Africa :: LIBYA
  • Introduction :: LIBYA

  • The Italians supplanted the Ottoman Turks in the area around Tripoli in 1911 and did not relinquish their hold until 1943 when they were defeated in World War II. Libya then passed to UN administration and achieved independence in 1951. Following a 1969 military coup, Col. Muammar al-QADHAFI assumed leadership and began to espouse his political system at home, which was a combination of socialism and Islam. During the 1970s, QADHAFI used oil revenues to promote his ideology outside Libya, supporting subversive and terrorist activities that included the downing of two airliners - one over Scotland, another in Northern Africa - and a discotheque bombing in Berlin. UN sanctions in 1992 isolated QADHAFI politically and economically following the attacks; sanctions were lifted in 2003 following Libyan acceptance of responsibility for the bombings and agreement to claimant compensation. QADHAFI also agreed to end Libya's program to develop weapons of mass destruction, and he made significant strides in normalizing relations with Western nations.
    Unrest that began in several Middle Eastern and North African countries in late 2010 erupted in Libyan cities in early 2011. QADHAFI's brutal crackdown on protesters spawned a civil war that triggered UN authorization of air and naval intervention by the international community. After months of seesaw fighting between government and opposition forces, the QADHAFI regime was toppled in mid-2011 and replaced by a transitional government known as the National Transitional Council (NTC). In 2012, the NTC handed power to an elected parliament, the General National Congress (GNC). Voters chose a new parliament to replace the GNC in June 2014 - the House of Representatives (HoR), which relocated to the eastern city of Tobruk after fighting broke out in Tripoli and Benghazi.
    In October 2015, the UN brokered an agreement among a broad array of Libyan political parties and social groups - known as the Libyan Political Agreement (LPA). Members of the Libyan Political Dialogue, including representatives of the HoR and defunct-GNC, signed the LPA in December 2015. The LPA called for the formation of an interim Government of National Accord or GNA, with a nine-member Presidency Council, the HoR, and an advisory High Council of State that most ex-GNC members joined. The LPA’s roadmap for a transition to a new constitution and elected government was subsequently endorsed by UN Security Council Resolution 2259, which also called upon member states to cease official contact with parallel institutions. In January 2016, the HoR voted to approve the LPA, including the Presidency Council, while voting against a controversial provision on security leadership positions and the Presidency Council’s proposed cabinet of ministers. In March 2016, the GNA Presidency Council seated itself in Tripoli. In 2016, the GNA twice announced a slate of ministers who operate in an acting capacity, but the HoR did not endorse the ministerial list. HoR and defunct-GNC-affiliated political hardliners continued to oppose the GNA and hamper the LPA’s implementation. In September 2017, UN Special Representative Ghassan SALAME announced a new roadmap for national political reconciliation. SALAME’s plan called for amendments to the LPA, a national conference of Libyan leaders, and a constitutional referendum and general elections.
  • Geography :: LIBYA

  • Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Egypt, Tunisia, and Algeria
    25 00 N, 17 00 E
    Africa
    total: 1,759,540 sq km
    land: 1,759,540 sq km
    water: 0 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 18
    about 2.5 times the size of Texas; slightly larger than Alaska
    total: 4,339 km
    border countries (6): Algeria 989 km, Chad 1,050 km, Egypt 1,115 km, Niger 342 km, Sudan 382 km, Tunisia 461 km
    1,770 km
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    note: Gulf of Sidra closing line - 32 degrees, 30 minutes north
    exclusive fishing zone: 62 nm
    Mediterranean along coast; dry, extreme desert interior
    mostly barren, flat to undulating plains, plateaus, depressions
    mean elevation: 423 m
    elevation extremes: lowest point: Sabkhat Ghuzayyil -47 m
    highest point: Bikku Bitti 2,267 m
    petroleum, natural gas, gypsum
    agricultural land: 8.8%
    arable land 1%; permanent crops 0.2%; permanent pasture 7.6%
    forest: 0.1%
    other: 91.1% (2011 est.)
    4,700 sq km (2012)
    well over 90% of the population lives along the Mediterranean coast in and between Tripoli to the west and Al Bayda to the east; the interior remains vastly underpopulated due to the Sahara and lack of surface water
    hot, dry, dust-laden ghibli is a southern wind lasting one to four days in spring and fall; dust storms, sandstorms
    desertification; limited natural freshwater resources; the Great Manmade River Project, the largest water development scheme in the world, brings water from large aquifers under the Sahara to coastal cities; water pollution is a significant problem; the combined impact of sewage, oil byproducts, and industrial waste threatens Libya's coast and the Mediterranean Sea
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
    more than 90% of the country is desert or semidesert
  • People and Society :: LIBYA

