South America :: ECUADOR
  • Introduction :: ECUADOR

  • What is now Ecuador formed part of the northern Inca Empire until the Spanish conquest in 1533. Quito became a seat of Spanish colonial government in 1563 and part of the Viceroyalty of New Granada in 1717. The territories of the Viceroyalty - New Granada (Colombia), Venezuela, and Quito - gained their independence between 1819 and 1822 and formed a federation known as Gran Colombia. When Quito withdrew in 1830, the traditional name was changed in favor of the "Republic of the Equator." Between 1904 and 1942, Ecuador lost territories in a series of conflicts with its neighbors. A border war with Peru that flared in 1995 was resolved in 1999. Although Ecuador marked 30 years of civilian governance in 2004, the period was marred by political instability. Protests in Quito contributed to the mid-term ouster of three of Ecuador's last four democratically elected presidents. In late 2008, voters approved a new constitution, Ecuador's 20th since gaining independence. General elections were held in April 2017, and voters elected President Lenin MORENO.
  • Geography :: ECUADOR

  • Western South America, bordering the Pacific Ocean at the Equator, between Colombia and Peru
    2 00 S, 77 30 W
    South America
    total: 283,561 sq km
    land: 276,841 sq km
    water: 6,720 sq km
    note: includes Galapagos Islands
    country comparison to the world: 75
    slightly smaller than Nevada
    total: 2,237 km
    border countries (2): Colombia 708 km, Peru 1,529 km
    2,237 km
    territorial sea: 200 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    continental shelf: 200 nm
    note: Ecuador has declared its right to extend its continental shelf to 350nm measured from the baselines of the Galapagos Archipelago
    tropical along coast, becoming cooler inland at higher elevations; tropical in Amazonian jungle lowlands
    coastal plain (costa), inter-Andean central highlands (sierra), and flat to rolling eastern jungle (oriente)
    mean elevation: 1,117 m
    elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
    highest point: Chimborazo 6,267 m
    note: because the earth is not a perfect sphere and has an equatorial bulge, the highest point on the planet farthest from its center is Mount Chimborazo not Mount Everest, which is merely the highest peak above sea level
    petroleum, fish, timber, hydropower
    agricultural land: 29.7%
    arable land 4.7%; permanent crops 5.6%; permanent pasture 19.4%
    forest: 38.9%
    other: 31.4% (2011 est.)
    15,000 sq km (2012)
    nearly half of the population is concentrated in the interior in the Andean intermontane basins and valleys, with large concentrations also found along the western coastal strip; the rainforests of the east remain sparsely populated
    frequent earthquakes; landslides; volcanic activity; floods; periodic droughts
    volcanism: volcanic activity concentrated along the Andes Mountains; Sangay (5,230 m), which erupted in 2010, is mainland Ecuador's most active volcano; other historically active volcanoes in the Andes include Antisana, Cayambe, Chacana, Cotopaxi, Guagua Pichincha, Reventador, Sumaco, and Tungurahua; Fernandina (1,476 m), a shield volcano that last erupted in 2009, is the most active of the many Galapagos volcanoes; other historically active Galapagos volcanoes include Wolf, Sierra Negra, Cerro Azul, Pinta, Marchena, and Santiago
    deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; water pollution; pollution from oil production wastes in ecologically sensitive areas of the Amazon Basin and Galapagos Islands
    party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    Cotopaxi in Andes is highest active volcano in world
  • People and Society :: ECUADOR

  • 16,290,913 (July 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 67
    noun: Ecuadorian(s)
    adjective: Ecuadorian
    mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 71.9%, Montubio 7.4%, Amerindian 7%, white 6.1%, Afroecuadorian 4.3%, mulatto 1.9%, black 1%, other 0.4% (2010 est.)
    Spanish (Castilian) 93% (official), Quechua 4.1%, other indigenous 0.7%, foreign 2.2%
    note: (Quechua and Shuar are official languages of intercultural relations; other indigenous languages are in official use by indigenous peoples in the areas they inhabit) (2010 est.)
