Africa :: Ethiopia
  • Introduction :: Ethiopia
  • Background:
    Unique among African countries, the ancient Ethiopian monarchy maintained its freedom from colonial rule with the exception of a short-lived Italian occupation from 1936-41. In 1974, a military junta, the Derg, deposed Emperor Haile SELASSIE (who had ruled since 1930) and established a socialist state. Torn by bloody coups, uprisings, wide-scale drought, and massive refugee problems, the regime was finally toppled in 1991 by a coalition of rebel forces, the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front. A constitution was adopted in 1994, and Ethiopia's first multiparty elections were held in 1995. A border war with Eritrea in the late 1990s ended with a peace treaty in December 2000. In November 2007, the Eritrea-Ethiopia Border Commission (EEBC) issued specific coordinates as virtually demarcating the border and pronounced its work finished. Alleging that the EEBC acted beyond its mandate in issuing the coordinates, Ethiopia has not accepted them and has not withdrawn troops from previously contested areas pronounced by the EEBC as belonging to Eritrea. In August 2012, longtime leader Prime Minister MELES Zenawi died in office and was replaced by his Deputy Prime Minister HAILEMARIAM Desalegn, marking the first peaceful transition of power in decades.
  • Geography :: Ethiopia
  • Location:
    Eastern Africa, west of Somalia
    Geographic coordinates:
    8 00 N, 38 00 E
    Map references:
    Africa
    Area:
    total: 1,104,300 sq km
    land: 1 million sq km
    water: 104,300 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 28
    Area - comparative:
    slightly less than twice the size of Texas
    Land boundaries:
    total: 5,925 km
    border countries (6): Djibouti 342 km, Eritrea 1033 km, Kenya 867 km, Somalia 1640 km, South Sudan 1299 km, Sudan 744 km
    Coastline:
    0 km (landlocked)
    Maritime claims:
    none (landlocked)
    Climate:
    tropical monsoon with wide topographic-induced variation
    Terrain:
    high plateau with central mountain range divided by Great Rift Valley
    Elevation:
    mean elevation: 1,330 m
    elevation extremes: -125 m lowest point: Danakil Depression
    4550 highest point: Ras Dejen
    Natural resources:
    small reserves of gold, platinum, copper, potash, natural gas, hydropower
    Land use:
    agricultural land: 36.3% (2011 est.)
    arable land: 15.2% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 1.1% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 20% (2011 est.)
    forest: 12.2% (2011 est.)
    other: 51.5% (2011 est.)
    Irrigated land:
    2,900 sq km (2012)
    Population distribution:
    highest density is found in the highlands of the north and middle areas of the country, particularly around the centrally located capital city of Addis Ababa; the far east and southeast are sparsely populated
    Natural hazards:

    geologically active Great Rift Valley susceptible to earthquakes, volcanic eruptions; frequent droughts

    volcanism: volcanic activity in the Great Rift Valley; Erta Ale (613 m), which has caused frequent lava flows in recent years, is the country's most active volcano; Dabbahu became active in 2005, forcing evacuations; other historically active volcanoes include Alayta, Dalaffilla, Dallol, Dama Ali, Fentale, Kone, Manda Hararo, and Manda-Inakir

    Environment - current issues:
    deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; loss of biodiversity; water shortages in some areas from water-intensive farming and poor management; industrial pollution and pesticides contribute to air, water, and soil pollution
    Environment - international agreements:
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection
    signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea
    Geography - note:
    landlocked - entire coastline along the Red Sea was lost with the de jure independence of Eritrea on 24 May 1993; Ethiopia is, therefore, the most populous landlocked country in the world; the Blue Nile, the chief headstream of the Nile by water volume, rises in T'ana Hayk (Lake Tana) in northwest Ethiopia; three major crops are believed to have originated in Ethiopia: coffee, grain sorghum, and castor bean
  • People and Society :: Ethiopia
  • Population:
    108,386,391 (July 2018 est.)