  • 6,653,210 (July 2017 est.)
    note: immigrants make up just over 12% of the total population, according to UN data (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 106
    noun: Libyan(s)
    adjective: Libyan
    Berber and Arab 97%, other 3% (includes Greeks, Maltese, Italians, Egyptians, Pakistanis, Turks, Indians, and Tunisians)
    Arabic (official), Italian, English (all widely understood in the major cities); Berber (Nafusi, Ghadamis, Suknah, Awjilah, Tamasheq)
    Muslim (official; virtually all Sunni) 96.6%, Christian 2.7%, Buddhist 0.3%, Hindu <0.1, Jewish <0.1, folk religion <0.1, unafilliated 0.2%, other <0.1
    note: non-Sunni Muslims include native Ibadhi Muslims (<1% of the population) and foreign Muslims (2010 est.)
    Despite continuing unrest, Libya remains a destination country for economic migrants. It is also a hub for transit migration to Europe because of its proximity to southern Europe and its lax border controls. Labor migrants have been drawn to Libya since the development of its oil sector in the 1960s. Until the latter part of the 1990s, most migrants to Libya were Arab (primarily Egyptians and Sudanese). However, international isolation stemming from Libya’s involvement in international terrorism and a perceived lack of support from Arab countries led QADHAFI in 1998 to adopt a decade-long pan-African policy that enabled large numbers of sub-Saharan migrants to enter Libya without visas to work in the construction and agricultural industries. Although sub-Saharan Africans provided a cheap labor source, they were poorly treated and were subjected to periodic mass expulsions.
    By the mid-2000s, domestic animosity toward African migrants and a desire to reintegrate into the international community motivated QADHAFI to impose entry visas on Arab and African immigrants and to agree to joint maritime patrols and migrant repatriations with Italy, the main recipient of illegal migrants departing Libya. As his regime neared collapse in 2011, QADHAFI reversed his policy of cooperating with Italy to curb illegal migration and sent boats loaded with migrants and asylum seekers to strain European resources. Libya’s 2011 revolution decreased immigration drastically and prompted nearly 800,000 migrants to flee to third countries, mainly Tunisia and Egypt, or to their countries of origin. The inflow of migrants declined in 2012 but returned to normal levels by 2013, despite continued hostility toward sub-Saharan Africans and a less-inviting job market.
    While Libya is not an appealing destination for migrants, since 2014, transiting migrants – primarily from East and West Africa – continue to exploit its political instability and weak border controls and use it as a primary departure area to migrate across the central Mediterranean to Europe in growing numbers. In addition, more than 200,000 people were displaced internally as of August 2017 by fighting between armed groups in eastern and western Libya and, to a lesser extent, by inter-tribal clashes in the country’s south.
    0-14 years: 25.84% (male 879,311/female 839,824)
    15-24 years: 17.09% (male 584,117/female 552,680)
    25-54 years: 47.28% (male 1,651,362/female 1,494,106)
    55-64 years: 5.48% (male 185,679/female 179,224)
    65 years and over: 4.31% (male 141,867/female 145,040) (2017 est.)
    total dependency ratio: 49.1
    youth dependency ratio: 42.6
    elderly dependency ratio: 6.4
    potential support ratio: 15.5 (2015 est.)
    total: 28.9 years
    male: 29.1 years
    female: 28.7 years (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 127
    1.58% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 68
    17.5 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 106
    3.6 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 215
    1.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 48
    well over 90% of the population lives along the Mediterranean coast in and between Tripoli to the west and Al Bayda to the east; the interior remains vastly underpopulated due to the Sahara and lack of surface water
    urban population: 80.1% of total population (2018)
    rate of urbanization: 1.68% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    TRIPOLI (capital) 1.158 million; Benghazi 799,000; Misratah 801,000 (2018)
    at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 1.1 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 1.01 male(s)/female
    total population: 1.07 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    9 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 152
    total: 10.8 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 11.7 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 9.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 130
    total population: 76.7 years
    male: 74.9 years
    female: 78.5 years (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 85
    2.04 children born/woman (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 114
    5% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 143
    2.09 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
    3.7 beds/1,000 population (2014)
    improved:
    urban: 54.2% of population
    rural: 54.9% of population
    total: 54.4% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 45.8% of population
    rural: 45.1% of population
    total: 45.6% of population (2001 est.)
    improved:
    urban: 96.8% of population
    rural: 95.7% of population
    total: 96.6% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 3.2% of population
    rural: 4.3% of population
    total: 3.4% of population (2015 est.)
    NA
    NA
    NA
    32.5% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 16
    NA
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 91%
    male: 96.7%
    female: 85.6% (2015 est.)
    total: 48.7%
    male: 40.8%
    female: 67.8% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 8
  • Government :: LIBYA