    Roman Catholic 74%, Evangelical 10.4%, Jehovah's Witness 1.2%, other 6.4% (includes Mormon Buddhist, Jewish, Spiritualist, Muslim, Hindu, indigenous religions, African American religions, Pentecostal), atheist 7.9%, agnostic 0.1%
    note: data represent persons at least 16 years of age from five Ecuadoran cities (2012 est.)
    Ecuador's high poverty and income inequality most affect indigenous, mixed race, and rural populations. The government has increased its social spending to ameliorate these problems, but critics question the efficiency and implementation of its national development plan. Nevertheless, the conditional cash transfer program, which requires participants' children to attend school and have medical check-ups, has helped improve educational attainment and healthcare among poor children. Ecuador is stalled at above replacement level fertility and the population most likely will keep growing rather than stabilize.
    An estimated 2 to 3 million Ecuadorians live abroad, but increased unemployment in key receiving countries - Spain, the United States, and Italy - is slowing emigration and increasing the likelihood of returnees to Ecuador. The first large-scale emigration of Ecuadorians occurred between 1980 and 2000, when an economic crisis drove Ecuadorians from southern provinces to New York City, where they had trade contacts. A second, nationwide wave of emigration in the late 1990s was caused by another economic downturn, political instability, and a currency crisis. Spain was the logical destination because of its shared language and the wide availability of low-skilled, informal jobs at a time when increased border surveillance made illegal migration to the US difficult. Ecuador has a small but growing immigrant population and is Latin America's top recipient of refugees; 98% are neighboring Colombians fleeing violence in their country.
    0-14 years: 27.08% (male 2,250,000/female 2,161,123)
    15-24 years: 18.35% (male 1,519,255/female 1,469,372)
    25-54 years: 39.59% (male 3,145,954/female 3,303,520)
    55-64 years: 7.53% (male 599,032/female 628,477)
    65 years and over: 7.45% (male 576,196/female 637,984) (2017 est.)
    total dependency ratio: 55.6
    youth dependency ratio: 45.1
    elderly dependency ratio: 10.4
    potential support ratio: 9.6 (2015 est.)
    total: 27.7 years
    male: 27 years
    female: 28.4 years (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 141
    1.28% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 87
    17.9 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 102
    5.1 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 191
    0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 80
    nearly half of the population is concentrated in the interior in the Andean intermontane basins and valleys, with large concentrations also found along the western coastal strip; the rainforests of the east remain sparsely populated
    urban population: 63.8% of total population (2018)
    rate of urbanization: 1.66% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    Guayaquil 2.899 million; QUITO (capital) 1.822 million (2018)
    at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.91 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    64 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 86
    total: 16.4 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 19.4 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 13.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 98
    total population: 77 years
    male: 74 years
    female: 80.1 years (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 79
    2.19 children born/woman (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 99
    80.1% (2007/12)
    9.2% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 35
    1.67 physicians/1,000 population (2011)
    1.5 beds/1,000 population (2013)
    improved:
    urban: 93.4% of population
    rural: 75.5% of population
    total: 86.9% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 6.6% of population
    rural: 24.5% of population
    total: 13.1% of population (2015 est.)
    improved:
    urban: 87% of population
    rural: 80.7% of population
    total: 84.7% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 13% of population
    rural: 19.3% of population
    total: 15.3% of population (2015 est.)
    0.3% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 81
    36,000 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 64
    <1000 (2017 est.)
    degree of risk: high
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
    vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria
    note: active local transmission of Zika virus by Aedes species mosquitoes has been identified in this country (as of August 2016); it poses an important risk (a large number of cases possible) among US citizens if bitten by an infective mosquito; other less common ways to get Zika are through sex, via blood transfusion, or during pregnancy, in which the pregnant woman passes Zika virus to her fetus (2016)
    19.9% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 108
    5.1% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 82
    5% of GDP (2015)
    country comparison to the world: 94
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 94.4%
    male: 95.4%
    female: 93.3% (2016 est.)
