Africa :: Gambia, The
  • Introduction :: Gambia, The
  • Background:
    The Gambia gained its independence from the UK in 1965. Geographically surrounded by Senegal, it formed a short-lived Confederation of Senegambia between 1982 and 1989. In 1991 the two nations signed a friendship and cooperation treaty, although tensions flared up intermittently during the regime of Yahya JAMMEH. JAMMEH led a military coup in 1994 that overthrew the president and banned political activity. A new constitution and presidential election in 1996, followed by parliamentary balloting in 1997, completed a nominal return to civilian rule. JAMMEH was elected president in all subsequent elections including most recently in late 2011. After 22 years of increasingly authoritarian rule, President JAMMEH was defeated in free and fair elections in December 2016. Due to The Gambia’s poor human rights record under JAMMEH, international development partners had distanced themselves, and substantially reduced aid to the country. These channels are now reopening under the administration of President Adama BARROW, who took office in January 2017.
  • Geography :: Gambia, The
  • Location:
    Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean and Senegal
    Geographic coordinates:
    13 28 N, 16 34 W
    Map references:
    Africa
    Area:
    total: 11,300 sq km
    land: 10,120 sq km
    water: 1,180 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 166
    Area - comparative:
    slightly less than twice the size of Delaware
    Land boundaries:
    total: 749 km
    border countries (1): Senegal 749 km
    Coastline:
    80 km
    Maritime claims:
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    contiguous zone: 18 nm
    continental shelf: extent not specified
    exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
    Climate:
    tropical; hot, rainy season (June to November); cooler, dry season (November to May)
    Terrain:
    flood plain of the Gambia River flanked by some low hills
    Elevation:
    mean elevation: 34 m
    elevation extremes: 0 m lowest point: Atlantic Ocean
    53 highest point: unnamed elevation
    Natural resources:
    fish, clay, silica sand, titanium (rutile and ilmenite), tin, zircon
    Land use:
    agricultural land: 56.1% (2011 est.)
    arable land: 41% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 0.5% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 14.6% (2011 est.)
    forest: 43.9% (2011 est.)
    other: 0% (2011 est.)
    Irrigated land:
    50 sq km (2012)
    Population distribution:
    settlements are found scattered along the Gambia River; the largest communities, including the capital of Banjul, and the country's largest city, Serekunda, are found at the mouth of the Gambia River along the Atlantic coast
    Natural hazards:
    droughts
    Environment - current issues:
    deforestation due to slash-and-burn agriculture; desertification; water pollution; water-borne diseases
    Environment - international agreements:
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    Geography - note:
    almost an enclave of Senegal; smallest country on the African mainland
  • People and Society :: Gambia, The
  • Population:
    2,092,731 (July 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 148
    Nationality:
    noun: Gambian(s)
    adjective: Gambian
    Ethnic groups:
    Mandinka/Jahanka 34%, Fulani/Tukulur/Lorobo 22.4%, Wolof 12.6%, Jola/Karoninka 10.7%, Serahuleh 6.6%, Serer 3.2%, Manjago 2.1%, Bambara 1%, Creole/Aku Marabout 0.7%, other 0.9%, non-Gambian 5.2%, no answer 0.6% (2013 est.)
    Languages:
    English (official), Mandinka, Wolof, Fula, Fula other indigenous vernaculars
    Religions:
    Muslim 95.7%, Christian 4.2%, none 0.1%, no response 0.1% (2013 est.)
    Demographic profile:

    The Gambia’s youthful age structure – almost 60% of the population is under the age of 25 – is likely to persist because the country’s total fertility rate remains strong at nearly 4 children per woman. The overall literacy rate is around 55%, and is significantly lower for women than for men. At least 70% of the populace are farmers who are reliant on rain-fed agriculture and cannot afford improved seeds and fertilizers. Crop failures caused by droughts between 2011 and 2013 have increased poverty, food shortages, and malnutrition.