  • conventional long form: State of Libya
    conventional short form: Libya
    local long form: Dawiat Libiya
    local short form: Libiya
    etymology: name derives from the Libu, an ancient Libyan tribe first mentioned in texts from the 13th century B.C.
    in transition
    name: Tripoli (Tarabulus)
    geographic coordinates: 32 53 N, 13 10 E
    time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    22 districts (muhafazah, singular - muhafazat); Al Butnan, Al Jabal al Akhdar, Al Jabal al Gharbi, Al Jafarah, Al Jufrah, Al Kufrah, Al Marj, Al Marqab, Al Wahat, An Nuqat al Khams, Az Zawiyah, Banghazi (Benghazi), Darnah, Ghat, Misratah, Murzuq, Nalut, Sabha, Surt, Tarabulus (Tripoli), Wadi al Hayat, Wadi ash Shati
    24 December 1951 (from UN trusteeship)
    Liberation Day, 23 October (2011)
    history: previous 1951, 1977; in July 2017, the Constitutional Assembly completed and approved a draft of a new permanent constitution; the House of Representatives was scheduled to discuss the draft law on a referendum for the constitution at the end of July 2018 (2018)
    Libya's post-revolution legal system is in flux and driven by state and non-state entities
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent or grandparent must be a citizen of Libya
    dual citizenship recognized: no
    residency requirement for naturalization: varies from 3 to 5 years
    18 years of age, universal
    chief of state: Chairman, Presidential Council, Fayiz al-SARAJ (since December 2015)
    head of government: Prime Minister Fayiz al-SARAJ (since December 2015)
    cabinet: GNA Presidency Council (pending approval by the House of Representatives - as of July 2018)
    elections/appointments: NA
    election results: NA
    description: unicameral House of Representatives (HoR) or Majlis Al Nuwab (200 seats including 32 reserved for women; members elected by direct popular vote; member term NA); note - the High Council of State serves as an advisory group for the HoR
    elections: election last held in June 2014 (next to be held on 10 December 2018); note - the Libyan Supreme Court in November 2014 declared the HoR election unconstitutional, but the HoR and the international community rejected the ruling
    election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - independent 200; note - not all 200 seats were filled in the June election because of boycotts and lack of security at some polling stations; some elected members of the HoR also boycotted the election
    highest court(s): NA; note - government is in transition
    NA
    ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AMU, AU, BDEAC, CAEU, COMESA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAS, MIGA, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPCW, OPEC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
    chief of mission: Ambassador Wafa M.T. BUGHAIGHIS (since 29 November 2017)
    chancery: 2600 Virginia Avenue NW, Suite 400, Washington, DC 20037
    telephone: [1] (202) 944-9601
    FAX: [1] (202) 944-9606
    chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Stephanie T. WILLIAMS (since 23 January 2018)
    note: the US Embassy in Tripoli closed in July 2014 due to fighting near the embassy related to the Libyan civil unrest; embassy staff and operations temporarily first relocated to Valetta, Malta and currently temporarily relocated to Tunis, Tunisia
    embassy: Sidi Slim Area/Walie Al-Ahed Road, Tripoli (temporarily closed)
    mailing address: US Embassy, 8850 Tripoli Place, Washington, DC 20521-8850
    telephone: [218] (0) 91-220-3239
    three horizontal bands of red (top), black (double width), and green with a white crescent and star centered on the black stripe; the National Transitional Council reintroduced this flag design of the former Kingdom of Libya (1951-1969) on 27 February 2011; it replaced the former all-green banner promulgated by the QADHAFI regime in 1977; the colors represent the three major regions of the country: red stands for Fezzan, black symbolizes Cyrenaica, and green denotes Tripolitania; the crescent and star represent Islam, the main religion of the country
    star and crescent, hawk; national colors: red, black, green
    name: "Libya, Libya, Libya"
    lyrics/music: Al Bashir AL AREBI/Mohamad Abdel WAHAB
    note: also known as "Ya Beladi" or "Oh, My Country!"; adopted 1951; readopted 2011 with some modification to the lyrics; during the QADHAFI years between 1969 and 2011, the anthem was "Allahu Akbar," (God is Great) a marching song of the Egyptian Army in the 1956 Suez War
  • Economy :: LIBYA