    total: 15 years
    male: 15 years
    female: 16 years (2012)
    total: 8.4%
    male: 6.6%
    female: 11.4% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 111
  • Government :: ECUADOR

  • conventional long form: Republic of Ecuador
    conventional short form: Ecuador
    local long form: Republica del Ecuador
    local short form: Ecuador
    etymology: the country's position on the globe, straddling the Equator, accounts for its Spanish name
    presidential republic
    name: Quito
    geographic coordinates: 0 13 S, 78 30 W
    time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    note: Ecuador has two time zones, including the Galapagos Islands (UTC-6)
    24 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Azuay, Bolivar, Canar, Carchi, Chimborazo, Cotopaxi, El Oro, Esmeraldas, Galapagos, Guayas, Imbabura, Loja, Los Rios, Manabi, Morona-Santiago, Napo, Orellana, Pastaza, Pichincha, Santa Elena, Santo Domingo de los Tsachilas, Sucumbios, Tungurahua, Zamora-Chinchipe
    24 May 1822 (from Spain)
    Independence Day (independence of Quito), 10 August (1809)
    history: many previous; latest approved 20 October 2008
    amendments: proposed by the president of the republic through a referendum, by public petition of at least 1% of registered voters, or by agreement of at least one-third of the National Assembly membership; passage requires two separate readings a year apart and approval by at least two-thirds majority vote of the Assembly, and approval by absolute majority in a referendum; amendments such as changes to the structure of the state, constraints on personal rights and guarantees, or constitutional amendment procedures are not allowed; amended 2011, 2015, last 2018; note - a 2015 constitutional amendment lifting presidential term limits was overturned by a February 2018 referendum (2018)
    civil law based on the Chilean civil code with modifications; traditional law in indigenous communities
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    citizenship by birth: yes
    citizenship by descent: yes
    dual citizenship recognized: no
    residency requirement for naturalization: 3 years
    18-65 years of age; universal and compulsory; 16-18, over 65, and other eligible voters, voluntary
    chief of state: President Lenin MORENO Garces (since 24 May 2017); Vice President Maria Alejandra VICUNA Munoz (since 6 January 2018); note - Vice President Jorge GLAS Espinel (since 24 May 2013) was jailed for corruption and absent from office for more than 3 months, causing him to be constitutionally stripped of his office; president is both chief of state and head of government
    head of government: President Lenin MORENO Garces (since 24 May 2017); Vice President Maria Alejandra VICUNA Munoz (since 6 January 2018)
    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
    elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 19 February 2017 with a runoff on 2 April 2017 (next to be held in 2021)
    election results: Lenin MORENO Garces elected president in second round; percent of vote - Lenin MORENO Garces (Alianza PAIS Movement) 51.1%, Guillermo LASSO (CREO) 48.9%
    description: unicameral National Assembly or Asamblea Nacional (137 seats; 116 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 15 members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote, and 6 directly elected in multi-seat constituencies for Ecuadorians living abroad by simple majority vote; members serve 4-year terms)
    elections: last held on 19 February 2017 (next to be held in 2021)
    election results: percent of vote by party - PAIS 39.1%, CREO-SUMA 20.1%, PSC 15.9%, ID 3.8%, MUPP 2.7%, other 10.7; seats by party - PAIS 74, CREO-SUMA 34, PSC 15, ID 4, MUPP 4, PSP 2, Fuerza Ecuador 1, independent 3; note - defections by members of National Assembly are commonplace, resulting in frequent changes in the numbers of seats held by the various parties
    highest court(s): National Court of Justice or Corte Nacional de Justicia (consists of 21 judges including the chief justice and organized into 5 specialized chambers); Constitutional Court or Corte Constitucional (consists of 9 judges)
    judge selection and term of office: justices of National Court of Justice elected by the Judiciary Council, a 9-member independent body of law professionals; judges elected for 9-year, non-renewable terms, with one-third of the membership renewed every 3 years; Constitutional Court judges appointed by the executive, legislative, and Citizen Participation branches of government; judges appointed for 9-year non-renewable terms with one-third of the membership renewed every 3 years
