South America :: Guyana
  • Introduction :: Guyana
  • Background:
    Originally a Dutch colony in the 17th century, by 1815 Guyana had become a British possession. The abolition of slavery led to settlement of urban areas by former slaves and the importation of indentured servants from India to work the sugar plantations. The resulting ethnocultural divide has persisted and has led to turbulent politics. Guyana achieved independence from the UK in 1966, and since then it has been ruled mostly by socialist-oriented governments. In 1992, Cheddi JAGAN was elected president in what is considered the country's first free and fair election since independence. After his death five years later, his wife, Janet JAGAN, became president but resigned in 1999 due to poor health. Her successor, Bharrat JAGDEO, was elected in 2001 and again in 2006. Early elections held in May 2015 resulted in the first change in governing party and the replacement of President Donald RAMOTAR by current President David GRANGER
    GUYANA SUMMARY: PDF
  • Geography :: Guyana
  • Location:
    Northern South America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Suriname and Venezuela
    Geographic coordinates:
    5 00 N, 59 00 W
    Map references:
    South America
    Area:
    total: 214,969 sq km
    land: 196,849 sq km
    water: 18,120 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 86
    Area - comparative:
    slightly smaller than Idaho
    Land boundaries:
    total: 2,933 km
    border countries (3): Brazil 1308 km, Suriname 836 km, Venezuela 789 km
    Coastline:
    459 km
    Maritime claims:
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    continental shelf: 200 nm or to the outer edge of the continental margin
    Climate:
    tropical; hot, humid, moderated by northeast trade winds; two rainy seasons (May to August, November to January)
    Terrain:
    mostly rolling highlands; low coastal plain; savanna in south
    Elevation:
    mean elevation: 207 m
    elevation extremes: 0 m lowest point: Atlantic Ocean
    2775 highest point: Laberintos del Norte on Mount Roraima
    Natural resources:
    bauxite, gold, diamonds, hardwood timber, shrimp, fish
    Land use:
    agricultural land: 8.4% (2011 est.)
    arable land: 2.1% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 0.1% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 6.2% (2011 est.)
    forest: 77.4% (2011 est.)
    other: 14.2% (2011 est.)
    Irrigated land:
    1,430 sq km (2012)
    Population distribution:
    population is heavily concentrated in the northeast in and around Georgetown, with noteable concentrations along the Berbice River to the east; the remainder of the country is sparsely populated
    Natural hazards:
    flash flood threat during rainy seasons
    Environment - current issues:
    water pollution from sewage and agricultural and industrial chemicals; deforestation
    Environment - international agreements:
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    Geography - note:
    the third-smallest country in South America after Suriname and Uruguay; substantial portions of its western and eastern territories are claimed by Venezuela and Suriname respectively; contains some of the largest unspoiled rainforests on the continent
  • People and Society :: Guyana
  • Population:
    740,685 (July 2018 est.)

    note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected

    country comparison to the world: 166
    Nationality:
    noun: Guyanese (singular and plural)
    adjective: Guyanese
    Ethnic groups:
    East Indian 39.8%, black (African) 29.3%, mixed 19.9%, Amerindian 10.5%, other 0.5% (includes Portuguese, Chinese, white) (2012 est.)
    Languages:
    English (official), Guyanese Creole, Amerindian languages (including Caribbean and Arawak languages), Indian languages (including Caribbean Hindustani, a dialect of Hindi), Chinese (2014 est.)
    Religions:
    Protestant 34.8% (Pentecostal 22.8%, Seventh Day Adventist 5.4%, Anglican 5.2%, Methodist 1.4%), Hindu 24.8%, Roman Catholic 7.1%, Muslim 6.8%, Jehovah's Witness 1.3%, Rastafarian 0.5%, other Christian 20.8%, other 0.9%, none 3.1% (2012 est.)
    Demographic profile:

    Guyana is the only English-speaking country in South America and shares cultural and historical bonds with the Anglophone Caribbean. Guyana's two largest ethnic groups are the Afro-Guyanese (descendants of African slaves) and the Indo-Guyanese (descendants of Indian indentured laborers), which together comprise about three quarters of Guyana's population. Tensions periodically have boiled over between the two groups, which back ethnically based political parties and vote along ethnic lines. Poverty reduction has stagnated since the late 1990s. About one-third of the Guyanese population lives below the poverty line; indigenous people are disproportionately affected. Although Guyana's literacy rate is reported to be among the highest in the Western Hemisphere, the level of functional literacy is considerably lower, which has been attributed to poor education quality, teacher training, and infrastructure.

