Africa :: Mali
  • Introduction :: Mali
  • Background:

    The Sudanese Republic and Senegal became independent of France in 1960 as the Mali Federation. When Senegal withdrew after only a few months, what formerly made up the Sudanese Republic was renamed Mali. Rule by dictatorship was brought to a close in 1991 by a military coup that ushered in a period of democratic rule. President Alpha KONARE won Mali's first two democratic presidential elections in 1992 and 1997. In keeping with Mali's two-term constitutional limit, he stepped down in 2002 and was succeeded by Amadou Toumani TOURE, who was elected to a second term in a 2007 election that was widely judged to be free and fair. Malian returnees from Libya in 2011 exacerbated tensions in northern Mali, and Tuareg ethnic militias rebelled in January 2012. Low- and mid-level soldiers, frustrated with the poor handling of the rebellion, overthrew TOURE on 22 March. Intensive mediation efforts led by the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) returned power to a civilian administration in April with the appointment of Interim President Dioncounda TRAORE.

    The post-coup chaos led to rebels expelling the Malian military from the country's three northern regions and allowed Islamic militants to set up strongholds. Hundreds of thousands of northern Malians fled the violence to southern Mali and neighboring countries, exacerbating regional food shortages in host communities. An international military intervention to retake the three northern regions began in January 2013 and within a month most of the north had been retaken. In a democratic presidential election conducted in July and August of 2013, Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA was elected president. The Malian Government and northern armed groups signed an internationally-mediated peace accord in June 2015. By 2018, however, the parties to the peace accord had made very little progress in the accord’s implementation, despite a June 2017 target for its completion. Furthermore, extremist groups outside the peace process made steady inroads into rural areas of central Mali following the consolidation of three major terrorist organizations in March 2017.

  • Geography :: Mali
  • Location:
    interior Western Africa, southwest of Algeria, north of Guinea, Cote d'Ivoire, and Burkina Faso, west of Niger
    Geographic coordinates:
    17 00 N, 4 00 W
    Map references:
    Africa
    Area:
    total: 1,240,192 sq km
    land: 1,220,190 sq km
    water: 20,002 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 25
    Area - comparative:
    slightly less than twice the size of Texas
    Land boundaries:
    total: 7,908 km
    border countries (7): Algeria 1359 km, Burkina Faso 1325 km, Cote d'Ivoire 599 km, Guinea 1062 km, Mauritania 2236 km, Niger 838 km, Senegal 489 km
    Coastline:
    0 km (landlocked)
    Maritime claims:
    none (landlocked)
    Climate:
    subtropical to arid; hot and dry (February to June); rainy, humid, and mild (June to November); cool and dry (November to February)
    Terrain:
    mostly flat to rolling northern plains covered by sand; savanna in south, rugged hills in northeast
    Elevation:
    mean elevation: 343 m
    elevation extremes: 23 m lowest point: Senegal River
    1155 highest point: Hombori Tondo
    Natural resources:
    gold, phosphates, kaolin, salt, limestone, uranium, gypsum, granite, hydropower, note, bauxite, iron ore, manganese, tin, and copper deposits are known but not exploited
    Land use:
    agricultural land: 34.1% (2011 est.)
    arable land: 5.6% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 0.1% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 28.4% (2011 est.)
    forest: 10.2% (2011 est.)
    other: 55.7% (2011 est.)
    Irrigated land:
    3,780 sq km (2012)
    Population distribution:
    the overwhelming majority of the population lives in the southern half of the country, with greater density along the border with Burkina Faso
    Natural hazards:
    hot, dust-laden harmattan haze common during dry seasons; recurring droughts; occasional Niger River flooding
    Environment - current issues:
    deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; loss of pasture land; inadequate supplies of potable water
    Environment - international agreements:
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands, Whaling
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    Geography - note:
    landlocked; divided into three natural zones: the southern, cultivated Sudanese; the central, semiarid Sahelian; and the northern, arid Saharan
  • People and Society :: Mali
  • Population:
    18,429,893 (July 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 64
    Nationality:
    noun: Malian(s)
    adjective: Malian
    Ethnic groups:
    Bambara 34.1%, Fulani (Peul) 14.7%, Sarakole 10.8%, Senufo 10.5%, Dogon 8.9%, Malinke 8.7%, Bobo 2.9%, Songhai 1.6%, Tuareg 0.9%, other Malian 6.1%, from member of Economic Community of West African States 0.3%, other 0.4% (2012-13 est.)
    Languages:
    French (official), Bambara 46.3%, Peul/Foulfoulbe 9.4%, Dogon 7.2%, Maraka/Soninke 6.4%, Malinke 5.6%, Sonrhai/Djerma 5.6%, Minianka 4.3%, Tamacheq 3.5%, Senoufo 2.6%, Bobo 2.1%, unspecified 0.7%, other 6.3% (2009 est.)

    note: Mali has 13 national languages in addition to its official language

    Religions:
    Muslim 94.8%, Christian 2.4%, Animist 2%, none 0.5%, unspecified 0.3% (2009 est.)
    Demographic profile:

    Mali’s total population is expected to double by 2035; its capital Bamako is one of the fastest-growing cities in Africa. A young age structure, a declining mortality rate, and a sustained high total fertility rate of 6 children per woman – the third highest in the world – ensure continued rapid population growth for the foreseeable future. Significant outmigration only marginally tempers this growth. Despite decreases, Mali’s infant, child, and maternal mortality rates remain among the highest in sub-Saharan Africa because of limited access to and adoption of family planning, early childbearing, short birth intervals, the prevalence of female genital cutting, infrequent use of skilled birth attendants, and a lack of emergency obstetrical and neonatal care.