    note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected

    country comparison to the world: 12
    Nationality:
    noun: Ethiopian(s)
    adjective: Ethiopian
    Ethnic groups:
    Oromo 34.4%, Amhara (Amara) 27%, Somali (Somalie) 6.2%, Tigray (Tigrinya) 6.1%, Sidama 4%, Gurage 2.5%, Welaita 2.3%, Hadiya 1.7%, Afar (Affar) 1.7%, Gamo 1.5%, Gedeo 1.3%, Silte 1.3%, Kefficho 1.2%, other 8.8% (2007 est.)
    Languages:
    Oromo (official working language in the State of Oromiya) 33.8%, Amharic (official national language) 29.3%, Somali (official working language of the State of Sumale) 6.2%, Tigrigna (Tigrinya) (official working language of the State of Tigray) 5.9%, Sidamo 4%, Wolaytta 2.2%, Gurage 2%, Afar (official working language of the State of Afar) 1.7%, Hadiyya 1.7%, Gamo 1.5%, Gedeo 1.3%, Opuuo 1.2%, Kafa 1.1%, other 8.1%, English (major foreign language taught in schools), Arabic (2007 est.)
    Religions:
    Ethiopian Orthodox 43.5%, Muslim 33.9%, Protestant 18.5%, traditional 2.7%, Catholic 0.7%, other 0.6% (2007 est.)
    Demographic profile:

    Ethiopia is a predominantly agricultural country – more than 80% of the population lives in rural areas – that is in the early stages of demographic transition. Infant, child, and maternal mortality have fallen sharply over the past decade, but the total fertility rate has declined more slowly and the population continues to grow. The rising age of marriage and the increasing proportion of women remaining single have contributed to fertility reduction. While the use of modern contraceptive methods among married women has increased significantly from 6 percent in 2000 to 27 percent in 2012, the overall rate is still quite low.

    Ethiopia’s rapid population growth is putting increasing pressure on land resources, expanding environmental degradation, and raising vulnerability to food shortages. With more than 40 percent of the population below the age of 15 and a fertility rate of over 5 children per woman (and even higher in rural areas), Ethiopia will have to make further progress in meeting its family planning needs if it is to achieve the age structure necessary for reaping a demographic dividend in the coming decades.

    Poverty, drought, political repression, and forced government resettlement have driven Ethiopia’s internal and external migration since the 1960s. Before the 1974 revolution, only small numbers of the Ethiopian elite went abroad to study and then returned home, but under the brutal Derg regime thousands fled the country, primarily as refugees. Between 1982 and 1991 there was a new wave of migration to the West for family reunification. Since the defeat of the Derg in 1991, Ethiopians have migrated to escape violence among some of the country’s myriad ethnic groups or to pursue economic opportunities. Internal and international trafficking of women and children for domestic work and prostitution is a growing problem.

    Age structure:
    0-14 years: 43.21% (male 23,494,593 /female 23,336,508)
    15-24 years: 20.18% (male 10,857,968 /female 11,011,100)
    25-54 years: 29.73% (male 15,978,384 /female 16,247,086)
    55-64 years: 3.92% (male 2,059,129 /female 2,185,814)
    65 years and over: 2.97% (male 1,445,547 /female 1,770,262) (2018 est.)
    population pyramid: population pyramid
    Dependency ratios:
    total dependency ratio: 82.1 (2015 est.)
    youth dependency ratio: 75.8 (2015 est.)
    elderly dependency ratio: 6.3 (2015 est.)
    potential support ratio: 15.8 (2015 est.)
    Median age:
    total: 18 years
    male: 17.8 years
    female: 18.2 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 213
    Population growth rate:
    2.83% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 11
    Birth rate:
    36 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 17
    Death rate:
    7.5 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 110
    Net migration rate:
    -0.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 107
    Population distribution:
    highest density is found in the highlands of the north and middle areas of the country, particularly around the centrally located capital city of Addis Ababa; the far east and southeast are sparsely populated
    Urbanization:
    urban population: 20.8% of total population (2018)
    rate of urbanization: 4.63% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    Major urban areas - population:
    4.4 million ADDIS ABABA (capital) (2018)
    Sex ratio:
    at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    15-24 years: 0.99 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    55-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    Mother's mean age at first birth:
    20 years (2016 est.)

