Africa :: KENYA
  • Introduction :: KENYA

  • Founding president and liberation struggle icon Jomo KENYATTA led Kenya from independence in 1963 until his death in 1978, when Vice President Daniel MOI took power in a constitutional succession. The country was a de facto one-party state from 1969 until 1982 when the ruling Kenya African National Union (KANU) made itself the sole legal party in Kenya. MOI acceded to internal and external pressure for political liberalization in late 1991. The ethnically fractured opposition failed to dislodge KANU from power in elections in 1992 and 1997, which were marred by violence and fraud, but were viewed as having generally reflected the will of the Kenyan people. President MOI stepped down in December 2002 following fair and peaceful elections. Mwai KIBAKI, running as the candidate of the multiethnic, united opposition group, the National Rainbow Coalition (NARC), defeated KANU candidate Uhuru KENYATTA, the son of founding president Jomo KENYATTA, and assumed the presidency following a campaign centered on an anticorruption platform.
    KIBAKI's reelection in December 2007 brought charges of vote rigging from Orange Democratic Movement (ODM) candidate Raila ODINGA and unleashed two months of violence in which as many as 1,500 people died. African Union-sponsored mediation led by former UN Secretary General Kofi ANNAN in late February 2008 resulted in a power-sharing accord bringing ODINGA into the government in the restored position of prime minister. The power sharing accord included a broad reform agenda, the centerpiece of which was constitutional reform. In August 2010, Kenyans overwhelmingly adopted a new constitution in a national referendum. The new constitution introduced additional checks and balances to executive power and significant devolution of power and resources to 47 newly created counties. It also eliminated the position of prime minister following the first presidential election under the new constitution, which occurred in March 2013. Uhuru KENYATTA won the election and was sworn into office in April 2013.
  • Geography :: KENYA

  • Eastern Africa, bordering the Indian Ocean, between Somalia and Tanzania
    1 00 N, 38 00 E
    Africa
    total: 580,367 sq km
    land: 569,140 sq km
    water: 11,227 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 50
    five times the size of Ohio; slightly more than twice the size of Nevada
    total: 3,457 km
    border countries (5): Ethiopia 867 km, Somalia 684 km, South Sudan 317 km, Tanzania 775 km, Uganda 814 km
    536 km
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
    varies from tropical along coast to arid in interior
    low plains rise to central highlands bisected by Great Rift Valley; fertile plateau in west
    mean elevation: 762 m
    elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
    highest point: Mount Kenya 5,199 m
    limestone, soda ash, salt, gemstones, fluorspar, zinc, diatomite, gypsum, wildlife, hydropower
    agricultural land: 48.1%
    arable land 9.8%; permanent crops 0.9%; permanent pasture 37.4%
    forest: 6.1%
    other: 45.8% (2011 est.)
    1,030 sq km (2012)
    population heavily concentrated in the west along the shore of Lake Victoria; other areas of high density include the capital of Nairobi, and in the southeast along the Indian Ocean coast
    recurring drought; flooding during rainy seasons
    volcanism: limited volcanic activity; the Barrier (elev. 1,032 m) last erupted in 1921; South Island is the only other historically active volcano
    water pollution from urban and industrial wastes; degradation of water quality from increased use of pesticides and fertilizers; water hyacinth infestation in Lake Victoria; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; poaching
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    the Kenyan Highlands comprise one of the most successful agricultural production regions in Africa; glaciers are found on Mount Kenya, Africa's second highest peak; unique physiography supports abundant and varied wildlife of scientific and economic value
  • People and Society :: KENYA

  • 47,615,739
    note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 30
    noun: Kenyan(s)
    adjective: Kenyan
    Kikuyu 22%, Luhya 14%, Luo 13%, Kalenjin 12%, Kamba 11%, Kisii 6%, Meru 6%, other African 15%, non-African (Asian, European, and Arab) 1%
    English (official), Kiswahili (official), numerous indigenous languages
    Christian 83% (Protestant 47.7%, Catholic 23.4%, other Christian 11.9%), Muslim 11.2%, Traditionalists 1.7%, other 1.6%, none 2.4%, unspecified 0.2% (2009 est.)
