fifth the size of its southern neighbor and is likewise dominated by the service sector with a large portion of the population employed by the government. In 2012 - the latest year for which data are available - the services sector, which includes the public sector, trade, tourism, and education, contributed 58.7% to economic output. In the same year, light manufacturing and agriculture contributed 2.7% and 6.2%, respectively. Manufacturing is limited mainly to food and beverages, furniture and fixtures, construction materials, metal and non-metal products, textiles and clothing. The "TRNC" maintains few economic ties with the Republic of Cyprus outside of trade in construction materials. Since its creation, the "TRNC" has heavily relied on financial assistance from Turkey, which supports the "TRNC" defense, telecommunications, water and postal services. The Turkish Lira is the preferred currency, though foreign currencies are widely accepted in business transactions. The "TRNC" remains vulnerable to the Turkish market and monetary policy because of its use of the Turkish Lira. The "TRNC" weathered the European financial crisis relatively unscathed - compared to the Republic of Cyprus - because of the lack of financial sector development, the health of the Turkish economy, and its separation from the rest of the island. The "TRNC" economy experienced growth estimated at 2.8% in 2013 and 2.3% in 2014 and is projected to grow 3.8% in 2015.;

    GDP (purchasing power parity): $1.829 billion (2007 est.);

    GDP - real growth rate: 2.3% (2014 est.);

    2.8% (2013 est.);

    GDP - per capita: $11,700 (2007 est.);

    GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 6.2%,; industry: 35.1%,; services: 58.7% (2012 est.);

    Labor force: 95,030 (2007 est.);

    Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 14.5%,; industry: 29%,; services: 56.5% (2004);

    Unemployment rate: 9.4% (2005 est.);

    Population below poverty line: %NA;

    Inflation rate: 11.4% (2006);

    Budget: revenues: $2.5 billion,; expenditures: $2.5 billion (2006);

    Agriculture - products: citrus fruit, dairy, potatoes, grapes, olives, poultry, lamb;

    Industries: foodstuffs, textiles, clothing, ship repair, clay, gypsum, copper, furniture;

    Industrial production growth rate: -0.3% (2007 est.);

    Electricity production: 998.9 million kWh (2005);

    Electricity consumption: 797.9 million kWh (2005);

    Exports: $68.1 million, f.o.b. (2007 est.);

    Export - commodities: citrus, dairy, potatoes, textiles;

    Export - partners: Turkey 40%; direct trade between the area administered by Turkish Cypriots and the area under government control remains limited;

    Imports: $1.2 billion, f.o.b. (2007 est.);

    Import - commodities: vehicles, fuel, cigarettes, food, minerals, chemicals, machinery;

    Import - partners: Turkey 60%; direct trade between the area administered by Turkish Cypriots and the area under government control remains limited;

    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: NA;

    Debt - external: NA;

    Currency (code): Turkish new lira (YTL);

    Exchange rates: Turkish new lira per US dollar:; 1.9 (2013); 1.8 (2012); 1.668 (2011); 1.5026 (2010); 1.55 (2009);