    Guyana's emigration rate is among the highest in the world - more than 55% of its citizens reside abroad - and it is one of the largest recipients of remittances relative to GDP among Latin American and Caribbean counties. Although remittances are a vital source of income for most citizens, the pervasive emigration of skilled workers deprives Guyana of professionals in healthcare and other key sectors. More than 80% of Guyanese nationals with tertiary level educations have emigrated. Brain drain and the concentration of limited medical resources in Georgetown hamper Guyana's ability to meet the health needs of its predominantly rural population. Guyana has one of the highest HIV prevalence rates in the region and continues to rely on international support for its HIV treatment and prevention programs.

    Age structure:
    0-14 years: 25.38% (male 95,740 /female 92,282)
    15-24 years: 21.55% (male 81,676 /female 77,942)
    25-54 years: 38.52% (male 149,199 /female 136,129)
    55-64 years: 8.15% (male 27,684 /female 32,678)
    65 years and over: 6.39% (male 19,336 /female 28,019) (2018 est.)
    population pyramid: population pyramid
    Dependency ratios:
    total dependency ratio: 53.5 (2015 est.)
    youth dependency ratio: 45.8 (2015 est.)
    elderly dependency ratio: 7.7 (2015 est.)
    potential support ratio: 13.3 (2015 est.)
    Median age:
    total: 26.7 years
    male: 26.3 years
    female: 27 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 148
    Population growth rate:
    0.48% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 156
    Birth rate:
    15.4 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 118
    Death rate:
    7.4 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 115
    Net migration rate:
    -4.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 189
    Population distribution:
    population is heavily concentrated in the northeast in and around Georgetown, with noteable concentrations along the Berbice River to the east; the remainder of the country is sparsely populated
    Urbanization:
    urban population: 26.6% of total population (2018)
    rate of urbanization: 0.83% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    Major urban areas - population:
    110,000 GEORGETOWN (capital) (2018)
    Sex ratio:
    at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    25-54 years: 1.09 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    55-64 years: 0.82 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    Mother's mean age at first birth:
    20.8 years (2009 est.)

    note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

    Maternal mortality rate:
    229 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 47
    Infant mortality rate:
    total: 29.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    male: 33.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    female: 25.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 63
    Life expectancy at birth:
    total population: 68.9 years (2018 est.)
    male: 65.9 years (2018 est.)
    female: 72.1 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 164
    Total fertility rate:
    1.97 children born/woman (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 123
    Contraceptive prevalence rate:
    33.9% (2014)
    Health expenditures:
    5.2% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 134
    Physicians density:
    0.21 physicians/1,000 population (2010)
    Hospital bed density:
    1.6 beds/1,000 population (2014)
    Drinking water source:
    improved: urban: 98.2% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 98.3% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 98.3% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 1.8% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 1.7% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 1.7% of population (2015 est.)
    Sanitation facility access:
    improved: urban: 87.9% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 82% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 83.7% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 12.1% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 18% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 16.3% of population (2015 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
    1.7% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 30
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
    8,200 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 104
    HIV/AIDS - deaths:
    <200 (2017 est.)
    Major infectious diseases:
    degree of risk: very high (2016)
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever (2016)
    vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria (2016)

    note: active local transmission of Zika virus by Aedes species mosquitoes has been identified in this country (as of August 2016); it poses an important risk (a large number of cases possible) among US citizens if bitten by an infective mosquito; other less common ways to get Zika are through sex, via blood transfusion, or during pregnancy, in which the pregnant woman passes Zika virus to her fetus

    Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
    20.2% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 103
    Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
    8.5% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 67
    Education expenditures:
    3.2% of GDP (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 139
    Literacy:
    definition: age 15 and over has ever attended school (2015 est.)
    total population: 88.5% (2015 est.)
    male: 87.2% (2015 est.)
    female: 89.8% (2015 est.)
    School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
    total: 10 years (2012)
    male: 10 years (2012)
    female: 10 years (2012)
    Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
    total: 21.6% (2017 est.)
    male: 17.3% (2017 est.)
    female: 28% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 56
  • Government :: Guyana
  • Country name:
    conventional long form: Cooperative Republic of Guyana
    conventional short form: Guyana
    former: British Guiana
    etymology: the name is derived from Guiana, the original name for the region that included British Guiana, Dutch Guiana, and French Guiana; ultimately the word is derived from an indigenous Amerindian language and means "Land of Many Waters" (referring to the area's multitude of rivers and streams)
    Government type:
    parliamentary republic
    Capital:
    name: Georgetown
    geographic coordinates: 6 48 N, 58 09 W
    time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    Administrative divisions:
    10 regions; Barima-Waini, Cuyuni-Mazaruni, Demerara-Mahaica, East Berbice-Corentyne, Essequibo Islands-West Demerara, Mahaica-Berbice, Pomeroon-Supenaam, Potaro-Siparuni, Upper Demerara-Berbice, Upper Takutu-Upper Essequibo
    Independence:
    26 May 1966 (from the UK)
    National holiday:
    Republic Day, 23 February (1970)
    Constitution:
    history: several previous; latest promulgated 6 October 1980 (2018)
    amendments: proposed by the National Assembly; passage of amendments affecting constitutional articles such as national sovereignty, government structure and powers, and constitutional amendment procedures requires approval by the Assembly membership, approval in a referendum, and assent to by the president; other amendments only require Assembly approval; amended many times, last in 2016 (2018)
    International law organization participation:
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    Citizenship:
    citizenship by birth: yes
    citizenship by descent only: yes
    dual citizenship recognized: no
    residency requirement for naturalization: na
    Suffrage:
    18 years of age; universal
    Executive branch:
    chief of state: President David GRANGER (since 16 May 2015); Vice Presidents Sydney ALLICOCK, Carl Barrington GREENIDGE, Moses Veerasammy NAGAMOOTOO, and Hemraj RAMJATTAN (since 20 May 2015); Prime Minister Moses Veerasammy NAGAMOOTOO (since 20 May 2015); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
    head of government: President David GRANGER (since 16 May 2015); Vice Presidents Sydney ALLICOCK, Carl Barrington GREENIDGE, Moses Veerasammy NAGAMOOTOO, and Hemraj RAMJATTAN (since 20 May 2015); Prime Minister Moses Veerasammy NAGAMOOTOO (since 20 May 2015)
    cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president, responsible to the National Assembly
    elections/appointments: the predesignated candidate of the winning party in the last National Assembly election becomes president for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 11 May 2015 (next to be held no later than 2020); prime minister appointed by the president
    election results: David GRANGER (APNU-AFC) designated president by the majority party in the National Assembly
    Legislative branch:
    description: unicameral National Assembly (65 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies and a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)
    elections: last held on 11 May 2015 (next to be held by May 2020)
    election results: percent of vote by party - APNU-AFC 50.3%, PPP/C 49.2%, other 0.5%; seats by party - APNU-AFC 33, PPP/C 32
    Judicial branch:
    highest courts: Supreme Court of Judicature (consists of the Court of Appeal with a chief justice and 3 justices, and the High Court with a chief justice and 10 justices organized into 3- or 5-judge panels); note - in 2009, Guyana acceded to the Caribbean Court of Justice as the final court of appeal in civil and criminal cases, replacing that of the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in London
    judge selection and term of office: Court of Appeal and High Court chief justices appointed by the president; other judges of both courts appointed by the Judicial Service Commission, a body appointed by the president; judges appointed for life with retirement at age 65
    subordinate courts: Land Court; magistrates' courts
    Political parties and leaders:
    A Partnership for National Unity or APNU [David A. GRANGER]
    Alliance for Change or AFC [Raphael TROTMAN]
    Justice for All Party [C.N. SHARMA]
    National Independent Party or NIP [Saphier Husain SUBEDAR]
    People's Progressive Party/Civic or PPP/C [Donald RAMOTAR]
    The United Force or TUF [Manzoor NADIR]
    United Republican Party or URP [Vishnu BANDHU]
    International organization participation:
    ACP, AOSIS, C, Caricom, CD, CDB, CELAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LAES, MIGA, NAM, OAS, OIC, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, Petrocaribe, UN, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    Diplomatic representation in the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador Riyad David INSANALLY (since 16 Sept 2016)
    chancery: 2490 Tracy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 265-6900
    FAX: [1] (202) 232-1297
    consulate(s) general: New York
    Diplomatic representation from the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador Perry L. HOLLOWAY (since 2 October 2015)
    embassy: US Embassy, 100 Young and Duke Streets, Kingston, Georgetown
    mailing address: P. O. Box 10507, Georgetown; US Embassy, 3170 Georgetown Place, Washington DC 20521-3170
    telephone: [592] 225-4900 through 4909
    FAX: [592] 225-8497
    Flag description:
    green with a red isosceles triangle (based on the hoist side) superimposed on a long, yellow arrowhead; there is a narrow, black border between the red and yellow, and a narrow, white border between the yellow and the green; green represents forest and foliage; yellow stands for mineral resources and a bright future; white symbolizes Guyana's rivers; red signifies zeal and the sacrifice of the people; black indicates perseverance
    National symbol(s):
    Canje pheasant (hoatzin), jaguar, Victoria Regia water lily; national colors: red, yellow, green, black, white
    National anthem:
    name: Dear Land of Guyana, of Rivers and Plains
    lyrics/music: Archibald Leonard LUKERL/Robert Cyril Gladstone POTTER