    Kenya has experienced dramatic population growth since the mid-20th century as a result of its high birth rate and its declining mortality rate. More than 40% of Kenyans are under the age of 15 because of sustained high fertility, early marriage and childbearing, and an unmet need for family planning. Kenya’s persistent rapid population growth strains the labor market, social services, arable land, and natural resources. Although Kenya in 1967 was the first sub-Saharan country to launch a nationwide family planning program, progress in reducing the birth rate has largely stalled since the late 1990s, when the government decreased its support for family planning to focus on the HIV epidemic. Government commitment and international technical support spurred Kenyan contraceptive use, decreasing the fertility rate (children per woman) from about 8 in the late 1970s to less than 5 children twenty years later, but it has plateaued at just over 3 children today.
    Kenya is a source of emigrants and a host country for refugees. In the 1960s and 1970s, Kenyans pursued higher education in the UK because of colonial ties, but as British immigration rules tightened, the US, the then Soviet Union, and Canada became attractive study destinations. Kenya’s stagnant economy and political problems during the 1980s and 1990s led to an outpouring of Kenyan students and professionals seeking permanent opportunities in the West and southern Africa. Nevertheless, Kenya’s relative stability since its independence in 1963 has attracted hundreds of thousands of refugees escaping violent conflicts in neighboring countries; Kenya presently shelters nearly 400,000 Somali refugees.
    0-14 years: 40.02% (male 9,557,274/female 9,497,870)
    15-24 years: 19.15% (male 4,552,448/female 4,567,894)
    25-54 years: 33.91% (male 8,170,264/female 7,976,751)
    55-64 years: 3.92% (male 856,092/female 1,009,075)
    65 years and over: 3% (male 614,751/female 813,320) (2017 est.)
    total dependency ratio: 78.3
    youth dependency ratio: 73.7
    elderly dependency ratio: 4.6
    potential support ratio: 21.7 (2015 est.)
    total: 19.5 years
    male: 19.4 years
    female: 19.6 years (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 199
    1.7% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 61
    23.9 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 59
    6.7 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 140
    -0.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 109
    population heavily concentrated in the west along the shore of Lake Victoria; other areas of high density include the capital of Nairobi, and in the southeast along the Indian Ocean coast
    urban population: 26.5% of total population (2017)
    rate of urbanization: 4.15% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    NAIROBI (capital) 3.915 million; Mombassa 1.104 million (2015)
    at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.84 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
    total population: 1 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
    20.3 years
    note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2014 est.)
    510 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 30
    total: 38.3 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 42.7 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 33.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 50
    total population: 64 years
    male: 62.6 years
    female: 65.5 years (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 186
    2.98 children born/woman (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 53
    66% (2015)
    5.7% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 114
    0.2 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
    1.4 beds/1,000 population (2010)
    improved:
    urban: 81.6% of population
    rural: 56.8% of population
    total: 63.2% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 18.4% of population
    rural: 43.2% of population
    total: 36.8% of population (2015 est.)
    improved:
    urban: 31.2% of population
    rural: 29.7% of population
    total: 30.1% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 68.8% of population
    rural: 70.3% of population
    total: 69.9% of population (2015 est.)
    5.4% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 12
    1.6 million (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 5
    36,000 (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 6
    degree of risk: very high
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
    vectorborne disease: malaria, dengue fever, and Rift Valley fever
    water contact disease: schistosomiasis
    animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
    5.9% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 171
    11% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 42
    5.3% of GDP (2015)
    country comparison to the world: 28
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 78%
    male: 81.1%
    female: 74.9% (2015 est.)