    The Gambia is a source country for migrants and a transit and destination country for migrants and refugees. Since the 1980s, economic deterioration, drought, and high unemployment, especially among youths, have driven both domestic migration (largely urban) and migration abroad (legal and illegal). Emigrants are largely skilled workers, including doctors and nurses, and provide a significant amount of remittances. The top receiving countries for Gambian emigrants are Spain, the US, Nigeria, Senegal, and the UK. While the Gambia and Spain do not share historic, cultural, or trade ties, rural Gambians have migrated to Spain in large numbers because of its proximity and the availability of jobs in its underground economy (this flow slowed following the onset of Spain’s late 2007 economic crisis).

    The Gambia’s role as a host country to refugees is a result of wars in several of its neighboring West African countries. Since 2006, refugees from the Casamance conflict in Senegal have replaced their pattern of flight and return with permanent settlement in The Gambia, often moving in with relatives along the Senegal-Gambia border. The strain of providing for about 7,400 Casamance refugees has increased poverty among Gambian villagers.

    Age structure:
    0-14 years: 36.97% (male 388,615 /female 385,172)
    15-24 years: 20.31% (male 210,217 /female 214,807)
    25-54 years: 34.9% (male 357,934 /female 372,428)
    55-64 years: 4.26% (male 42,655 /female 46,591)
    65 years and over: 3.55% (male 34,328 /female 39,984) (2018 est.)
    population pyramid: population pyramid
    Dependency ratios:
    total dependency ratio: 92.3 (2015 est.)
    youth dependency ratio: 87.8 (2015 est.)
    elderly dependency ratio: 4.5 (2015 est.)
    potential support ratio: 22.3 (2015 est.)
    Median age:
    total: 21.3 years
    male: 20.9 years
    female: 21.6 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 184
    Population growth rate:
    1.99% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 48
    Birth rate:
    28.6 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 43
    Death rate:
    6.9 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 132
    Net migration rate:
    -1.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 158
    Population distribution:
    settlements are found scattered along the Gambia River; the largest communities, including the capital of Banjul, and the country's largest city, Serekunda, are found at the mouth of the Gambia River along the Atlantic coast
    Urbanization:
    urban population: 61.3% of total population (2018)
    rate of urbanization: 4.07% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    Major urban areas - population:
    437,000 BANJUL (capital) (2018)

    note: includes the local government areas of Banjul and Kanifing

    Sex ratio:
    at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    15-24 years: 0.98 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    25-54 years: 0.96 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    55-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    65 years and over: 0.88 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    Mother's mean age at first birth:
    20.9 years (2013 est.)