    note: adopted 1966

  • Economy :: Guyana
  • Economy - overview:

    The Guyanese economy exhibited moderate economic growth in recent years and is based largely on agriculture and extractive industries. The economy is heavily dependent upon the export of six commodities - sugar, gold, bauxite, shrimp, timber, and rice - which represent nearly 60% of the country's GDP and are highly susceptible to adverse weather conditions and fluctuations in commodity prices. Guyana closed or consolidated several sugar estates in 2017, reducing production of sugar to a forecasted 147,000 tons in 2018, less than half of 2017 production. Much of Guyana's growth in recent years has come from a surge in gold production. With a record-breaking 700,000 ounces of gold produced in 2016, Gold production in Guyana has offset the economic effects of declining sugar production. In January 2018, estimated 3.2 billion barrels of oil were found offshore and Guyana is scheduled to become a petroleum producer by March 2020.

    Guyana's entrance into the Caricom Single Market and Economy in January 2006 broadened the country's export market, primarily in the raw materials sector. Guyana has experienced positive growth almost every year over the past decade. Inflation has been kept under control. Recent years have seen the government's stock of debt reduced significantly - with external debt now less than half of what it was in the early 1990s. Despite these improvements, the government is still juggling a sizable external debt against the urgent need for expanded public investment. In March 2007, the Inter-American Development Bank, Guyana's principal donor, canceled Guyana's nearly $470 million debt, equivalent to 21% of GDP, which along with other Highly Indebted Poor Country debt forgiveness, brought the debt-to-GDP ratio down from 183% in 2006 to 52% in 2017. Guyana had become heavily indebted as a result of the inward-looking, state-led development model pursued in the 1970s and 1980s. Chronic problems include a shortage of skilled labor and a deficient infrastructure.