    total: 11 years
    male: 11 years
    female: 11 years (2009)
  • Government :: KENYA

  • conventional long form: Republic of Kenya
    conventional short form: Kenya
    local long form: Republic of Kenya/Jamhuri ya Kenya
    local short form: Kenya
    former: British East Africa
    etymology: named for Mount Kenya; the meaning of the name is unclear but may derive from the Kikuyu, Embu, and Kamba words "kirinyaga," "kirenyaa," and "kiinyaa" - all of which mean "God's resting place"
    presidential republic
    name: Nairobi
    geographic coordinates: 1 17 S, 36 49 E
    time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    47 counties; Baringo, Bomet, Bungoma, Busia, Elgeyo/Marakwet, Embu, Garissa, Homa Bay, Isiolo, Kajiado, Kakamega, Kericho, Kiambu, Kilifi, Kirinyaga, Kisii, Kisumu, Kitui, Kwale, Laikipia, Lamu, Machakos, Makueni, Mandera, Marsabit, Meru, Migori, Mombasa, Murang'a, Nairobi City, Nakuru, Nandi, Narok, Nyamira, Nyandarua, Nyeri, Samburu, Siaya, Taita/Taveta, Tana River, Tharaka-Nithi, Trans Nzoia, Turkana, Uasin Gishu, Vihiga, Wajir, West Pokot
    12 December 1963 (from the UK)
    Jamhuri Day (Independence Day), 12 December (1963); note - Madaraka Day, 1 June (1963) marks the day Kenya attained internal self-rule
    history: previous 1963, 1969; latest drafted 6 May 2010, passed by referendum 4 August 2010, promulgated 27 August 2010
    amendments: proposed by either house of Parliament or by petition of at least one million eligible voters; passage of amendments by Parliament requires approval by at least two-thirds majority vote of both houses in each of two readings, approval in a referendum by majority of votes cast by at least 20% participation of eligible voters in at least one-half of Kenya’s counties, and approval by the president; passage of amendments introduced by petition requires approval by a majority of county assemblies, approval by majority vote of both houses, and approval by the president (2017)
    mixed legal system of English common law, Islamic law, and customary law; judicial review in a new Supreme Court established pursuant to the new constitution
    accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Kenya
    dual citizenship recognized: yes
    residency requirement for naturalization: 4 out of the previous 7 years
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: President Uhuru KENYATTA (since 9 April 2013); Deputy President William RUTO (since 9 April 2013); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
    head of government: President Uhuru KENYATTA (since 9 April 2013); Deputy President William RUTO (since 9 April 2013); note - position of the prime minister abolished after the March 2013 elections
    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president, subject to confirmation by the National Assembly
    elections/appointments: president and deputy president directly elected on the same ballot by qualified majority popular vote for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); in addition to receiving an absolute majority popular vote, the presidential candidate must also win at least 25% of the votes cast in at least 24 of the 47 counties to avoid a runoff; election last held on 8 August 2017 (next to be held in 2022)
    election results: Uhuru KENYATTA reelected president in first round; percent of vote - Uhuru KENYATTA (Jubilee Party) 54.2%, Raila ODINGA (ODM) 44.9%, other 0.9%; note - Kenya's Supreme Court on 1 September 2017 nullified the reelection of Uhuru KENYATTA, citing irregularities; new vote to be held 26 October 2017
    description: bicameral parliament consists of the Senate (67 seats; 47 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 20 directly elected by proportional representation vote - 16 women, 2 representing youth, and 2 representing the disabled; members serve 5-year terms) and the National Assembly (349 seats; 290 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 47 women in single-seat constituencies elected by simple majority vote, and 12 members nominated by the National Assembly - 6 representing youth and 6 representing the disabled; members serve 5-year terms)
    elections: last held on 4 March 2013 (next to be held on 8 August 2017)
    election results: Senate - percent of vote by party/coalition - NA; seats by party/coalition - Jubilee Alliance 30 (TNA 17, URP 12, NARC 1); CORD Coalition 28 (ODM 17, FORD-K 5, WDM-K 5, other 1); Amani Coalition 6 (KANU 3, UDF 3), APK 3