    note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

    Maternal mortality rate:
    353 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 34
    Infant mortality rate:
    total: 48.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    male: 55.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    female: 41 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 31
    Life expectancy at birth:
    total population: 63 years
    male: 60.5 years
    female: 65.5 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 197
    Total fertility rate:
    4.91 children born/woman (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 15
    Contraceptive prevalence rate:
    36.5% (2017)
    Health expenditures:
    4.9% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 144
    Physicians density:
    0.03 physicians/1,000 population (2009)
    Hospital bed density:
    0.3 beds/1,000 population (2015)
    Drinking water source:
    improved: urban: 93.1% of population
    rural: 48.6% of population
    total: 57.3% of population
    unimproved: urban: 6.9% of population
    rural: 51.4% of population
    total: 42.7% of population (2015 est.)
    Sanitation facility access:
    improved: urban: 27.2% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 28.2% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 28% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 72.8% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 71.8% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 72% of population (2015 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
    0.9% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 47
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
    610,000 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 14
    HIV/AIDS - deaths:
    15,000 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 16
    Major infectious diseases:
    degree of risk: very high (2016)
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever (2016)
    vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever (2016)
    water contact diseases: schistosomiasis (2016)
    animal contact diseases: rabies (2016)
    respiratory diseases: meningococcal meningitis (2016)
    Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
    4.5% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 185
    Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
    23.6% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 20
    Education expenditures:
    4.5% of GDP (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 94
    Literacy:
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)
    total population: 49.1% (2015 est.)
    male: 57.2% (2015 est.)
    female: 41.1% (2015 est.)
    School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
    total: 8 years (2012)
    male: 9 years (2012)
    female: 8 years (2012)
    Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
    total: 25.2% (2016 est.)
    male: 17.1% (2016 est.)
    female: 30.9% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 46
  • Government :: Ethiopia
  • Country name:
    conventional long form: Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
    conventional short form: Ethiopia
    local long form: Ityop'iya Federalawi Demokrasiyawi Ripeblik
    local short form: Ityop'iya
    former: Abyssinia, Italian East Africa
    abbreviation: FDRE
    etymology: the country name derives from the Greek word "Aethiopia," which in classical times referred to lands south of Egypt in the Upper Nile region
    Government type:
    federal parliamentary republic
    Capital:
    name: Addis Ababa
    geographic coordinates: 9 02 N, 38 42 E
    time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    Administrative divisions:
    9 ethnically based regional states (kililoch, singular - kilil) and 2 self-governing administrations* (astedaderoch, singular - astedader); Adis Abeba* (Addis Ababa), Afar, Amara (Amhara), Binshangul Gumuz, Dire Dawa*, Gambela Hizboch (Gambela Peoples), Hareri Hizb (Harari People), Oromiya (Oromia), Sumale (Somali), Tigray, Ye Debub Biheroch Bihereseboch na Hizboch (Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples)
    Independence:
    oldest independent country in Africa and one of the oldest in the world - at least 2,000 years (may be traced to the Aksumite Kingdom, which coalesced in the first century B.C.)
    National holiday:
    Derg Downfall Day (defeat of MENGISTU regime), 28 May (1991)
    Constitution:
    history: several previous; latest drafted June 1994, adopted 8 December 1994, entered into force 21 August 1995 (2017)
    amendments: proposals submitted for discussion require two-thirds majority approval in either house of Parliament or majority approval of one-third of the State Councils; passage of amendments other than constitutional articles on fundamental rights and freedoms and the initiation and amendment of the constitution requires two-thirds majority vote in a joint session of Parliament and majority vote by two-thirds of the State Councils; passage of amendments affecting rights and freedoms and amendment procedures requires two-thirds majority vote in each house of Parliament and majority vote by all the State Councils (2017)
    International law organization participation:
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