    GDP (purchasing power parity):
    $6.301 billion (2017 est.)
    $6.169 billion (2016 est.)
    $5.969 billion (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 171
    GDP (official exchange rate):
    $3.561 billion (2017 est.) (2017 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate:
    2.1% (2017 est.)
    3.4% (2016 est.)
    3.1% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 146
    GDP - per capita (PPP):
    $8,100 (2017 est.)
    $8,000 (2016 est.)
    $7,800 (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 151
    Gross national saving:
    10.5% of GDP (2017 est.)
    15% of GDP (2016 est.)
    8.8% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 161
    GDP - composition, by end use:
    household consumption: 71.1% (2017 est.)
    government consumption: 18.2% (2017 est.)
    investment in fixed capital: 25.4% (2017 est.)
    investment in inventories: 0% (2017 est.)
    exports of goods and services: 47.8% (2017 est.)
    imports of goods and services: -63% (2017 est.)
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
    agriculture: 15.4% (2017 est.)
    industry: 15.3% (2017 est.)
    services: 69.3% (2017 est.)
    Agriculture - products:
    sugarcane, rice, edible oils; beef, pork, poultry; shrimp, fish
    Industries:
    bauxite, sugar, rice milling, timber, textiles, gold mining
    Industrial production growth rate:
    -5% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 196
    Labor force:
    313,800 (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 162
    Labor force - by occupation:
    agriculture: NA
    industry: NA
    services: NA
    Unemployment rate:
    11.1% (2013)
    11.3% (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 151
    Population below poverty line:
    35% (2006 est.)
    Household income or consumption by percentage share:
    lowest 10%: 33.8% (1999)
    highest 10%: 33.8% (1999)
    Distribution of family income - Gini index:
    44.6 (2007)
    43.2 (1999)
    country comparison to the world: 42
    Budget:
    revenues: 1.002 billion (2017 est.)
    expenditures: 1.164 billion (2017 est.)
    Taxes and other revenues:
    28.1% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 96
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
    -4.5% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 165
    Public debt:
    52.2% of GDP (2017 est.)
    50.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 95
    Fiscal year:
    calendar year
    Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    2% (2017 est.)
    0.8% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 105
    Central bank discount rate:
    5.5% (31 December 2011)
    4.25% (31 December 2010)
    country comparison to the world: 75
    Commercial bank prime lending rate:
    13% (31 December 2017 est.)
    13% (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 62
    Stock of narrow money:
    $758.4 million (31 December 2017 est.)
    $701.4 million (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 163
    Stock of broad money:
    $758.4 million (31 December 2017 est.)
    $701.4 million (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 167
    Stock of domestic credit:
    $1.903 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $1.875 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 153
    Market value of publicly traded shares:
    $610.9 million (31 December 2012 est.)
    $440.4 million (31 December 2011 est.)
    $339.8 million (31 December 2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 110
    Current account balance:
    -$237 million (2017 est.)
    $13 million (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 100
    Exports:
    $1.439 billion (2017 est.)
    $1.38 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 149
    Exports - partners:
    Canada 24.9%, US 16.5%, Panama 9.6%, UK 7.7%, Jamaica 5.1%, Trinidad and Tobago 5% (2017)
    Exports - commodities:
    sugar, gold, bauxite, alumina, rice, shrimp, molasses, rum, timber
    Imports:
    $1.626 billion (2017 est.)
    $1.341 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 172
    Imports - commodities:
    manufactures, machinery, petroleum, food
    Imports - partners:
    Trinidad and Tobago 27.5%, US 26.5%, China 8.9%, Suriname 6.1% (2017)
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
    $565.4 million (31 December 2017 est.)
    $581 million (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 146
    Debt - external:
    $1.69 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $1.542 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 157
    Exchange rates:
    Guyanese dollars (GYD) per US dollar -
    207 (2017 est.)
    206.5 (2016 est.)
    206.5 (2015 est.)
    206.5 (2014 est.)
    206.45 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: Guyana
  • Electricity access:
    population without electricity: 154,540 (2012)
    electrification - total population: 79% (2012)
    electrification - urban areas: 91% (2012)
    electrification - rural areas: 75% (2012)
    Electricity - production:
    1.01 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 151
    Electricity - consumption:
    790.1 million kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 161
    Electricity - exports:
    0 kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 146
    Electricity - imports:
    0 kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 158
    Electricity - installed generating capacity:
    428,000 kW (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 151
    Electricity - from fossil fuels:
    89% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 57
    Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
    0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 105
    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
    0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 177
    Electricity - from other renewable sources:
    11% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 78
    Crude oil - production:
    0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 146
    Crude oil - exports:
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 135
    Crude oil - imports:
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 139
    Crude oil - proved reserves:
    0 bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 143
    Refined petroleum products - production:
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 155
    Refined petroleum products - consumption:
    14,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 154