    National Assembly - percent of vote by party/coalition - NA; seats by party/coalition - Jubilee Alliance 167 (TNA 89, URP 75, NARC 3), CORD Coalition 141 (ODM 96, WDM-K 26, FORD-K 10, other 9), Amani Coalition 24 (UDF 12, KANU 6, NFK 6), Eagle Coalition 2 (KNC 2), APK 5, FORD-P 4, independent 4, other 2
    highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of chief and deputy chief justices and 5 judges)
    judge selection and term of office: chief and deputy chief justices nominated by Judicial Service Commission (JSC) and appointed by president with approval of the National Assembly; other judges nominated by the JSC and appointed by president; chief justice serves a nonrenewable 10-year term or till age 70 whichever comes first; other judges serve till age 70
    subordinate courts: High Court; Court of Appeal; military courts; magistrates' courts; religious courts
    Alliance Party of Kenya or APK [Kiraitu MURUNGI]
    Amani National Congress [Musalia MUDAVADI]
    Coalition for Reforms and Democracy or CORD (includes ODM, WDM-K, FORD-K) [Raila ODINGA]
    Federal Party of Kenya or FPK [Cyrus JIRONGA]
    Forum for the Restoration of Democracy-Kenya or FORD-K [Moses WETANGULA]
    Forum for the Restoration of Democracy-People or FORD-P [Henry OBWOCHA]
    Jubilee Party [Uhuru KENYATTA]
    Kenya African National Union or KANU [Gideon MOI]
    National Rainbow Coalition or NARC [Charity NGILU]
    Orange Democratic Movement Party of Kenya or ODM [Raila ODINGA]
    United Democratic Forum [Musalia MUDAVADI]
    Wiper Democratic Movement-K or WDM-K (formerly Orange Democratic Movement-Kenya or ODM-K) [Kalonzo MUSYOKA]
    African Center for Open Governance [Gladwell OTIENO]
    Anglican Church of Kenya [Archbishop Jackson Nasoore Ole SAPIT]
    Council of Imams and Preachers of Kenya or CIPK [Sheikh Mohammed KHALIFA]
    Federation of Women Lawyers in Kenya
    Kenya Association of Manufacturers
    Kenya Human Rights Commission or KHRC [George KEGORO]
    Kenya Private Sector Alliance
    Kenyans for Peace with Truth and Justice (umbrella group of more than 30 NGOs)
    Muslim Human Rights Forum [Ali-Amin KIMATHI]
    National Muslim Leaders Forum or NAMLEF [Abdullahi ABDI]
    Protestant National Council of Churches of Kenya or NCCK [Canon Peter Karanja MWANGI]
    Roman Catholic Church [Cardinal John NJUE]
    Supreme Council of Kenya Muslims or SUPKEM [Adan WACHU, secretary general]
    other: labor unions, other Christian churches
    ACP, AfDB, AU, C, CD, COMESA, EAC, EADB, FAO, G-15, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WMO, WTO
    chief of mission: Ambassador Robinson GITHAE (since 18 November 2014)
    chancery: 2249 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 387-6101
    FAX: [1] (202) 462-3829
    consulate(s) general: Los Angeles
    consulate(s): New York
    chief of mission: Ambassador Robert F. GODEC (since 16 January 2013)
    embassy: United Nations Avenue, Nairobi; P.O. Box 606 Village Market, Nairobi 00621
    mailing address: American Embassy Nairobi, U.S. Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-8900
    telephone: [254] (20) 363-6000
    FAX: [254] (20) 363-6157
    three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and green; the red band is edged in white; a large Maasai warrior's shield covering crossed spears is superimposed at the center; black symbolizes the majority population, red the blood shed in the struggle for freedom, green stands for natural wealth, and white for peace; the shield and crossed spears symbolize the defense of freedom
    lion; national colors: black, red, green, white
    name: "Ee Mungu Nguvu Yetu" (Oh God of All Creation)
    lyrics/music: Graham HYSLOP, Thomas KALUME, Peter KIBUKOSYA, Washington OMONDI, and George W. SENOGA-ZAKE/traditional, adapted by Graham HYSLOP, Thomas KALUME, Peter KIBUKOSYA, Washington OMONDI, and George W. SENOGA-ZAKE
    note: adopted 1963; based on a traditional Kenyan folk song
  • Economy :: KENYA

  • Kenya is the economic, financial, and transport hub of East Africa. Kenya’s real GDP growth has averaged over 5% for the last eight years. Since 2014, Kenya has been ranked as a lower middle income country because its per capita GDP crossed a World Bank threshold. While Kenya has a growing entrepreneurial middle class and steady growth, its economic and development trajectory could be impaired by weak governance and corruption. Although reliable numbers are hard to find, unemployment and under-employment are extremely high, and could be near 40% of the population.
