Africa :: Malawi
  • Introduction :: Malawi
  • Background:
    Established in 1891, the British protectorate of Nyasaland became the independent nation of Malawi in 1964. After three decades of one-party rule under President Hastings Kamuzu BANDA, the country held multiparty presidential and parliamentary elections in 1994, under a provisional constitution that came into full effect the following year. Bakili MULUZI became the first freely elected president of Malawi when he won the presidency in 1994; he won re-election in 1999. President Bingu wa MUTHARIKA, elected in 2004 after a failed attempt by the previous president to amend the constitution to permit another term, struggled to assert his authority against his predecessor and subsequently started his own party, the Democratic Progressive Party in 2005. MUTHARIKA was reelected to a second term in 2009. He oversaw some economic improvement in his first term, but was accused of economic mismanagement and poor governance in his second term. He died abruptly in 2012 and was succeeded by vice president, Joyce BANDA, who had earlier started her own party, the People's Party. MUTHARIKA's brother, Peter MUTHARIKA, defeated BANDA in the 2014 election. Population growth, increasing pressure on agricultural lands, corruption, and the scourge of HIV/AIDS pose major problems for Malawi.
  • Geography :: Malawi
  • Location:
    Southern Africa, east of Zambia, west and north of Mozambique
    Geographic coordinates:
    13 30 S, 34 00 E
    Map references:
    Africa
    Area:
    total: 118,484 sq km
    land: 94,080 sq km
    water: 24,404 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 101
    Area - comparative:
    slightly smaller than Pennsylvania
    Land boundaries:
    total: 2,857 km
    border countries (3): Mozambique 1498 km, Tanzania 512 km, Zambia 847 km
    Coastline:
    0 km (landlocked)
    Maritime claims:
    none (landlocked)
    Climate:
    sub-tropical; rainy season (November to May); dry season (May to November)
    Terrain:
    narrow elongated plateau with rolling plains, rounded hills, some mountains
    Elevation:
    mean elevation: 779 m
    elevation extremes: 37 m lowest point: junction of the Shire River and international boundary with Mozambique
    3002 highest point: Sapitwa (Mount Mlanje)
    Natural resources:
    limestone, arable land, hydropower, unexploited deposits of uranium, coal, and bauxite
    Land use:
    agricultural land: 59.2% (2011 est.)
    arable land: 38.2% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 1.4% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 19.6% (2011 est.)
    forest: 34% (2011 est.)
    other: 6.8% (2011 est.)
    Irrigated land:
    740 sq km (2012)
    Population distribution:
    population density is highest south of Lake Nyasa
    Natural hazards:
    flooding; droughts; earthquakes
    Environment - current issues:
    deforestation; land degradation; water pollution from agricultural runoff, sewage, industrial wastes; siltation of spawning grounds endangers fish populations; negative effects of climate change (extreme high temperatures, changing precipatation pattens)
    Environment - international agreements:
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
    Geography - note:
    landlocked; Lake Nyasa, some 580 km long, is the country's most prominent physical feature; it contains more fish species than any other lake on earth
  • People and Society :: Malawi
  • Population:
    19,842,560 (July 2018 est.)

    note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected

    country comparison to the world: 60
    Nationality:
    noun: Malawian(s)
    adjective: Malawian
    Ethnic groups:
    Chewa 35.1%, Lomwe 18.9%, Yao 13.1%, Ngoni 12%, Tumbuka 9.4%, Sena 3.5%, Mang'anja 2.5%, Tonga 1.8%, Nyanja 1%, Nkhonde 0.9%, other 1.8% (2015-16 est.)
    Languages:
    English (official), Chichewa (common), Chinyanja, Chiyao, Chitumbuka, Chilomwe, Chinkhonde, Chingoni, Chisena, Chitonga, Chinyakyusa, Chilambya
    Religions:
    Protestant 27.2% (includes Church of Central Africa Presbyterian 17.7%, Seventh Day Adventist/Baptist 6.9%, Anglican 2.6%), Catholic 18.4%, other Christian 41%, Muslim 12.1%, other 0.3%, none 1% (2015-16 est.)
    Demographic profile:

    Malawi has made great improvements in maternal and child health, but has made less progress in reducing its high fertility rate. In both rural and urban areas, very high proportions of mothers are receiving prenatal care and skilled birth assistance, and most children are being vaccinated. Malawi’s fertility rate, however, has only declined slowly, decreasing from more than 7 children per woman in the 1980s to about 5.5 today. Nonetheless, Malawians prefer smaller families than in the past, and women are increasingly using contraceptives to prevent or space pregnancies. Rapid population growth and high population density is putting pressure on Malawi’s land, water, and forest resources. Reduced plot sizes and increasing vulnerability to climate change, further threaten the sustainability of Malawi’s agriculturally based economy and will worsen food shortages. About 80% of the population is employed in agriculture.

    Historically, Malawians migrated abroad in search of work, primarily to South Africa and present-day Zimbabwe, but international migration became uncommon after the 1970s, and most migration in recent years has been internal. During the colonial period, Malawians regularly migrated to southern Africa as contract farm laborers, miners, and domestic servants. In the decade and a half after independence in 1964, the Malawian Government sought to transform its economy from one dependent on small-scale farms to one based on estate agriculture. The resulting demand for wage labor induced more than 300,000 Malawians to return home between the mid-1960s and the mid-1970s. In recent times, internal migration has generally been local, motivated more by marriage than economic reasons.

    Age structure:
    0-14 years: 46.17% (male 4,560,940 /female 4,600,184)
    15-24 years: 20.58% (male 2,023,182 /female 2,059,765)
    25-54 years: 27.57% (male 2,717,613 /female 2,752,983)
    55-64 years: 3% (male 284,187 /female 310,393)
    65 years and over: 2.69% (male 234,776 /female 298,537) (2018 est.)
    population pyramid: population pyramid
    Dependency ratios:
    total dependency ratio: 91 (2015 est.)
    youth dependency ratio: 85.3 (2015 est.)
    elderly dependency ratio: 5.7 (2015 est.)
    potential support ratio: 17.4 (2015 est.)
    Median age:
    total: 16.6 years
    male: 16.5 years
    female: 16.8 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 223
    Population growth rate:
    3.31% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 3
    Birth rate:
    40.7 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 8
    Death rate:
    7.7 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 100
    Net migration rate:
    0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 91
    Population distribution:
    population density is highest south of Lake Nyasa
    Urbanization:
    urban population: 16.9% of total population (2018)
    rate of urbanization: 4.19% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    Major urban areas - population:
    1.03 million LILONGWE (capital), 879,000 Blantyre-Limbe (2018)
    Sex ratio:
    at birth: 1.01 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    0-14 years: 0.99 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    15-24 years: 0.99 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    55-64 years: 0.91 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    Mother's mean age at first birth:
    18.9 years (2015/16 est.)