    Citizenship:
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Ethiopia
    dual citizenship recognized: no
    residency requirement for naturalization: 4 years
    Suffrage:
    18 years of age; universal
    Executive branch:
    chief of state: President SAHLE-WORK Zewde (since 25 October 2018)
    head of government: Prime Minister ABIY Ahmed (since 2 April 2018); Deputy Prime Minister DEMEKE Mekonnen Hassen (since 29 November 2012); note - Prime Minister HAILEMARIAM Desalegn (since 21 September 2012) resigned on 15 February 2018
    cabinet: Council of Ministers selected by the prime minister and approved by the House of People's Representatives
    elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by both chambers of Parliament for a 6-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 7 October 2013 (next to be held in October 2019); prime minister designated by the majority party following legislative elections
    election results: SAHLE-WORK Zewde elected president; Parliament vote - 659 (unanimous)
    note: SAHLE-WORK Zewde is the first female elected head of state in Ethiopia; she is currently the only female president in Africa
    Legislative branch:
    description: bicameral Parliament consists of:
    House of Federation or Yefedereshein Mikir Bete (153 seats; members indirectly elected by state assemblies to serve 5-year terms)
    House of People's Representatives or Yehizb Tewokayoch Mekir Bete (547 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote; 22 seats reserved for minorities; all members serve 5-year terms)
    elections:
    House of People's Representatives - last held on 24 May 2015 (next to be held in 2020)
    election results:
    House of Representatives - percent of vote by party/coalition - NA; seats by party/coalition - EPRDF 501, SPDP 24, BGPDUP 9, ANDP 8, GPUDM 3, APDO 1, HNL 1
    note: House of Federation is responsible for interpreting the constitution and federal-regional issues and the House of People's Representatives is responsible for passing legislation
    Judicial branch:
    highest courts: Federal Supreme Court (consists of 11 judges); note - the House of Federation has jurisdiction for all constitutional issues
    judge selection and term of office: president and vice president of Federal Supreme Court recommended by the prime minister and appointed by the House of People's Representatives; other Supreme Court judges nominated by the Federal Judicial Administrative Council (a 10-member body chaired by the president of the Federal Supreme Court) and appointed by the House of People's Representatives; judges serve until retirement at age 60
    subordinate courts: federal high courts and federal courts of first instance; state court systems (mirror structure of federal system); sharia courts and customary and traditional courts
    Political parties and leaders:
    Afar National Democratic Party or ANDP [Taha AHMED]
    Argoba People Democratic Organization or APDO
    Amhara National Democratic Movement or ANDM [Demeke MEKONNEN]
    Benishangul Gumuz People's Democratic Unity Party or BGPDUP
    Blue Party (Semayawi Party) [Solomon TESSEMA, spokesman]
    Ethiopian Federal Democratic Unity Forum or MEDREK or FORUM [Beyene PETROS] (includes ESD-SCUP, OFC, SLM, UTDS)
    Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front or EPRDF [ABIY Ahmed] (includes ANDM, OPDO, SEPDM, TPLF)
    Ethiopian Social Democracy-Sothern Coalition Unity Party or ESD-SCUP
    Gambella Peoples Unity Democratic Movement or GPUDM
    Harari National League or HNL [Murad ABDULHADI]
    Oromo Fderalist Congress or OFC
    Oromo People's Democratic Organization or OPDO [ABIY Ahmed]
    Sidama Liberaton Movement or SLM
    Somali People's Democratic Party or SPDP
    Southern Ethiopian People's Democratic Movement or SEPDM [Muferiat KAMIL]
    Tigray People's Liberation Front or TPLF [Meles ZENAWI]
    Union of Tigraians for Democracy & Sovergnty or UTDS
    International organization participation:
    ACP, AfDB, AU, COMESA, EITI (candidate country), FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMIL, UN Security Council (temporary), UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
    Diplomatic representation in the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador Kassa TEKLEBERHAN Gebrehiwet (since 24 January 2018)
    chancery: 3506 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 364-1200
    FAX: [1] (202) 587-0195
    consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, Seattle
    consulate(s): Houston, New York
    Diplomatic representation from the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador Michael RAYNOR (since 3 October 2017)
    embassy: Entoto Street, Addis Ababa
    mailing address: P.O. Box 1014, Addis Ababa
    telephone: [251] 11 130-6000
    FAX:  [251] 11 124-2401
    Flag description:
    three equal horizontal bands of green (top), yellow, and red, with a yellow pentagram and single yellow rays emanating from the angles between the points on a light blue disk centered on the three bands; green represents hope and the fertility of the land, yellow symbolizes justice and harmony, while red stands for sacrifice and heroism in the defense of the land; the blue of the disk symbolizes peace and the pentagram represents the unity and equality of the nationalities and peoples of Ethiopia