  • Libya's economy, almost entirely dependent on oil and gas exports, has struggled since 2014 given security and political instability, disruptions in oil production, and decline in global oil prices. The Libyan dinar has lost much of its value since 2014 and the resulting gap between official and black market exchange rates has spurred the growth of a shadow economy and contributed to inflation. The country suffers from widespread power outages, caused by shortages of fuel for power generation. Living conditions, including access to clean drinking water, medical services, and safe housing have all declined since 2011. Oil production in 2017 reached a five-year high, driving GDP growth, with daily average production rising to 879,000 barrels per day. However, oil production levels remain below the average pre-Revolution highs of 1.6 million barrels per day.
    The Central Bank of Libya continued to pay government salaries to a majority of the Libyan workforce and to fund subsidies for fuel and food, resulting in an estimated budget deficit of about 17% of GDP in 2017. Low consumer confidence in the banking sector and the economy as a whole has driven a severe liquidity shortage.
    $64.4 billion (2017 est.)
    $69.53 billion (2016 est.)
    $79.95 billion (2015 est.)
    note: data are in 2017 dollars
    country comparison to the world: 104
    $31.33 billion (2017 est.)
    70.8% (2017 est.)
    -7.4% (2016 est.)
    -13% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 1
    $10,000 (2017 est.)
    $10,900 (2016 est.)
    $12,600 (2015 est.)
    note: data are in 2017 dollars
    country comparison to the world: 140
    1.9% of GDP (2017 est.)
    -11% of GDP (2016 est.)
    -8% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 174
    household consumption: 76.1%
    government consumption: 19.4%
    investment in fixed capital: 2.8%
    investment in inventories: 1.4%
    exports of goods and services: 39.7%
    imports of goods and services: -39.5% (2017 est.)
    agriculture: 1.3%
    industry: 63.8%
    services: 34.9% (2017 est.)
    wheat, barley, olives, dates, citrus, vegetables, peanuts, soybeans; cattle
    petroleum, petrochemicals, aluminum, iron and steel, food processing, textiles, handicrafts, cement
    76.5% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 1
    1.114 million (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 144
    agriculture: 17%
    industry: 23%
    services: 59% (2004 est.)
    30% (2004 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 206
    NA%
    note: about one-third of Libyans live at or below the national poverty line
    lowest 10%: NA%
    highest 10%: NA%
    revenues: $16.33 billion
    expenditures: $22.32 billion (2017 est.)
    49% of GDP (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 16
    -18% of GDP (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 218
    5.1% of GDP (2017 est.)
    7.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 205
    calendar year
    28% (2017 est.)
    25.9% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 222
    9.52% (31 December 2010)
    3% (31 December 2009)
    country comparison to the world: 27
    7.3% (31 December 2017 est.)
    6% (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 116
    $76.35 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $62.57 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 46
    $77.89 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $63.76 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 60
    $16.82 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $14.14 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 95
    $NA
    $701 million (2017 est.)
    -$4.575 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 51
    $19.72 billion (2017 est.)
    $11.99 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 71
    crude oil, refined petroleum products, natural gas, chemicals
    Italy 19%, Spain 12.5%, France 11%, Egypt 8.6%, Germany 8.6%, China 8.3%, US 4.9%, UK 4.6%, Netherlands 4.5% (2017)
    $12.66 billion (2017 est.)
    $11.01 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 91
    machinery, semi-finished goods, food, transport equipment, consumer products
    China 13.5%, Turkey 11.3%, Italy 6.9%, South Korea 5.9%, Spain 4.8% (2017)
    $69.35 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $66.05 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 31
    $2.927 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $3.116 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 143
    $19.07 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $18.96 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 79
    $22.77 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $22.19 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 51
    Libyan dinars (LYD) per US dollar -
    1.41 (2017 est.)
    1.39 (2016 est.)
    1.39 (2015 est.)
    1.38 (2014 est.)
    1.27 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: LIBYA