    note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

    Maternal mortality rate:
    634 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 13
    Infant mortality rate:
    total: 42.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    male: 48.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    female: 35.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 42
    Life expectancy at birth:
    total population: 62.2 years (2018 est.)
    male: 60.2 years (2018 est.)
    female: 64.3 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 200
    Total fertility rate:
    5.43 children born/woman (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 9
    Contraceptive prevalence rate:
    59.2% (2015/16)
    Health expenditures:
    11.4% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 9
    Physicians density:
    0.02 physicians/1,000 population (2009)
    Hospital bed density:
    1.3 beds/1,000 population (2011)
    Drinking water source:
    improved: urban: 95.7% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 89.1% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 90.2% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 4.3% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 10.9% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 9.8% of population (2015 est.)
    Sanitation facility access:
    improved: urban: 47.3% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 39.8% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 41% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 52.7% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 60.2% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 59% of population (2015 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
    9.6% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 9
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
    1 million (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 10
    HIV/AIDS - deaths:
    17,000 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 13
    Major infectious diseases:
    degree of risk: very high (2016)
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever (2016)
    vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever (2016)
    water contact diseases: schistosomiasis (2016)
    animal contact diseases: rabies (2016)
    Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
    5.8% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 173
    Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
    11.7% (2015)
    country comparison to the world: 56
    Education expenditures:
    4.7% of GDP (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 87
    Literacy:
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)
    total population: 62.1% (2015 est.)
    male: 69.8% (2015 est.)
    female: 55.2% (2015 est.)
    School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
    total: 11 years (2011)
    male: 11 years (2011)
    female: 11 years (2011)
    Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
    total: 8% (2013 est.)
    male: 7.4% (2013 est.)
    female: 8.5% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 139
  • Government :: Malawi
  • Country name:
    conventional long form: Republic of Malawi
    conventional short form: Malawi
    local long form: Dziko la Malawi
    local short form: Malawi
    former: British Central African Protectorate, Nyasaland Protectorate, Nyasaland
    etymology: named for the East African Maravi Kingdom of the 16th century; the word "maravi" means "fire flames"
    Government type:
    presidential republic
    Capital:
    name: Lilongwe
    geographic coordinates: 13 58 S, 33 47 E
    time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    Administrative divisions:
    28 districts; Balaka, Blantyre, Chikwawa, Chiradzulu, Chitipa, Dedza, Dowa, Karonga, Kasungu, Likoma, Lilongwe, Machinga, Mangochi, Mchinji, Mulanje, Mwanza, Mzimba, Neno, Ntcheu, Nkhata Bay, Nkhotakota, Nsanje, Ntchisi, Phalombe, Rumphi, Salima, Thyolo, Zomba
    Independence:
    6 July 1964 (from the UK)
    National holiday:
    Independence Day, 6 July (1964); note - also called Republic Day since 6 July 1966
    Constitution:
    history: previous 1953 (preindependence), 1966; latest drafted January to May 1994, approved 16 May 1994, entered into force 18 May 1995 (2018)
    amendments: proposed by the National Assembly; passage of amendments affecting constitutional articles including the sovereignty and territory of the state, fundamental constitutional principles, human rights, voting rights, and the judiciary requires majority approval in a referendum and majority approval by the Assembly; passage of other amendments requires at least two-thirds majority vote of the Assembly; amended several times, last in 2017 (2018)
    International law organization participation:
    accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    Citizenship:
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Malawi
    dual citizenship recognized: no
    residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years
    Suffrage:
    18 years of age; universal
    Executive branch:
    chief of state: President Arthur Peter MUTHARIKA (since 31 May 2014); Vice President Saulos CHILIMA (since 31 May 2014); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
    head of government: President Arthur Peter MUTHARIKA (since 31 May 2014); Vice President Saulos CHILIMA (since 31 May 2014)
    cabinet: Cabinet named by the president
    elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 20 May 2014 (next to be held on 21 May 2019)
    election results: Peter MUTHARIKA elected president; percent of vote - Peter MUTHARIKA (DPP) 36.4%, Lazarus CHAKWERA (MCP) 27.8%, Joyce BANDA (PP) 20.2%, Atupele MULUZI (UDF) 13.7%, other 1.9%
    Legislative branch:
    description: unicameral National Assembly (193 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 5-year terms)
    elections: last held on 20-22 May 2014 (next to be held on 21 May 2019)
    election results: percent of vote by party - DPP 22%, MCP 17.4%, PP 18.5%, UDF 9.6%, other 2.8%, independent 29.7%; seats by party - DPP 51, MCP 48, PP 26, UDF 14, other 2, independent 52
    Judicial branch:
    highest courts: Supreme Court of Appeal (consists of the chief justice and at least 3 judges)
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court chief justice appointed by the president and confirmed by the National Assembly; other judges appointed by the president upon recommendation of the Judicial Service Commission, which regulates judicial officers; judges serve until age 65
    subordinate courts: High Court; magistrate courts; Industrial Relations Court; district and city traditional or local courts
    Political parties and leaders:
    Alliance for Democracy or AFORD [Enoch CHIHANA]
    Democratic Progressive Party or DPP [Peter MUTHARIKA]
    Malawi Congress Party or MCP [Lazarus CHAKWERA]
    People's Party or PP [Joyce BANDA]
    United Democratic Front or UDF [Atupele MULUZI]
    International organization participation:
    ACP, AfDB, AU, C, CD, COMESA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MONUSCO, NAM, OPCW, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    Diplomatic representation in the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador Edward Yakobe SAWERENGERA (since 16 September 2016)
    chancery: 2408 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 721-0270
    FAX: [1] (202) 721-0288
    Diplomatic representation from the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador Virginia E. PALMER (since 5 February 2015)
    embassy: 16 Jomo Kenyatta Road, Lilongwe 3
    mailing address: P.O. Box 30016, Lilongwe 3, Malawi
    telephone: 265 (0) 1773166
    FAX: 265 (0) 1770471
    Flag description:
    three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and green with a radiant, rising, red sun centered on the black band; black represents the native peoples, red the blood shed in their struggle for freedom, and green the color of nature; the rising sun represents the hope of freedom for the continent of Africa
    National symbol(s):
    lion; national colors: black, red, green
    National anthem:
    name: "Mulungu dalitsa Malawi" (Oh God Bless Our Land of Malawi)
    lyrics/music: Michael-Fredrick Paul SAUKA