    subordinate courts: Fiscal Tribunal; Election Dispute Settlement Courts, provincial courts (one for each province); cantonal courts
    Alianza PAIS movement [Lenin Voltaire MORENO Garces]
    Avanza Party or AVANZA [Ramiro GONZALEZ]
    Creating Opportunities Movement or CREO [Guillermo LASSO]
    Democratic Left or ID
    Forward Ecuador Movement [Alvaro NOBOA]
    Fuerza Ecuador [Abdala BUCARAM] (successor to Roldosist Party)
    Pachakutik Plurinational Unity Movement or MUPP [Marlon Rene SANTI Gualinga]
    Patriotic Society Party or PSP [Gilmar GUTIERREZ Borbua]
    Popular Democracy Movement or MPD [Luis VILLACIS]
    Social Christian Party or PSC [Pascual DEL CIOPPO]
    Socialist Party [Patricio ZABRANO]
    Society United for More Action or SUMA [Mauricio RODAS]
    CAN, CD, CELAC, FAO, G-11, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate), MIGA, MINUSTAH, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, OPEC, Pacific Alliance (observer), PCA, SICA (observer), UN, UNAMID, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    chief of mission: Ambassador Francisco Benjamin Esteban CARRION Mena (since 24 January 2018)
    chancery: 2535 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
    telephone: [1] (202) 234-7200
    FAX: [1] (202) 667-3482
    consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, Minneapolis, New Haven (CT), New Orleans, New York, Newark (NJ), Phoenix, San Francisco
    chief of mission: Ambassador Todd C. CHAPMAN (since 14 April 2016)
    embassy: Avenida Avigiras E12-170 y Avenida Eloy Alfaro, Quito
    mailing address: Avenida Guayacanes N52-205 y Avenida Avigiras
    telephone: [593] (2) 398-5000
    FAX: [593] (2) 398-5100
    consulate(s) general: Guayaquil
    three horizontal bands of yellow (top, double width), blue, and red with the coat of arms superimposed at the center of the flag; the flag retains the three main colors of the banner of Gran Colombia, the South American republic that broke up in 1830; the yellow color represents sunshine, grain, and mineral wealth, blue the sky, sea, and rivers, and red the blood of patriots spilled in the struggle for freedom and justice
    note: similar to the flag of Colombia, which is shorter and does not bear a coat of arms
    Andean condor; national colors: yellow, blue, red
    name: "Salve, Oh Patria!" (We Salute You, Our Homeland)
    lyrics/music: Juan Leon MERA/Antonio NEUMANE
    note: adopted 1948; Juan Leon MERA wrote the lyrics in 1865; only the chorus and second verse are sung
  • Economy :: ECUADOR

  • Ecuador is substantially dependent on its petroleum resources, which accounted for about a third of the country's export earnings in 2017. Remittances from overseas Ecuadorian are also important.
    In 1999/2000, Ecuador's economy suffered from a banking crisis that lead to some reforms, including adoption of the US dollar as legal tender. Dollarization stabilized the economy, and positive growth returned in most of the years that followed. China has become Ecuador's largest foreign lender since 2008 and now accounts for 77.7% of the Ecuador’s bilateral debt. Various economic policies under the CORREA administration, such as an announcement in 2017 that Ecuador would terminate 13 bilateral investment treaties - including one with the US, generated economic uncertainty and discouraged private investment.
    Faced with a 2013 trade deficit of $1.1 billion, Ecuador imposed tariff surcharges from 5% to 45% on an estimated 32% of imports. Ecuador’s economy fell into recession in 2015 and remained in recession in 2016. Declining oil prices and exports forced the CORREA administration to cut government oulays. Foreign investment in Ecuador is low as a result of the unstable regulatory environment and weak rule of law.
    n April of 2017, Lenin MORENO was elected President of Ecuador by popular vote. His immediate challenge was to reengage the private sector to improve cash flow in the country. Ecuador’s economy returned to positive, but sluggish, growth. In early 2018, the MORENO administration held a public referendum on seven economic and political issues in a move counter to CORREA-administration policies, reduce corruption, strengthen democracy, and revive employment and the economy. The referendum resulted in repeal of taxes associated with recovery from the earthquake of 2016, reduced restrictions on metal mining in the Yasuni Intangible Zone - a protected area, and several political reforms.
    $192.6 billion (2017 est.)
    $195.7 billion (2016 est.)
    $195.5 billion (2015 est.)
    note: data are in 2017 dollars
    country comparison to the world: 66
    $102.3 billion (2017 est.)