  • population without electricity: 13,083
    electrification - total population: 99.8%
    electrification - urban areas: 100%
    electrification - rural areas: 99.1% (2013)
    35.45 billion kWh
    note: persistent electricity shortages have contributed to the ongoing instability throughout the country (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 62
    8.131 billion kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 105
    0 kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 161
    88 million kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 99
    9.46 million kW (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 64
    99.9% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 24
    0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 132
    0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 184
    0.1% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 167
    879,000 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 23
    724,000 bbl/day
    note: Libyan crude oil export values are highly volatile because of continuing protests and other disruptions across the country (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 20
    0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 153
    48.36 billion bbl (1 January 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 9
    102,100 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 68
    262,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 50
    16,450 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 74
    169,400 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 39
    11.6 billion cu m (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 39
    4.49 billion cu m (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 62
    7.11 billion cu m (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 28
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 149
    1.505 trillion cu m (1 January 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 22
    57 million Mt (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 54
  • Communications :: LIBYA

  • total subscriptions: 1,374,408
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 21 (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 68
    total: 7,660,068
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 115 (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 101
    general assessment: political and security instability in Libya has disrupted its telecommunications sector, but much of its infrastructure remains superior to that in most other African countries
    domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular service generally adequate, but pressure to rebuild damaged infrastructure growing
    international: country code - 218; satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat, NA Arabsat, and NA Intersputnik; submarine cable to France and Italy; microwave radio relay to Tunisia and Egypt; tropospheric scatter to Greece; participant in Medarabtel (2018)
    state-funded and private TV stations; some provinces operate local TV stations; pan-Arab satellite TV stations are available; state-funded radio (2012)
    .ly
    total: 1,326,194
    percent of population: 20.3% (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 127
  • Transportation :: LIBYA