    note: Ethiopia is the oldest independent country in Africa, and the three main colors of her flag (adopted ca. 1895) were so often appropriated by other African countries upon independence that they became known as the Pan-African colors; the emblem in the center of the current flag was added in 1996

    National symbol(s):
    Abyssinian lion (traditional), yellow pentagram with five rays of light on a blue field (promoted by current government); national colors: green, yellow, red
    National anthem:
    name: "Whedefit Gesgeshi Woud Enat Ethiopia" (March Forward, Dear Mother Ethiopia)
    lyrics/music: DEREJE Melaku Mengesha/SOLOMON Lulu

    note: adopted 1992

  • Economy :: Ethiopia
  • Economy - overview:

    Ethiopia - the second most populous country in Africa - is a one-party state with a planned economy. For more than a decade before 2016, GDP grew at a rate between 8% and 11% annually – one of the fastest growing states among the 188 IMF member countries. This growth was driven by government investment in infrastructure, as well as sustained progress in the agricultural and service sectors. More than 70% of Ethiopia’s population is still employed in the agricultural sector, but services have surpassed agriculture as the principal source of GDP.

    Ethiopia has the lowest level of income-inequality in Africa and one of the lowest in the world, with a Gini coefficient comparable to that of the Scandinavian countries. Yet despite progress toward eliminating extreme poverty, Ethiopia remains one of the poorest countries in the world, due both to rapid population growth and a low starting base. Changes in rainfall associated with world-wide weather patterns resulted in the worst drought in 30 years in 2015-16, creating food insecurity for millions of Ethiopians.

    The state is heavily engaged in the economy. Ongoing infrastructure projects include power production and distribution, roads, rails, airports and industrial parks. Key sectors are state-owned, including telecommunications, banking and insurance, and power distribution. Under Ethiopia's constitution, the state owns all land and provides long-term leases to tenants. Title rights in urban areas, particularly Addis Ababa, are poorly regulated, and subject to corruption.

    Ethiopia’s foreign exchange earnings are led by the services sector - primarily the state-run Ethiopian Airlines - followed by exports of several commodities. While coffee remains the largest foreign exchange earner, Ethiopia is diversifying exports, and commodities such as gold, sesame, khat, livestock and horticulture products are becoming increasingly important. Manufacturing represented less than 8% of total exports in 2016, but manufacturing exports should increase in future years due to a growing international presence.

    The banking, insurance, telecommunications, and micro-credit industries are restricted to domestic investors, but Ethiopia has attracted roughly $8.5 billion in foreign direct investment (FDI), mostly from China, Turkey, India and the EU; US FDI is $567 million. Investment has been primarily in infrastructure, construction, agriculture/horticulture, agricultural processing, textiles, leather and leather products.

    To support industrialization in sectors where Ethiopia has a comparative advantage, such as textiles and garments, leather goods, and processed agricultural products, Ethiopia plans to increase installed power generation capacity by 8,320 MW, up from a capacity of 2,000 MW, by building three more major dams and expanding to other sources of renewable energy. In 2017, the government devalued the birr by 15% to increase exports and alleviate a chronic foreign currency shortage in the country.

    GDP (purchasing power parity):
    $200.6 billion (2017 est.)
    $181 billion (2016 est.)
    $167.6 billion (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 64
    GDP (official exchange rate):
    $80.87 billion (2017 est.) (2017 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate:
    10.9% (2017 est.)
    8% (2016 est.)
    10.4% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 5
    GDP - per capita (PPP):
    $2,200 (2017 est.)
    $2,000 (2016 est.)
    $1,900 (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 204
    Gross national saving:
    32.1% of GDP (2017 est.)
    32.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
    32.4% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 26
    GDP - composition, by end use:
    household consumption: 69.6% (2017 est.)
    government consumption: 10% (2017 est.)
    investment in fixed capital: 43.5% (2017 est.)
    investment in inventories: -0.1% (2017 est.)
    exports of goods and services: 8.1% (2017 est.)
    imports of goods and services: -31.2% (2017 est.)
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
    agriculture: 34.8% (2017 est.)
    industry: 21.6% (2017 est.)
    services: 43.6% (2017 est.)
    Agriculture - products:
    cereals, coffee, oilseed, cotton, sugarcane, vegetables, khat, cut flowers; hides, cattle, sheep, goats; fish
    Industries:
    food processing, beverages, textiles, leather, garments, chemicals, metals processing, cement
    Industrial production growth rate:
    10.5% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 13
    Labor force:
    52.82 million (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 13
    Labor force - by occupation:
    agriculture: 72.7%
    industry: 7.4%
    services: 19.9% (2013 est.)
    Unemployment rate:
    17.5% (2012 est.)
    18% (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 180
    Population below poverty line:
    29.6% (2014 est.)
    Household income or consumption by percentage share:
    lowest 10%: 25.6% (2005)
    highest 10%: 25.6% (2005)
    Distribution of family income - Gini index:
    33 (2011)
    30 (2000)
    country comparison to the world: 114
    Budget:
    revenues: 11.24 billion (2017 est.)
    expenditures: 13.79 billion (2017 est.)
    Taxes and other revenues:
    13.9% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 203
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
    -3.2% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 139
    Public debt:
    54.2% of GDP (2017 est.)
    53.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 83
    Fiscal year:
    8 July - 7 July
    Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    9.9% (2017 est.)
    7.3% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 203
    Central bank discount rate:

    NA

    Commercial bank prime lending rate:
    13.5% (31 December 2017 est.)
    12.2% (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 54
    Stock of narrow money:
    $9.042 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $8.757 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 85
    Stock of broad money:
    $9.042 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $8.757 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 87
    Stock of domestic credit:
    $27.66 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $25.78 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 84
    Market value of publicly traded shares:

    NA

    Current account balance:
    -$6.551 billion (2017 est.)
    -$6.574 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 187
    Exports:
    $3.23 billion (2017 est.)
    $2.814 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 127
    Exports - partners:
    Sudan 23.3%, Switzerland 10.2%, China 8.1%, Somalia 6.6%, Netherlands 6.2%, US 4.7%, Germany 4.7%, Saudi Arabia 4.6%, UK 4.6% (2017)
    Exports - commodities:
    coffee (27%, by value), oilseeds (17%), edible vegetables including khat (17%), gold (13%), flowers (7%), live animals (7%), raw leather products (3%), meat products (3%)
    Imports:
    $15.59 billion (2017 est.)
    $14.69 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 89
    Imports - commodities:
    machinery and aircraft (14%, by value), metal and metal products, (14%), electrical materials, (13%), petroleum products (12%), motor vehicles, (10%), chemicals and fertilizers (4%)
    Imports - partners:
    China 24.1%, Saudi Arabia 10.1%, India 6.4%, Kuwait 5.3%, France 5.2% (2017)
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
    $3.013 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $3.022 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 110
    Debt - external:
    $26.05 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $24.82 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 87
    Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
    (31 December 2009 est.)
    Exchange rates:
    birr (ETB) per US dollar -
    25 (2017 est.)
    21.732 (2016 est.)
    21.732 (2015 est.)
    21.55 (2014 est.)
    19.8 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: Ethiopia
  • Electricity access:
    population without electricity: 71.2 million (2013)
    electrification - total population: 24% (2013)
    electrification - urban areas: 85% (2013)
    electrification - rural areas: 10% (2013)
    Electricity - production:
    11.15 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 99
    Electricity - consumption:
    9.062 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 100
    Electricity - exports:
    166 million kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 78
    Electricity - imports:
    0 kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 146
    Electricity - installed generating capacity:
    2.784 million kW (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 99
    Electricity - from fossil fuels:
    3% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 207
    Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
    0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 88
    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
    86% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 11
    Electricity - from other renewable sources:
    11% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 76
    Crude oil - production:
    0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 133
    Crude oil - exports:
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 121
    Crude oil - imports:
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 125
    Crude oil - proved reserves:
    428,000 bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 98
    Refined petroleum products - production:
    0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 143
    Refined petroleum products - consumption:
    74,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 89
    Refined petroleum products - exports:
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 153
    Refined petroleum products - imports:
    69,970 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 67
    Natural gas - production:
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 130
    Natural gas - consumption:
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 144
    Natural gas - exports:
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 102
    Natural gas - imports:
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 123
    Natural gas - proved reserves:
    24.92 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 72
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
    12.18 million Mt (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 99
  • Communications :: Ethiopia
  • Telephones - fixed lines:
    total subscriptions: 1.181 million (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 70
    Telephones - mobile cellular:
    total subscriptions: 62.617 million
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 59 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 24
    Telephone system:
    general assessment: Ethio Telecom maintains a monopoly over telecommunication services; open-wire, microwave radio relay; radio communication in the HF, VHF, and UHF frequencies; mobile broadband services via 3G and LTE networks; 2 domestic satellites provide the national trunk service; international Internet bandwidth increased 56% in 2016 to reach 35 Gb/s (2017)
    domestic: fixed-line subscriptions at 1 per 100 while mobile-cellular stands at 59 per 100; the number of mobile telephones is increasing steadily (2017)
    international: country code - 251; open-wire to Sudan and Djibouti; microwave radio relay to Kenya and Djibouti; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Pacific Ocean) (2016)
    Broadcast media:
    6 public TV stations broadcasting nationally and 10 public radio broadcasters; 7 private radio stations and 19 community radio stations (2017)
    Internet country code:
    .et
    Internet users:
    total: 15,731,741 (July 2016 est.)
    percent of population: 15.4% (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 38
    Broadband - fixed subscriptions:
    total: 580,120 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 79
  • Transportation :: Ethiopia
  • National air transport system:
    number of registered air carriers: 1 (2015)
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 75 (2015)
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 7,074,779 (2015)
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 1,228,738,320 mt-km (2015)
    Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
    ET (2016)
    Airports:
    57 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 83
    Airports - with paved runways:
    total: 17 (2017)
    over 3,047 m: 3 (2017)
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 8 (2017)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 (2017)
    under 914 m: 2 (2017)
    Airports - with unpaved runways:
    total: 40 (2013)
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 (2013)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 9 (2013)
    914 to 1,523 m: 20 (2013)
    under 914 m: 8 (2013)
    Railways:
    total: 659 km (Ethiopian segment of the 756 km Addis Ababa-Djibouti railroad) (2017)
    standard gauge: 659 km 1.435-m gauge (2017)