    note: adopted 1964

  • Economy :: Malawi
  • Economy - overview:

    Landlocked Malawi ranks among the world's least developed countries. The country’s economic performance has historically been constrained by policy inconsistency, macroeconomic instability, poor infrastructure, rampant corruption, high population growth, and poor health and education outcomes that limit labor productivity. The economy is predominately agricultural with about 80% of the population living in rural areas. Agriculture accounts for about one-third of GDP and 80% of export revenues. The performance of the tobacco sector is key to short-term growth as tobacco accounts for more than half of exports, although Malawi is looking to diversify away from tobacco to other cash crops.

    The economy depends on substantial inflows of economic assistance from the IMF, the World Bank, and individual donor nations. Donors halted direct budget support from 2013 to 2016 because of concerns about corruption and fiscal carelessness, but the World Bank resumed budget support in May 2017. In 2006, Malawi was approved for relief under the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) program but recent increases in domestic borrowing mean that debt servicing in 2016 exceeded the levels prior to HIPC debt relief.

    Heavily dependent on rain-fed agriculture, with corn being the staple crop, Malawi’s economy was hit hard by the El Nino-driven drought in 2015 and 2016, and now faces threat from the fall armyworm. The drought also slowed economic activity, led to two consecutive years of declining economic growth, and contributed to high inflation rates. Depressed food prices over 2017 led to a significant drop in inflation (from an average of 21.7% in 2016 to 12.3% in 2017), with a similar drop in interest rates.