  • number of registered air carriers: 8
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 23
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 2,566,465
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 3,833,542 mt-km (2015)
    5A (2016)
    146 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 41
    total: 68
    over 3,047 m: 23
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 30
    914 to 1,523 m: 7
    under 914 m: 1 (2017)
    total: 78
    over 3,047 m: 2
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 14
    914 to 1,523 m: 37
    under 914 m: 20 (2013)
    2 (2013)
    condensate 882 km; gas 3,743 km; oil 7,005 km (2013)
    total: 100,024 km
    paved: 57,214 km
    unpaved: 42,810 km (2003)
    country comparison to the world: 47
    total: 98
    by type: general cargo 2, oil tanker 16, other 80 (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 86
    major seaport(s): Marsa al Burayqah (Marsa el Brega), Tripoli
    oil terminal(s): Az Zawiyah, Ra's Lanuf
    LNG terminal(s) (export): Marsa el Brega
  • Military and Security :: LIBYA

  • note - in transition; Libyan Government of National Accord has affiliated Army, Air Force, Navy, and Coast Guard forces (2016)
    18 years of age for mandatory or voluntary service (2012)
  • Terrorism :: LIBYA

  • al-Qa'ida in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM):
    aim(s): overthrow various African regimes and replace them with one ruled by sharia; establish a regional Islamic caliphate across all of North and West Africa
    area(s) of operation: leadership headquartered in Algeria; operates in Tunisia and Libya
    note(s): al-Qa'ida's affiliate in North Africa; Tunisia-based branch known as the Uqbah bin Nafi Battalion; Mali-based cadre merged with allies to form JNIM in March 2017, which pledged allegiance to AQIM and al-Qa'ida
    Ansar al-Sharia groups:
    aim(s): implement sharia in Libya
    area(s) of operation: in the east, mostly in Benghazi and Darnah
    note(s): officially disbanded in June 2017, but fighters and local elements remain; operated as a member of the Benghazi Revolutionaries Shura Council and Darnah Mujahidin Shura Council, a coalition of jihadist groups combating the Libyan House of Representatives-aligned forces
    Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham (ISIS)-Libya:
    aim(s): prevent the formation of a reunified Libyan state, secure control over the country's critical resources and, ultimately, establish an Islamic caliphate in Libya
    area(s) of operation: based in Libya since circa 2015, with its original headquarters in Sirte; no longer controls territory in Libya but does maintain a low-profile presence throughout much of the country (April 2018)
  • Transnational Issues :: LIBYA

  • dormant disputes include Libyan claims of about 32,000 sq km still reflected on its maps of southeastern Algeria and the FLN's assertions of a claim to Chirac Pastures in southeastern Morocco; various Chadian rebels from the Aozou region reside in southern Libya
    refugees (country of origin): 23,490 (Syria) (refugees and asylum seekers); 9,697 (Sudan) (refugees and asylum seekers); 6,583 (Eritrea) (refugees and asylum seekers); 5,307 (West Bank and Gaza Strip) (2018)
    IDPs: 192,513 (conflict between pro-QADHAFI and anti-QADHAFI forces in 2011; post-QADHAFI tribal clashes 2014) (2018)
    current situation: Libya is a destination and transit country for men and women from sub-Saharan Africa and Asia subjected to forced labor and forced prostitution; migrants who seek employment in Libya as laborers and domestic workers or who transit Libya en route to Europe are vulnerable to forced labor; private employers also exploit migrants from detention centers as forced laborers on farms and construction sites, returning them to detention when they are no longer needed; some sub-Saharan women are reportedly forced to work in Libyan brothels, particularly in the country’s south; since 2013, militia groups and other informal armed groups, including some affiliated with the government, are reported to conscript Libyan children under the age of 18; large-scale violence driven by militias, civil unrest, and increased lawlessness increased in 2014, making it more difficult to obtain information on human trafficking
    tier rating: Tier 3 - the Libyan Government does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and is not making significant efforts to do so; in 2014, the government’s capacity to address human trafficking was hampered by the ongoing power struggle and violence; the judicial system was not functioning, preventing any efforts to investigate, prosecute, or convict traffickers, complicit detention camp guards or government officials, or militias or armed groups that used child soldiers; the government failed to identify or provide protection to trafficking victims, including child conscripts, and continued to punish victims for unlawful acts committed as a direct result of being trafficked; no public anti-trafficking awareness campaigns were conducted (2015)