    Refined petroleum products - exports:
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 164
    Refined petroleum products - imports:
    13,720 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 140
    Natural gas - production:
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 144
    Natural gas - consumption:
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 157
    Natural gas - exports:
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 119
    Natural gas - imports:
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 137
    Natural gas - proved reserves:
    0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 145
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
    2.131 million Mt (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 158
  • Communications :: Guyana
  • Telephones - fixed lines:
    total subscriptions: 135,795 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 18 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 135
    Telephones - mobile cellular:
    total subscriptions: 643,210 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 87 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 165
    Telephone system:
    general assessment: reliable international long distance service; 100% digital network; national transmission supported by fiber optic cable and rural network by microwaves; more than 150,000 lines; many areas still lack fixed-line telephone services (2017)
    domestic: fixed-line teledensity is about 20 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity about 75 per 100 persons (2017)
    international: country code - 592; SIP trunking to most providers; international calls via diverse fiber optic cables; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2017)
    Broadcast media:
    government-dominated broadcast media; the National Communications Network (NCN) TV is state-owned; a few private TV stations relay satellite services; the state owns and operates 2 radio stations broadcasting on multiple frequencies capable of reaching the entire country; government limits on licensing of new private radio stations has constrained competition in broadcast media (2017)
    Internet country code:
    .gy
    Internet users:
    total: 262,425 (July 2016 est.)
    percent of population: 35.7% (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 164
    Broadband - fixed subscriptions:
    total: 64,889 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 9 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 126
  • Transportation :: Guyana
  • National air transport system:
    number of registered air carriers: 2 (2015)
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 12 (2015)
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 43,835 (2015)
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 0 mt-km (2015)
    Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
    8R (2016)
    Airports:
    117 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 49
    Airports - with paved runways:
    total: 11 (2017)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (2017)
    914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2017)
    under 914 m: 8 (2017)
    Airports - with unpaved runways:
    total: 106 (2013)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)
    914 to 1,523 m: 16 (2013)
    under 914 m: 89 (2013)
    Roadways:
    total: 7,970 km (2001)
    paved: 590 km (2001)
    unpaved: 7,380 km (2001)
    country comparison to the world: 141
    Waterways:
    330 km (the Berbice, Demerara, and Essequibo Rivers are navigable by oceangoing vessels for 150 km, 100 km, and 80 km respectively) (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 91
    Merchant marine:
    total: 55 (2017)
    by type: general cargo 26, oil tanker 6, other 23 (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 112
    Ports and terminals:
    major seaport(s): Georgetown
  • Military and Security :: Guyana
  • Military expenditures:
    1.42% of GDP (2016)
    1.46% of GDP (2015)
    1.28% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 81
    Military branches:
    Guyana Defense Force: Army (includes Air Corps, Coast Guard) (2012)
    Military service age and obligation:
    18 years of age or older for voluntary military service; no conscription (2014)
  • Transnational Issues :: Guyana
  • Disputes - international:
    all of the area west of the Essequibo River is claimed by Venezuela preventing any discussion of a maritime boundaryGuyana has expressed its intention to join Barbados in asserting claims before UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) that Trinidad and Tobago's maritime boundary with Venezuela extends into their watersSuriname claims a triangle of land between the New and Kutari/Koetari Rivers in a historic dispute over the headwaters of the Courantyne
    Trafficking in persons:
    current situation: Guyana is a source and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to sex trafficking and forced labor – children are particularly vulnerable; women and girls from Guyana, Venezuela, Suriname, Brazil, and the Dominican Republic are forced into prostitution in Guyana’s interior mining communities and urban areas; forced labor is reported in mining, agriculture, forestry, domestic service, and shops; Guyanese nationals are also trafficked to Suriname, Jamaica, and other Caribbean countries for sexual exploitation and forced labor
    tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List – Guyana does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; in 2014, Guyana was granted a waiver from an otherwise required downgrade to Tier 3 because its government has a written plan that, if implemented would constitute making significant efforts to bring itself into compliance with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; the government released its anti-trafficking action plan in June 2014 but made uneven efforts to implement it; law enforcement was weak, investigating seven trafficking cases, prosecuting four alleged traffickers, and convicting one trafficker – a police officer – who was released on bail pending appeal; in 2014, as in previous years, Guyanese courts dismissed the majority of ongoing trafficking prosecutions; the government referred some victims to care services, which were provided by NGOs with little or no government support (2015)
    Illicit drugs:
    transshipment point for narcotics from South America - primarily Venezuela - to Europe and the US; producer of cannabis; rising money laundering related to drug trafficking and human smuggling