    GDP (purchasing power parity):
    $22.42 billion (2017 est.)
    $21.56 billion (2016 est.)
    $21.08 billion (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 145
    GDP (official exchange rate):
    $6.24 billion (2017 est.) (2017 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate:
    4% (2017 est.)
    2.3% (2016 est.)
    3% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 79
    GDP - per capita (PPP):
    $1,200 (2017 est.)
    $1,200 (2016 est.)
    $1,200 (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 223
    Gross national saving:
    3.9% of GDP (2017 est.)
    -2.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
    2.8% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 178
    GDP - composition, by end use:
    household consumption: 84.3% (2017 est.)
    government consumption: 16.3% (2017 est.)
    investment in fixed capital: 15.3% (2017 est.)
    investment in inventories: 0% (2017 est.)
    exports of goods and services: 27.9% (2017 est.)
    imports of goods and services: -43.8% (2017 est.)
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
    agriculture: 28.6% (2017 est.)
    industry: 15.4% (2017 est.)
    services: 56% (2017 est.)
    Agriculture - products:
    tobacco, sugarcane, tea, corn, potatoes, sweet potatoes, cassava (manioc, tapioca), sorghum, pulses, cotton, groundnuts, macadamia nuts, coffee; cattle, goats
    Industries:
    tobacco, tea, sugar, sawmill products, cement, consumer goods
    Industrial production growth rate:
    1.2% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 150
    Labor force:
    7 million (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 66
    Labor force - by occupation:
    agriculture: 76.9%
    industry: 4.1%
    services: 19% (2013 est.)
    Unemployment rate:
    20.4% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 187
    Population below poverty line:
    50.7% (2010 est.)
    Household income or consumption by percentage share:
    lowest 10%: 37.5% (2010 est.)
    highest 10%: 37.5% (2010)
    Distribution of family income - Gini index:
    46.1 (2010)
    39 (2004)
    country comparison to the world: 33
    Budget:
    revenues: 1.356 billion (2017 est.)
    expenditures: 1.567 billion (2017 est.)
    Taxes and other revenues:
    21.7% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 135
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
    -3.4% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 144
    Public debt:
    59.2% of GDP (2017 est.)
    60.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 75
    Fiscal year:
    1 July - 30 June
    Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    12.2% (2017 est.)
    21.7% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 205
    Central bank discount rate:
    16% (31 December 2017 est.)
    24% (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 9
    Commercial bank prime lending rate:
    38.1% (31 December 2017 est.)
    44.11% (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 3
    Stock of narrow money:
    $632.4 million (31 December 2017 est.)
    $534 million (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 164
    Stock of broad money:
    $632.4 million (31 December 2017 est.)
    $534 million (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 168
    Stock of domestic credit:
    $1.161 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $1.049 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 165
    Market value of publicly traded shares:
    $18.97 million (31 December 2017 est.)
    $8.643 million (31 December 2016 est.)
    $101.9 million (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 122
    Current account balance:
    -$591 million (2017 est.)
    -$744 million (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 122
    Exports:
    $1.42 billion (2017 est.)
    $1.361 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 150
    Exports - partners:
    Zimbabwe 13.1%, Mozambique 11.8%, Belgium 10.7%, South Africa 6.3%, Netherlands 5%, UK 4.7%, Germany 4.3%, US 4.2% (2017)
    Exports - commodities:
    tobacco (55%), dried legumes (8.8%), sugar (6.7%), tea (5.7%), cotton (2%), peanuts, coffee, soy (2015 est.)
    Imports:
    $2.312 billion (2017 est.)
    $2.277 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 161
    Imports - commodities:
    food, petroleum products, semi-manufactures, consumer goods, transportation equipment
    Imports - partners:
    South Africa 20.7%, China 14.2%, India 11.6%, UAE 7%, Netherlands 4.4% (2017)
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
    $780.2 million (31 December 2017 est.)
    $585.7 million (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 140
    Debt - external:
    $2.102 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $1.5 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 152
    Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
    $142.5 million (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 136
    Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:

    NA

    Exchange rates:
    Malawian kwachas (MWK) per US dollar -
    731.69 (2017 est.)
    720.1 (2016 est.)
    713.85 (2015 est.)
    499.6 (2014 est.)
    424.9 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: Malawi
  • Electricity access:
    population without electricity: 14.9 million (2013)
    electrification - total population: 9% (2013)
    electrification - urban areas: 32% (2013)
    electrification - rural areas: 4% (2013)
    Electricity - production:
    1.42 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 144
    Electricity - consumption:
    1.321 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 150
    Electricity - exports:
    0 kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 164
    Electricity - imports:
    0 kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 170
    Electricity - installed generating capacity:
    375,000 kW (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 152
    Electricity - from fossil fuels:
    1% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 212
    Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
    0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 135
    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
    93% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 7
    Electricity - from other renewable sources:
    6% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 100
    Crude oil - production:
    0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 167
    Crude oil - exports:
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 159
    Crude oil - imports:
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 159
    Crude oil - proved reserves:
    0 bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 163
    Refined petroleum products - production:
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 171
    Refined petroleum products - consumption:
    6,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 171
    Refined petroleum products - exports:
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 176
    Refined petroleum products - imports:
    4,769 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 173
    Natural gas - production:
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 164
    Natural gas - consumption:
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 170
    Natural gas - exports:
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 145
    Natural gas - imports:
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 152
    Natural gas - proved reserves:
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 165
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
    1.082 million Mt (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 167
  • Communications :: Malawi
  • Telephones - fixed lines:
    total subscriptions: 17,337 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 181
    Telephones - mobile cellular:
    total subscriptions: 7,772,503 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 40 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 100
    Telephone system:
    general assessment: rudimentary; one fixed-line and two mobile-cellular operators govern the market (2016)
    domestic: limited fixed-line subscribership of about 1 per 100 households; mobile-cellular services are expanding but network coverage is limited and is based around the main urban areas; mobile-cellular subscribership approaching 40 per 100 households (2016)
    international: country code - 265; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean, 1 Atlantic Ocean) (2016)
    Broadcast media:
    radio is the main broadcast medium; privately owned Zodiak radio has the widest national broadcasting reach, followed by state-run radio; numerous private and community radio stations broadcast in cities and towns around the country; the largest TV network is government-owned, but at least 4 private TV networks broadcast in urban areas; relays of multiple international broadcasters are available (2017)
    Internet country code:
    .mw
    Internet users:
    total: 1,785,369 (July 2016 est.)
    percent of population: 9.6% (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 117
    Broadband - fixed subscriptions:
    total: 9,220 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 170
  • Transportation :: Malawi
  • National air transport system:
    number of registered air carriers: 1 (2015)
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 2 (2015)
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 6,010 (2015)
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 5,467 mt-km (2015)
    Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
    7Q (2016)
    Airports:
    32 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 113
    Airports - with paved runways:
    total: 7 (2017)
    over 3,047 m: 1 (2017)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (2017)
    914 to 1,523 m: 4 (2017)
    Airports - with unpaved runways:
    total: 25 (2013)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)
    914 to 1,523 m: 11 (2013)
    under 914 m: 13 (2013)
    Railways:
    total: 767 km (2014)
    narrow gauge: 767 km 1.067-m gauge (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 99
    Roadways:
    total: 15,452 km (2015)
    paved: 4,074 km (2015)
    unpaved: 11,378 km (2015)
    country comparison to the world: 123
    Waterways:
    700 km (on Lake Nyasa [Lake Malawi] and Shire River) (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 75
    Ports and terminals:
    lake port(s): Chipoka, Monkey Bay, Nkhata Bay, Nkhotakota, Chilumba (Lake Nyasa)
  • Military and Security :: Malawi
  • Military expenditures:
    0.61% of GDP (2016)
    0.7% of GDP (2015)
    0.89% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 139
    Military branches:
    Malawi Defense Force (MDF): Army (includes Air Wing, Marine Unit) (2018)
    Military service age and obligation:
    18 years of age for voluntary military service; high school equivalent required for enlisted recruits and college equivalent for officer recruits; initial engagement is 7 years for enlisted personnel and 10 years for officers (2014)
  • Transnational Issues :: Malawi
  • Disputes - international:
    dispute with Tanzania over the boundary in Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi) and the meandering Songwe River; Malawi contends that the entire lake up to the Tanzanian shoreline is its territory, while Tanzania claims the border is in the center of the lake; the conflict was reignited in 2012 when Malawi awarded a license to a British company for oil exploration in the lake
    Refugees and internally displaced persons:
    refugees (country of origin): 22,277 (Democratic Republic of the Congo) (refugees and asylum seekers), 7,500 (Burundi) (refugees and asylum seekers) (2018)
    IDPs: 8,463 (floods in 2015) (2016)