    2.7% (2017 est.)
    -1.6% (2016 est.)
    0.1% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 130
    $11,500 (2017 est.)
    $11,800 (2016 est.)
    $12,000 (2015 est.)
    note: data are in 2017 dollars
    country comparison to the world: 133
    23.7% of GDP (2017 est.)
    26.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
    24.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 68
    household consumption: 64.2%
    government consumption: 14.6%
    investment in fixed capital: 24.9%
    investment in inventories: -2.8%
    exports of goods and services: 18.3%
    imports of goods and services: -19.1% (2017 est.)
    agriculture: 7.7%
    industry: 35.2%
    services: 56.9% (2017 est.)
    bananas, coffee, cocoa, rice, potatoes, cassava (manioc, tapioca), plantains, sugarcane; cattle, sheep, pigs, beef, pork, dairy products; fish, shrimp; balsa wood
    petroleum, food processing, textiles, wood products, chemicals
    2.1%
    note: excludes oil refining (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 126
    8.086 million (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 63
    agriculture: 26.1%
    industry: 18.4%
    services: 55.5% (2017)
    4.6% (2017 est.)
    5.2% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 68
    21.5% (December 2017 est)
    lowest 10%: 1.4%
    highest 10%: 35.4%
    note: data are for urban households only (2012 est.)
    45.9 (December 2017)
    48.5 (December 2017)
    note: data are for urban households only
    country comparison to the world: 34
    revenues: $32.3 billion
    expenditures: $37.7 billion (2017 est.)
    32.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 69
    -5.5% of GDP (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 173
    45% of GDP (2017 est.)
    42.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 117
    calendar year
    0.4% (2017 est.)
    1.7% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 20
    8.17% (31 December 2011)
    8.68% (31 December 2010)
    country comparison to the world: 39
    7.75% (31 December 2017 est.)
    8.48% (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 111
    $24.53 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $22.63 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 67
    $50.79 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $46.19 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 67
    $37.35 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $32.11 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 71
    $6.838 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $6.065 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    $6.615 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 80
    -$401 million (2017 est.)
    $1.441 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 110
    $19.12 billion (2017 est.)
    $16.8 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 72
    petroleum, bananas, cut flowers, shrimp, cacao, coffee, wood, fish
    US 31.5%, Vietnam 7.6%, Peru 6.7%, Chile 6.5%, Panama 4.9%, Russia 4.4%, China 4% (2017)
    $19.03 billion (2017 est.)
    $15.55 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 76
    industrial materials, fuels and lubricants, nondurable consumer goods
    US 22.8%, China 15.4%, Colombia 8.7%, Panama 6.4%, Brazil 4.4%, Peru 4.2% (2017)
    $2.451 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $4.259 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 111
    $46.54 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $38.14 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 66
    $17.33 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $16.63 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 81
    $6.33 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 69
    the US dollar became Ecuador's currency in 2001
  • Energy :: ECUADOR

  • population without electricity: 500,000
    electrification - total population: 97%
    electrification - urban areas: 100%
    electrification - rural areas: 92% (2013)
    27.72 billion kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 67
    27.53 billion kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 64
    211 million kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 75
    18.5 million kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 109
    7.435 million kW (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 72
    13.2% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 198
    0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 82
    71.9% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 19
    14.8% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 45
    531,300 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 28
    376,400 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 24
    0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 118
    8.273 billion bbl (1 January 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 18
    77,720 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 72
    274,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 47
    15,270 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 76
    44,680 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 87
    497 million cu m (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 73
    497 million cu m (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 101
    0 cu m (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 94
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 119
    10.9 billion cu m (1 January 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 82
    38 million Mt (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 69