    note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

    Maternal mortality rate:
    706 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 9
    Infant mortality rate:
    total: 58.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    male: 63.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    female: 52.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 16
    Life expectancy at birth:
    total population: 65.4 years (2018 est.)
    male: 63 years (2018 est.)
    female: 67.8 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 181
    Total fertility rate:
    3.42 children born/woman (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 44
    Contraceptive prevalence rate:
    9% (2013)
    Health expenditures:
    7.3% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 74
    Physicians density:
    0.11 physicians/1,000 population (2015)
    Hospital bed density:
    1.1 beds/1,000 population (2011)
    Drinking water source:
    improved: urban: 94.2% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 84.4% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 90.2% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 5.8% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 15.6% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 9.8% of population (2015 est.)
    Sanitation facility access:
    improved: urban: 61.5% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 55% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 58.9% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 38.5% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 45% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 41.1% of population (2015 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
    1.6% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 32
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
    21,000 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 82
    HIV/AIDS - deaths:
    1,100 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 63
    Major infectious diseases:
    degree of risk: very high (2016)
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever (2016)
    vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever (2016)
    water contact diseases: schistosomiasis (2016)
    animal contact diseases: rabies (2016)
    respiratory diseases: meningococcal meningitis (2016)
    Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
    10.3% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 139
    Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
    16.4% (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 36
    Education expenditures:
    2.8% of GDP (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 153
    Literacy:
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)
    total population: 55.5% (2015 est.)
    male: 63.9% (2015 est.)
    female: 47.6% (2015 est.)
    School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
    total: 9 years (2010)
    male: 9 years (2010)
    female: 9 years (2010)
    Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
    total: 13.1% (2012 est.)
    male: 9.1% (2012 est.)
    female: 17.2% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 101
  • Government :: Gambia, The
  • Country name:
    conventional long form: Republic of The Gambia
    conventional short form: The Gambia
    etymology: named for the Gambia River that flows through the heart of the country
    Government type:
    presidential republic
    Capital:
    name: Banjul
    geographic coordinates: 13 27 N, 16 34 W
    time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    Administrative divisions:
    5 regions, 1 city*, and 1 municipality**; Banjul*, Central River, Kanifing**, Lower River, North Bank, Upper River, West Coast
    Independence:
    18 February 1965 (from the UK)
    National holiday:
    Independence Day, 18 February (1965)
    Constitution:
    history: previous 1965 (independence act), 1970; latest adopted 8 April 1996, approved by referendum 8 August 1996, effective 16 January 1997; note - referendum on new constitution scheduled for late 2019 (2017)
    amendments: proposed by the National Assembly; passage requires at least three-fourths majority vote by the Assembly membership in each of several readings and approval by the president of the republic; a referendum is required for amendments affecting national sovereignty, fundamental rights and freedoms, government structures and authorities, taxation, and public funding; passage by referendum requires participation of at least 50% of eligible voters and approval by at least 75% of votes cast; amended 2001, 2004, 2010 (2017)
    International law organization participation:
    accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    Citizenship:
    citizenship by birth: yes
    citizenship by descent only: yes
    dual citizenship recognized: no
    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
    Suffrage:
    18 years of age; universal
    Executive branch:
    chief of state: President Adama BARROW (since 19 January 2017); Vice President Fatoumata JALLOW-TAMBAJANG (since 23 January 2017); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
    head of government: President Adama BARROW (since 19 January 2017); Vice President Fatoumata JALLOW-TAMBAJANG (since 23 January 2017)
    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
    elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 1 December 2016 (next to be held in 2021); vice president appointed by the president
    election results: Adama BARROW elected president; percent of vote - Adama BARROW (Coalition 2016) 43.3%, Yahya JAMMEH (APRC) 39.6%, Mamma KANDEH (GDC) 17.1%
    Legislative branch:
    description: unicameral National Assembly (58 seats; 53 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 5 appointed by the president; members serve 5-year terms)
    elections: last held on 6 April 2017 (next to be held in 2022)
    election results: percent of vote by party - UDP 37.5%, GDC 17.4%, APRC 16%, PDOIS 9%, NRP 6.3%, PPP 2.5%, other 1.7%, independent 9.6%; seats by party - UDP 31, APRC 5, GDC 5, NRP 5, PDOIS 4, PPP 2, independent 1
    Judicial branch:
    highest courts: Supreme Court of The Gambia (consists of the chief justice and 6 justices; court sessions held with 5 justices)
    judge selection and term of office: justices appointed by the president after consultation with the Judicial Service Commission, a 6-member independent body of high-level judicial officials, a presidential appointee, and a National Assembly appointee; justices appointed for life or until mandatory retirement age
    subordinate courts: Court of Appeal; High Court; Special Criminal Court; Khadis or Muslim courts; district tribunals; magistrates courts
    Political parties and leaders:
    Alliance for Patriotic Reorientation and Construction or APRC [Fabakary JATTA]
    Coalition 2016 [collective leadership] (electoral coalition includes UDP, PDOIS, NRP, GMC, GDC, PPP, GPDP)
    Gambia Democratic Congress or GDC [Mama KANDEH]
    Gambia Moral Congress or GMC [Mai FATTY]
    Gambia Party for Democracy and Progress or GPDP [Sarja JARJOU]
    National Reconciliation Party or NRP [Hamat BAH]
    People's Democratic Organization for Independence and Socialism or PDOIS [Sidia JATTA]
    People's Progressive Party or PPP [Yaya CEESAY)]
    United Democratic Party or UDP [Ousainou DARBOE]
    International organization participation:
    ACP, AfDB, AU, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, NAM, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    Diplomatic representation in the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador Dawda D. FADERA (since 24 January 2018)
    telephone: [1] (202) 785-1399
    FAX: [1] (202) 342-0240
    embassy: 5630 16th St NW, Washington, DC 20011
    Diplomatic representation from the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador C. Patricia ALSUP (since 11 January 2016)
    embassy: Kairaba Avenue, Fajara, Banjul
    mailing address: P.M.B. 19, Banjul
    telephone: [220] 439-2856
    FAX: [220] 439-2475
    Flag description:
    three equal horizontal bands of red (top), blue with white edges, and green; red stands for the sun and the savannah, blue represents the Gambia River, and green symbolizes forests and agriculture; the white stripes denote unity and peace
    National symbol(s):
    lion; national colors: red, blue, green, white
    National anthem:
    name: For The Gambia, Our Homeland
    lyrics/music: Virginia Julie HOWE/adapted by Jeremy Frederick HOWE