    Agriculture remains the backbone of the Kenyan economy, contributing one-third of GDP. About 75% of Kenya’s population of roughly 44.2 million work at least part-time in the agricultural sector, including livestock and pastoral activities. Over 75% of agricultural output is from small-scale, rain-fed farming or livestock production.
    Inadequate infrastructure continues to hamper Kenya’s efforts to improve its annual growth to the 8%-10% range so that it can meaningfully address poverty and unemployment. The KENYATTA administration has been successful in courting external investment for infrastructure development. International financial institutions and donors remain important to Kenya's economic growth and development, but Kenya has also successfully raised capital in the global bond market. Kenya issued its first sovereign bond offering in mid-2014. Nairobi has contracted with a Chinese company to construct a new standard gauge railway connecting Mombasa and Nairobi, with completion expected in June 2017. In 2013, the country adopted a devolved system of government with the creation of 47 counties, and is in the process of devolving state revenues and responsibilities to the counties. Inflationary pressures and sharp currency depreciation peaked in early 2012 but have since abated following low global food and fuel prices and monetary interventions by the Central Bank. Drought-like conditions in parts of the country have pushed March 2017 inflation above 9%. Chronic budget deficits, including a shortage of funds in mid-2015, hampered the government’s ability to implement proposed development programs, but the economy is back in balance with many indicators, including foreign exchange reserves, interest rates, and FDI moving in the right direction. Underlying weaknesses were exposed in the banking sector in 2016 when the government was forced to take over three small and undercapitalized banks. In 2016, the government enacted legislation that limits interest rates banks can charge on loans and set a rate that banks must pay their depositors. This measure led to a sharp shrinkage of credit in the economy.
    Tourism holds a significant place in Kenya’s economy. A spate of terrorist attacks by the Somalia-based group al-Shabaab reduced international tourism earning after their deadly 2013 attack on Nairobi’s Westgate mall, which killed 67 people, but the sector is now recovering. In 2016, tourist arrivals grew by 17% while revenues from tourism increased by 37%.
    $152.8 billion (2016 est.)
    $144.1 billion (2015 est.)
    $136.4 billion (2014 est.)
    note: data are in 2016 dollars
    country comparison to the world: 75
    $68.92 billion (2016 est.)
    6% (2016 est.)
    5.6% (2015 est.)
    5.3% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 26
    $3,400 (2016 est.)
    $3,300 (2015 est.)
    $3,200 (2014 est.)
    note: data are in 2016 dollars
    country comparison to the world: 186
    14.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
    14.4% of GDP (2015 est.)
    12.7% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 126
    household consumption: 77.6%
    government consumption: 14.2%
    investment in fixed capital: 21.3%
    investment in inventories: -0.3%
    exports of goods and services: 15.2%
    imports of goods and services: -28% (2016 est.)
    agriculture: 32.7%
    industry: 18%
    services: 49.3% (2016 est.)
    tea, coffee, corn, wheat, sugarcane, fruit, vegetables; dairy products, beef, fish, pork, poultry, eggs
    small-scale consumer goods (plastic, furniture, batteries, textiles, clothing, soap, cigarettes, flour), agricultural products, horticulture, oil refining; aluminum, steel, lead; cement, commercial ship repair, tourism
    6.6% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 22
    18.66 million (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 33
    agriculture: 61.1%
    industry: 6.7%
    services: 32.2% (2005 est.)