  • Communications :: ECUADOR

  • total subscriptions: 2,415,204
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 15 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 55
    total subscriptions: 13,881,562
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 85 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 69
    general assessment: fixed-line service and sophisticated 4G LTE ultra-broadband network; developed Internet Service Provider market, some with fiber optics to the home, available to consumers; much of the country’s fixed-line structure is influenced by topographical challenges associated with the Andes Mountains
    domestic: fixed-line services with digital networks provided by multiple telecommunications operators; fixed-line teledensity stands at about 15 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular use has surged and subscribership has reached 85 per 100 persons
    international: country code - 593; landing points for the PAN-AM and South America-1 submarine cables that provide links to the west coast of South America, Panama, Colombia, Venezuela, and extending onward to Aruba and the US Virgin Islands in the Caribbean; in 2017, Alcatel completed a 6000km, submarine-cable system from Sarasota, Florida to Manta, Ecuador; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2018)
    about 60 media outlets are recognized as national; the Ecuadorian Government controls 12 national outlets and multiple radio stations; there are multiple TV networks and many local channels, as well as more than 300 radio stations; many TV and radio stations are privately owned; broadcast media is required by law to give the government free airtime to broadcast programs produced by the state; the Ecuadorian Government is the biggest advertiser and grants advertising contracts to outlets that provide favorable coverage; a 2011 antimonopoly law and the 2013 Communication Law limit ownership and investment in the media by non-media businesses (2018)
    .ec
    total: 8,693,739
    percent of population: 54.1% (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 51
    total: 1,683,783
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 10 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 58
  • Transportation :: ECUADOR

  • number of registered air carriers: 7
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 35
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 5,762,485
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 86,128,720 mt-km (2015)
    HC (2016)
    432 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 20
    total: 104
    over 3,047 m: 4
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 18
    914 to 1,523 m: 26
    under 914 m: 51 (2017)
    total: 328
    914 to 1,523 m: 37
    under 914 m: 291 (2013)
    2 (2013)
    extra heavy crude 485 km; gas 123 km; oil 2,131 km; refined products 1,526 km (2017)
    total: 965 km
    narrow gauge: 965 km 1.067-m gauge
    note: passenger service limited to certain sections of track, mostly for tourist trains (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 91
    total: 43,670 km
    paved: 6,472 km
    unpaved: 37,198 km (2007)
    country comparison to the world: 84
    1,500 km (most inaccessible) (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 52
    total: 138
    by type: general cargo 6, oil tanker 37, other 95 (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 76
    major seaport(s): Esmeraldas, Manta, Puerto Bolivar
    river port(s): Guayaquil (Guayas)
    container port(s) (TEUs): Guayaquil (1,405,762)
  • Military and Security :: ECUADOR

  • 1.7% of GDP (2017)
    2.21% of GDP (2016)
    2.44% of GDP (2015)
    2.72% of GDP (2014)
    2.88% of GDP (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 62
    Ecuadorian Armed Forces: Ecuadorian Land Force (Fuerza Terrestre Ecuatoriana, FTE), Ecuadorian Navy (Fuerza Naval del Ecuador, FNE, includes Naval Infantry, Naval Aviation, Coast Guard), Ecuadorian Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Ecuatoriana, FAE) (2012)
    18 years of age for selective conscript military service; conscription has been suspended; 18 years of age for voluntary military service; Air Force 18-22 years of age, Ecuadorian birth requirement; 1-year service obligation (2012)
    the International Maritime Bureau continues to report the territorial and offshore waters as at risk for piracy and armed robbery against ships; vessels, including commercial shipping and pleasure craft, have been attacked and hijacked both at anchor and while underway; crews have been robbed and stores or cargoes stolen; after several years with no incidents, two attacks were reported in 2017
  • Transnational Issues :: ECUADOR

  • organized illegal narcotics operations in Colombia penetrate across Ecuador's shared border, which thousands of Colombians also cross to escape the violence in their home country
    refugees (country of origin): 101,161 (Colombia) (2016); 98,573 (Venezuela) (economic and political crisis; includes Venezuelans who have claimed asylum or have received alternative legal stay) (2018)
    IDPs: 1,708 (earthquake April 2016) (2017)
    significant transit country for cocaine originating in Colombia and Peru, with much of the US-bound cocaine passing through Ecuadorian Pacific waters; importer of precursor chemicals used in production of illicit narcotics; attractive location for cash-placement by drug traffickers laundering money because of dollarization and weak anti-money-laundering regime; increased activity on the northern frontier by trafficking groups and Colombian insurgents