    note: adopted 1965; the music is an adaptation of the traditional Mandinka song "Foday Kaba Dumbuya"

  • Economy :: Gambia, The
  • Economy - overview:

    The government has invested in the agriculture sector because three-quarters of the population depends on the sector for its livelihood and agriculture provides for about one-third of GDP, making The Gambia largely reliant on sufficient rainfall. The agricultural sector has untapped potential - less than half of arable land is cultivated and agricultural productivity is low. Small-scale manufacturing activity features the processing of cashews, groundnuts, fish, and hides. The Gambia's reexport trade accounts for almost 80% of goods exports and China has been its largest trade partner for both exports and imports for several years.

    The Gambia has sparse natural resource deposits. It relies heavily on remittances from workers overseas and tourist receipts. Remittance inflows to The Gambia amount to about one-fifth of the country’s GDP. The Gambia's location on the ocean and proximity to Europe has made it one of the most frequented tourist destinations in West Africa, boosted by private sector investments in eco-tourism and facilities. Tourism normally brings in about 20% of GDP, but it suffered in 2014 from tourists’ fears of Ebola virus in neighboring West African countries. Unemployment and underemployment remain high.

    Economic progress depends on sustained bilateral and multilateral aid, on responsible government economic management, and on continued technical assistance from multilateral and bilateral donors. International donors and lenders were concerned about the quality of fiscal management under the administration of former President Yahya JAMMEH, who reportedly stole hundreds of millions of dollars of the country’s funds during his 22 years in power, but anticipate significant improvements under the new administration of President Adama BARROW, who assumed power in early 2017. As of April 2017, the IMF, the World Bank, the European Union, and the African Development Bank were all negotiating with the new government of The Gambia to provide financial support in the coming months to ease the country’s financial crisis.

    The country faces a limited availability of foreign exchange, weak agricultural output, a border closure with Senegal, a slowdown in tourism, high inflation, a large fiscal deficit, and a high domestic debt burden that has crowded out private sector investment and driven interest rates to new highs. The government has committed to taking steps to reduce the deficit, including through expenditure caps, debt consolidation, and reform of state-owned enterprises.