    40% (2013 est.)
    40% (2001 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 204
    43.4% (2012 est.)
    lowest 10%: 1.8%
    highest 10%: 37.8% (2005)
    42.5 (2008 est.)
    44.9 (1997)
    country comparison to the world: 49
    revenues: $12.89 billion
    expenditures: $17.85 billion (2016 est.)
    18.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 162
    -7.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 187
    50.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
    48% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 94
    1 July - 30 June
    6.3% (2016 est.)
    6.6% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 182
    11.5% (20 January 2016)
    7% (31 December 2010)
    country comparison to the world: 16
    17.5% (31 December 2016 est.)
    16.09% (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 26
    $11.07 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    $9.927 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 80
    $24.02 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $18.92 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 85
    $31.52 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    $27.5 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 77
    $26.16 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $22.09 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    $14.79 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 61
    -$3.822 billion (2016 est.)
    -$4.335 billion (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 167
    $6.363 billion (2016 est.)
    $5.982 billion (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 101
    tea, horticultural products, coffee, petroleum products, fish, cement
    Uganda 10.1%, Tanzania 8.6%, US 7.7%, Netherlands 7.4%, UK 7.3%, UAE 4.6%, Pakistan 4.5% (2016)
    $16.34 billion (2016 est.)
    $15.56 billion (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 81
    machinery and transportation equipment, petroleum products, motor vehicles, iron and steel, resins and plastics
    China 24.1%, India 11.2%, UAE 7.7%, Japan 5.4% (2016)
    $7.374 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    $7.548 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 84
    $20.25 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    $17.92 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 90
    $5.537 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    $4.662 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 103
    $NA (31 December 2016 est.)
    $NA (31 December 2015 est.)
    Kenyan shillings (KES) per US dollar -
    102 (2016 est.)
    98.18 (2015 est.)
    98.18 (2014 est.)
    87.92 (2013 est.)
    84.53 (2012 est.)
  • Energy :: KENYA

  • population without electricity: 35,400,000
    electrification - total population: 20%
    electrification - urban areas: 60%
    electrification - rural areas: 7% (2013)
    9.2 billion kWh (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 104
    7.6 billion kWh (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 105
    38 million kWh (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 87
    79 million kWh (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 103
    2.281 million kW (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 108
    42.4% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 159
    0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 118
    43.9% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 55
    13.8% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 25
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 152
    0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 146
    11,270 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 73
    0 bbl (1 January 2016 es)
    country comparison to the world: 152
    12,610 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 99
    92,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 82
    575 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 113
    82,950 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 58
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 149
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 196
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 128
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 143
    0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
    country comparison to the world: 196
    13 million Mt (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 97
  • Communications :: KENYA

  • total subscriptions: 72,801
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 129
    total: 38,982,188
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 83 (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 35
    general assessment: the mobile-cellular system is generally good, especially is urban areas; fixed-line telephone system is small and inefficient; trunks are primarily microwave radio relay; business data commonly transferred by a very small aperture terminal (VSAT) system
    domestic: sole fixed-line provider, Telkom Kenya, privatized in 2013 and is now 60% owned by Helios Investment Partners, a London-based equity fund, and 40% owned by the Kenyan Government; multiple providers in the mobile-cellular segment of the market fostering a boom in mobile-cellular telephone usage with teledensity reaching 83 per 100 persons in 2016