    note: electric railway with redundant power supplies; under joint control of Djibouti and Ethiopia and managed by a Chinese contractor

    country comparison to the world: 105
    Roadways:
    total: 110,414 km (2015)
    paved: 14,354 km (2015)
    unpaved: 96,060 km (2015)
    country comparison to the world: 44
    Merchant marine:
    total: 11 (2017)
    by type: general cargo 9, oil tanker 2 (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 146
    Ports and terminals:
    Ethiopia is landlocked and uses the ports of Djibouti in Djibouti and Berbera in Somalia
  • Military and Security :: Ethiopia
  • Military expenditures:
    0.67% of GDP (2016)
    0.71% of GDP (2015)
    0.77% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 134
    Military branches:
    Ethiopian National Defense Force (ENDF): Ground Forces, Ethiopian Air Force (Ye Ityopya Ayer Hayl, ETAF) (2013)
    Military service age and obligation:
    18 years of age for voluntary military service; no compulsory military service, but the military can conduct callups when necessary and compliance is compulsory (2012)
  • Terrorism :: Ethiopia
  • Terrorist groups - home based:
    al-Shabaab:
    aim(s): punish Ethiopia for participating in the African Union Mission in Somalia; compel Ethiopia to withdraw troops from Somalia
    area(s) of operation: aspires to conduct attacks in Addis Ababa; no permanent presence (April 2018)
    Terrorist groups - foreign based:
    al-Shabaab:
    aim(s): punish Ethiopia for participating in the African Union Mission in Somalia; compel Ethiopia to withdraw troops from Somalia
    area(s) of operation: aspires to conduct attacks in Addis Ababa; no permanent presence (April 2018)
  • Transnational Issues :: Ethiopia
  • Disputes - international:
    Eritrea and Ethiopia agreed to abide by the 2002 Eritrea-Ethiopia Boundary Commission's (EEBC) delimitation decision, but neither party responded to the revised line detailed in the November 2006 EEBC Demarcation Statementthe undemarcated former British administrative line has little meaning as a political separation to rival clans within Ethiopia's Ogaden and southern Somalia's Oromo regionEthiopian forces invaded southern Somalia and routed Islamist courts from Mogadishu in January 2007"Somaliland" secessionists provide port facilities in Berbera and trade ties to landlocked Ethiopiacivil unrest in eastern Sudan has hampered efforts to demarcate the porous boundary with Ethiopia
    Refugees and internally displaced persons:
    refugees (country of origin): 422,240 (South Sudan) (refugees and asylum seekers), 257,283 (Somalia) (refugees and asylum seekers), 173,879 (Eritrea) (refugees and asylum seekers), 44,620 (Sudan) (refugees and asylum seekers) (2018)
    IDPs: 2,075,278 (includes conflict- and climate-induced IDPs; border war with Eritrea from 1998-2000; ethnic clashes; and ongoing fighting between the Ethiopian military and separatist rebel groups in the Somali and Oromia regions; natural disasters; intercommunal violence; most IDPs live in Sumale state) (2018)
    Illicit drugs:
    transit hub for heroin originating in Southwest and Southeast Asia and destined for Europe, as well as cocaine destined for markets in southern Africa; cultivates qat (khat) for local use and regional export, principally to Djibouti and Somalia (legal in all three countries); the lack of a well-developed financial system limits the country's utility as a money laundering center