    GDP (purchasing power parity):
    $5.556 billion (2017 est.)
    $5.314 billion (2016 est.)
    $5.292 billion (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 176
    GDP (official exchange rate):
    $1.482 billion (2017 est.) (2017 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate:
    4.6% (2017 est.)
    0.4% (2016 est.)
    5.9% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 62
    GDP - per capita (PPP):
    $2,600 (2017 est.)
    $2,600 (2016 est.)
    $2,700 (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 197
    Gross national saving:
    6.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
    7.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
    3.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 172
    GDP - composition, by end use:
    household consumption: 90.7% (2017 est.)
    government consumption: 12% (2017 est.)
    investment in fixed capital: 19.2% (2017 est.)
    investment in inventories: -2.7% (2017 est.)
    exports of goods and services: 20.8% (2017 est.)
    imports of goods and services: -40% (2017 est.)
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
    agriculture: 20.4% (2017 est.)
    industry: 14.2% (2017 est.)
    services: 65.4% (2017 est.)
    Agriculture - products:
    rice, millet, sorghum, peanuts, corn, sesame, cassava (manioc, tapioca), palm kernels; cattle, sheep, goats
    Industries:
    peanuts, fish, hides, tourism, beverages, agricultural machinery assembly, woodworking, metalworking, clothing
    Industrial production growth rate:
    -0.8% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 175
    Labor force:
    777,100 (2007 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 150
    Labor force - by occupation:
    agriculture: 75%
    industry: 19%
    services: 6% (1996 est.)
    Unemployment rate:

    NA

    Population below poverty line:
    48.4% (2010 est.)
    Household income or consumption by percentage share:
    lowest 10%: 36.9% (2003)
    highest 10%: 36.9% (2003)
    Distribution of family income - Gini index:
    50.2 (1998)
    country comparison to the world: 18
    Budget:
    revenues: 300.4 million (2017 est.)
    expenditures: 339 million (2017 est.)
    Taxes and other revenues:
    20.3% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 148
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
    -2.6% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 117
    Public debt:
    88% of GDP (2017 est.)
    82.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 28
    Fiscal year:
    calendar year
    Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    8% (2017 est.)
    7.2% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 196
    Central bank discount rate:
    9% (31 December 2009)
    11% (31 December 2008)
    country comparison to the world: 31
    Commercial bank prime lending rate:
    29% (31 December 2017 est.)
    30.4% (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 7
    Stock of narrow money:
    $297.2 million (31 December 2017 est.)
    $279.5 million (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 181
    Stock of broad money:
    $297.2 million (31 December 2017 est.)
    $279.5 million (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 184
    Stock of domestic credit:
    $552.5 million (31 December 2017 est.)
    $499 million (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 175
    Market value of publicly traded shares:

    NA

    Current account balance:
    -$194 million (2017 est.)
    -$85 million (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 97
    Exports:
    $72.9 million (2017 est.)
    $106.6 million (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 201
    Exports - partners:
    Guinea-Bissau 51.9%, Vietnam 14.6%, Senegal 8.8%, Mali 7.2% (2017)
    Exports - commodities:
    peanut products, fish, cotton lint, palm kernels
    Imports:
    $376.9 million (2017 est.)
    $310.5 million (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 200
    Imports - commodities:
    foodstuffs, manufactures, fuel, machinery and transport equipment
    Imports - partners:
    Cote dIvoire 11.5%, Brazil 10.6%, Spain 10.2%, China 7.8%, Russia 6.4%, Netherlands 5.3%, India 5% (2017)
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
    $170 million (31 December 2017 est.)
    $87.64 million (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 179
    Debt - external:
    $586.8 million (31 December 2017 est.)
    $571.2 million (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 175
    Exchange rates:
    dalasis (GMD) per US dollar -
    49.74 (2017 est.)
    43.8846 (2016 est.)
    43.8846 (2015 est.)
    41.89 (2014 est.)
    41.733 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: Gambia, The
  • Electricity access:
    population without electricity: 1.2 million (2013)
    electrification - total population: 36% (2013)
    electrification - urban areas: 60% (2013)
    electrification - rural areas: 2% (2013)
    Electricity - production:
    304.1 million kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 182
    Electricity - consumption:
    282.8 million kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 186
    Electricity - exports:
    0 kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 138
    Electricity - imports:
    0 kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 151
    Electricity - installed generating capacity:
    117,000 kW (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 178
    Electricity - from fossil fuels:
    97% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 34
    Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
    0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 94
    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
    0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 172
    Electricity - from other renewable sources:
    3% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 125
    Crude oil - production:
    0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 139
    Crude oil - exports:
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 128
    Crude oil - imports:
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 131
    Crude oil - proved reserves:
    0 bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 135
    Refined petroleum products - production:
    0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 148
    Refined petroleum products - consumption:
    3,800 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 185
    Refined petroleum products - exports:
    42 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 122
    Refined petroleum products - imports:
    3,738 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 181
    Natural gas - production:
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 136
    Natural gas - consumption:
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 149
    Natural gas - exports:
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 108
    Natural gas - imports:
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 129
    Natural gas - proved reserves:
    0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 138
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
    607,300 Mt (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 180
  • Communications :: Gambia, The
  • Telephones - fixed lines:
    total subscriptions: 37,969 (July 2016 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 2 (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 162
    Telephones - mobile cellular:
    total subscriptions: 2,838,127 (July 2016 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 138 (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 141
    Telephone system:
    general assessment: adequate microwave radio relay and open-wire network; state-owned Gambia Telecommunications partially privatized in 2007 (2016)
    domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity, aided by multiple mobile-cellular providers, is over 140 per 100 persons (2016)
    international: country code - 220; microwave radio relay links to Senegal and Guinea-Bissau; a landing station for the Africa Coast to Europe (ACE) undersea fiber-optic cable completed in 2011 and launched in 2012; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2016)
    Broadcast media:
    1 state-run TV-channel; 1 privately-owned TV-station; 1 state-owned radio station and 15 privately owned radio stations; 6 community radio stations; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are available, some via shortwave radio; cable and satellite TV subscription services are obtainable in some parts of the country (2018)
    Internet country code:
    .gm
    Internet users:
    total: 371,785 (July 2016 est.)
    percent of population: 18.5% (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 154
    Broadband - fixed subscriptions:
    total: 3,750 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 180
  • Transportation :: Gambia, The
  • Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
    C5 (2016)
    Airports:
    1 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 221
    Airports - with paved runways:
    total: 1 (2017)
    over 3,047 m: 1 (2017)
    Roadways:
    total: 3,740 km (2011)
    paved: 711 km (2011)
    unpaved: 3,029 km (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 159
    Waterways:
    390 km (on River Gambia; small oceangoing vessels can reach 190 km) (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 88
    Merchant marine:
    total: 8 (2017)
    by type: other 8 (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 156
    Ports and terminals:
    major seaport(s): Banjul
  • Military and Security :: Gambia, The
  • Military expenditures:
    1.48% of GDP (2015)
    1.72% of GDP (2014)
    1.15% of GDP (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 78
    Military branches:
    Office of the Chief of Defense Staff: Gambian National Army (GNA), Gambian Navy (GN), Republican National Guard (RNG) (2018)
    Military service age and obligation:
    18 years of age for male and female voluntary military service; no conscription; service obligation 6 months (2012)
  • Transnational Issues :: Gambia, The
  • Disputes - international:
    attempts to stem refugees, cross-border raids, arms smuggling, and other illegal activities by separatists from southern Senegal's Casamance region, as well as from conflicts in other west African states
    Refugees and internally displaced persons:
    refugees (country of origin): 8,031 (Senegal) (2018)
    Trafficking in persons:
    current situation: The Gambia is a source and destination country for women and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; Gambian women, girls, and, to a lesser extent, boys are exploited for prostitution and domestic servitude; women, girls, and boys from West African countries are trafficked to The Gambia for commercial sexual exploitation, particularly by European sex tourists; boys in some Koranic schools are forced into street vending or begging; some Gambian children have been identified as victims of forced labor in neighboring West African countries
    tier rating: Tier 3 – The Gambia does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and is not making significant efforts to do so; the government demonstrated minimal anti-trafficking law enforcement efforts, investigating one trafficking case but not prosecuting or convicting any offenders in 2014; authorities did not investigate, prosecute, or convict any government employees complicit in trafficking, although corruption was a serious problem; the government identified and repatriated 19 Gambian girls subjected to domestic servitude in Lebanon but did not identify or provide protective services to any trafficking victims in The Gambia; a government program continued to provide resources and financial support to 12 Koranic schools on the condition that their students were not forced to beg (2015)