    international: country code - 254; landing point for the EASSy, TEAMS and SEACOM fiber-optic submarine cable systems; satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat (2016)
    about a half-dozen large-scale privately owned media companies with TV and radio stations, as well as a state-owned TV broadcaster, provide service nationwide; satellite and cable TV subscription services available; state-owned radio broadcaster operates 2 national radio channels and provides regional and local radio services in multiple languages; many private radio stations broadcast on a national level along with over 100 private and non-profit provincial stations broadcasting in local languages; transmissions of several international broadcasters available (2014)
    .ke
    total: 12,165,597
    percent of population: 26.0% (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 33
  • Transportation :: KENYA

  • number of registered air carriers: 16
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 106
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 4,874,590
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 286,414,683 mt-km (2015)
    5Y (2016)
    197 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 28
    total: 16
    over 3,047 m: 5
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
    914 to 1,523 m: 6
    under 914 m: 1 (2017)
    total: 181
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 14
    914 to 1,523 m: 107
    under 914 m: 60 (2013)
    oil 4 km; refined products 928 km (2013)
    total: 3,806 km
    narrow gauge: 3,334 km 1.000-m gauge
    standard gauge: 472 km 1.435-m gauge (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 54
    total: 161,452 km
    paved: 14,420 km (8,500 km highways, 1,872 urban roads, and 4,048 rural roads)
    unpaved: 147,032 km (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 32
    none specifically; the only significant inland waterway is the part of Lake Victoria within the boundaries of Kenya; Kisumu is the main port and has ferry connections to Uganda and Tanzania (2011)
    registered in other countries: 5 (Comoros 2, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 2, unknown 1) (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 125
    major seaport(s): Kisumu, Mombasa
    LNG terminal(s) (import): Mombasa
  • Military and Security :: KENYA

  • 1.32% of GDP (2016)
    1.32% of GDP (2015)
    1.33% of GDP (2014)
    1.56% of GDP (2013)
    1.67% of GDP (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 41
    Kenya Defence Forces: Kenya Army, Kenya Navy, Kenya Air Force (2012)
    18-26 years of age for male and female voluntary service (under 18 with parental consent), with a 9-year obligation (7 years for Kenyan Navy); applicants must be Kenyan citizens and provide a national identity card (obtained at age 18) and a school-leaving certificate; women serve under the same terms and conditions as men; mandatory retirement at age 55 (2012)
  • Transnational Issues :: KENYA

  • Kenya served as an important mediator in brokering Sudan's north-south separation in February 2005; Kenya provides shelter to an estimated 580,000 refugees, including Ugandans who flee across the border periodically to seek protection from Lord's Resistance Army rebels; Kenya works hard to prevent the clan and militia fighting in Somalia from spreading across the border, which has long been open to nomadic pastoralists; the boundary that separates Kenya's and Sudan's sovereignty is unclear in the "Ilemi Triangle," which Kenya has administered since colonial times
    refugees (country of origin): 313,255 (Somalia); 108,201 (South Sudan) (refugees and asylum seekers); 34,451 (Democratic Republic of the Congo) (refugees and asylum seekers); 27,640 (Ethiopia) (refugees and asylum seekers); 9,881 (Sudan) (refugees and asylum seekers); 7,181 (Burundi) (2017)
    IDPs: 138,000 (represents people displaced since the 1990s by ethnic and political violence and land disputes and who sought refuge mostly in camps; persons who took refuge in host communities or were evicted in urban areas are not included in the data; data is not available on pastoralists displaced by cattle rustling, violence, natural disasters, and development projects; the largest displacement resulted from 2007-08 post-election violence (2016)
    stateless persons: 20,000 (2016); note - the stateless population consists of Nubians, Kenyan Somalis, and coastal Arabs; the Nubians are descendants of Sudanese soldiers recruited by the British to fight for them in East Africa more than a century ago; Nubians did not receive Kenyan citizenship when the country became independent in 1963; only recently have Nubians become a formally recognized tribe and had less trouble obtaining national IDs; Galjeel and other Somalis who have lived in Kenya for decades are included with more recent Somali refugees and denied ID cards
    widespread harvesting of small plots of marijuana; transit country for South Asian heroin destined for Europe and North America; Indian methaqualone also transits on way to South Africa; significant potential for money-laundering activity given the country's status as a regional financial center; massive corruption, and relatively high levels of narcotics-associated activities