  • Energy :: Cyprus
  • Electricity access:
    electrification - total population: 100% (2016)
    Electricity - production:
    4.618 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 123
    Electricity - consumption:
    4.355 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 126
    Electricity - exports:
    0 kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 126
    Electricity - imports:
    0 kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 140
    Electricity - installed generating capacity:
    1.77 million kW (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 117
    Electricity - from fossil fuels:
    85% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 70
    Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
    0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 76
    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
    0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 166
    Electricity - from other renewable sources:
    15% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 58
    Crude oil - production:
    0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 125
    Crude oil - exports:
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 113
    Crude oil - imports:
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 116
    Crude oil - proved reserves:
    0 bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 122
    Refined petroleum products - production:
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 135
    Refined petroleum products - consumption:
    49,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 106
    Refined petroleum products - exports:
    500 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 110
    Refined petroleum products - imports:
    49,240 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 84
    Natural gas - production:
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 122
    Natural gas - consumption:
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 138
    Natural gas - exports:
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 92
    Natural gas - imports:
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 115
    Natural gas - proved reserves:
    141.6 billion cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 47
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
    7.72 million Mt (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 118
  • Communications :: Cyprus
  • Telephones - fixed lines:
    total subscriptions: 317,241 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 26 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 110
    Telephones - mobile cellular:
    total subscriptions: 1,176,801 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 96 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 157
    Telephone system:
    general assessment: despite the growth of Cyprus's telecom sector, the market overall continues to be dominated by the incumbent, Cyta, which is still fully-owned by the state; improved regulatory circumstances, especially in relation to network interconnection and access, has given competing operators the certainty to invest in network infrastructure, to launch competing services (2017)
    domestic: open-wire, fiber-optic cable, and microwave radio relay; fixed-line teledisity is 26 per 100, 96 per 100 for mobile-cellular (2017)
    international: country code - 357 (area administered by Turkish Cypriots uses the country code of Turkey - 90); a number of submarine cables, including the SEA-ME-WE-3, combine to provide connectivity to Western Europe, the Middle East, and Asia; tropospheric scatter; satellite earth stations - 8 (3 Intelsat - 1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean, 2 Eutelsat, 2 Intersputnik, and 1 Arabsat); Quantum Cable contracts for new submarine cable linking to Greece and Israel; Telecom Italy Sparkle and Cyta complete the Kimonas cable subsystem linking Cyprus with Crete; Cyta upgrades transmission capacity on the TE-North Cable System to 500Gb/s (2017)
    Broadcast media:
    mixture of state and privately run TV and radio services; the public broadcaster operates 2 TV channels and 4 radio stations; 6 private TV broadcasters, satellite and cable TV services including telecasts from Greece and Turkey, and a number of private radio stations are available; in areas administered by Turkish Cypriots, there are 2 public TV stations, 4 public radio stations, and 7 privately owned TV and 21 radio broadcast stations plus 6 radio and 4 TV channels of local universities, plus 1 radio station of military, security forces and 1 radio station of civil defense cooperation, as well as relay stations from Turkey (2017)
    Internet country code:
    .cy
    Internet users:
    total: 915,036 (July 2016 est.)
    percent of population: 75.9% (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 134
    Broadband - fixed subscriptions:
    total: 295,686 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 24 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 95
  • Transportation :: Cyprus
  • National air transport system:
    number of registered air carriers: 2 (2015)
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 6 (2015)
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 23,404 (2015)
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 230,600 mt-km (2015)
    Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
    5B (2016)
    Airports:
    15 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 145
    Airports - with paved runways:
    total: 13 (2017)
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 7 (2017)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (2017)
    914 to 1,523 m: 3 (2017)
    under 914 m: 1 (2017)
    Airports - with unpaved runways:
    total: 2 (2013)
    under 914 m: 2 (2013)
    Heliports:
    9 (2013)
    Pipelines:
    0 km oil
    Roadways:
    total: 20,006 km (2011)
    government control: 13,006 km (includes 2,277 km of expressways) (2011)
    paved: 8,564 km (2011)
    unpaved: 4,442 km (2011)
    Turkish Cypriot control: 7,000 km (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 110
    Merchant marine:
    total: 1,022 (2017)
    by type: bulk carrier 307, container ship 183, general cargo 164, oil tanker 57, other 311 (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 24
    Ports and terminals:
    major seaport(s): area under government control: Larnaca, Limassol, Vasilikos
    area administered by Turkish Cypriots: Famagusta, Kyrenia
  • Military and Security :: Cyprus
  • Military expenditures:
    1.78% of GDP (2016)
    1.68% of GDP (2015)
    1.54% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 62
    Military branches:
    Republic of Cyprus: Cypriot National Guard (Ethniki Froura, EF, includes naval and air elements); Northern Cyprus: Turkish Cypriot Security Force (GKK) (2014)
    Military service age and obligation:
    Cypriot National Guard (CNG): 18-50 years of age for compulsory military service for all Greek Cypriot males; 17 years of age for voluntary service; 14-month service obligation (2016)
  • Transnational Issues :: Cyprus
  • Disputes - international:
    hostilities in 1974 divided the island into two de facto autonomous entities, the internationally recognized Cypriot Government and a Turkish-Cypriot community (north Cyprus)the 1,000-strong UN Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP) has served in Cyprus since 1964 and maintains the buffer zone between north and southon 1 May 2004, Cyprus entered the EU still divided, with the EU's body of legislation and standards (acquis communitaire) suspended in the northTurkey protests Cypriot Government creating hydrocarbon blocks and maritime boundary with Lebanon in March 2007
    Refugees and internally displaced persons:
    IDPs: 217,000 (both Turkish and Greek Cypriots; many displaced since 1974) (2017)
    Illicit drugs:
    minor transit point for heroin and hashish via air routes and container traffic to Europe, especially from Lebanon and Turkey; some cocaine transits as well; despite a strengthening of anti-money-laundering legislation, remains vulnerable to money laundering; reporting of suspicious transactions in offshore sector remains weak