    Mali’s high total fertility rate has been virtually unchanged for decades, as a result of the ongoing preference for large families, early childbearing, the lack of female education and empowerment, poverty, and extremely low contraceptive use. Slowing Mali’s population growth by lowering its birth rate will be essential for poverty reduction, improving food security, and developing human capital and the economy.

    Mali has a long history of seasonal migration and emigration driven by poverty, conflict, demographic pressure, unemployment, food insecurity, and droughts. Many Malians from rural areas migrate during the dry period to nearby villages and towns to do odd jobs or to adjoining countries to work in agriculture or mining. Pastoralists and nomads move seasonally to southern Mali or nearby coastal states. Others migrate long term to Mali’s urban areas, Cote d’Ivoire, other neighboring countries, and in smaller numbers to France, Mali’s former colonial ruler. Since the early 1990s, Mali’s role has grown as a transit country for regional migration flows and illegal migration to Europe. Human smugglers and traffickers exploit the same regional routes used for moving contraband drugs, arms, and cigarettes.

    Between early 2012 and 2013, renewed fighting in northern Mali between government forces and Tuareg secessionists and their Islamist allies, a French-led international military intervention, as well as chronic food shortages, caused the displacement of hundreds of thousands of Malians. Most of those displaced domestically sought shelter in urban areas of southern Mali, except for pastoralist and nomadic groups, who abandoned their traditional routes, gave away or sold their livestock, and dispersed into the deserts of northern Mali or crossed into neighboring countries. Almost all Malians who took refuge abroad (mostly Tuareg and Maure pastoralists) stayed in the region, largely in Mauritania, Niger, and Burkina Faso.

    Age structure:
    0-14 years: 48.03% (male 4,449,790 /female 4,402,076)
    15-24 years: 18.89% (male 1,657,609 /female 1,823,453)
    25-54 years: 26.36% (male 2,243,158 /female 2,615,695)
    55-64 years: 3.7% (male 346,003 /female 335,733)
    65 years and over: 3.02% (male 277,834 /female 278,542) (2018 est.)
    population pyramid: population pyramid
    Dependency ratios:
    total dependency ratio: 101.9 (2015 est.)
    youth dependency ratio: 96.8 (2015 est.)
    elderly dependency ratio: 5.1 (2015 est.)
    potential support ratio: 19.5 (2015 est.)
    Median age:
    total: 15.8 years
    male: 15.2 years
    female: 16.5 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 227
    Population growth rate:
    2.98% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 8
    Birth rate:
    43.2 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 3
    Death rate:
    9.6 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 45
    Net migration rate:
    -3.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 181
    Population distribution:
    the overwhelming majority of the population lives in the southern half of the country, with greater density along the border with Burkina Faso
    Urbanization:
    urban population: 42.4% of total population (2018)
    rate of urbanization: 4.86% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    Major urban areas - population:
    2.447 million BAMAKO (capital) (2018)
    Sex ratio:
    at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    15-24 years: 0.91 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    25-54 years: 0.87 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    55-64 years: 1 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    65 years and over: 1 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    Mother's mean age at first birth:
    18.8 years (2012/13 est.)

    note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

    Maternal mortality rate:
    587 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 16
    Infant mortality rate:
    total: 67.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    male: 73.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    female: 61.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 7
    Life expectancy at birth:
    total population: 60.8 years (2018 est.)
    male: 58.6 years (2018 est.)
    female: 63 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 206
    Total fertility rate:
    5.9 children born/woman (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 5
    Contraceptive prevalence rate:
    15.6% (2015)
    Health expenditures:
    6.9% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 85
    Physicians density:
    0.09 physicians/1,000 population (2010)
    Hospital bed density:
    0.1 beds/1,000 population (2010)
    Drinking water source:
    improved: urban: 96.5% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 64.1% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 77% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 3.5% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 35.9% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 23% of population (2015 est.)
    Sanitation facility access:
    improved: urban: 37.5% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 16.1% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 24.7% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 62.5% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 83.9% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 75.3% of population (2015 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
    1.2% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 39
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
    130,000 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 37
    HIV/AIDS - deaths:
    6,300 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 24
    Major infectious diseases:
    degree of risk: very high (2016)
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever (2016)
    vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever (2016)
    water contact diseases: schistosomiasis (2016)
    animal contact diseases: rabies (2016)
    respiratory diseases: meningococcal meningitis (2016)
    Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
    8.6% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 149
    Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
    25% (2015)
    country comparison to the world: 17
    Education expenditures:
    3.8% of GDP (2015)
    country comparison to the world: 118
    Literacy:
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)
    total population: 33.1% (2015 est.)
    male: 45.1% (2015 est.)
    female: 22.2% (2015 est.)
    School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
    total: 8 years (2011)
    male: 9 years (2011)
    female: 7 years (2011)
    Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
    total: 30.5% (2016 est.)
    male: 29.6% (2016 est.)
    female: 31.3% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 30
  • Government :: Mali
  • Country name:
    conventional long form: Republic of Mali
    conventional short form: Mali
    local long form: Republique de Mali
    local short form: Mali
    former: French Sudan and Sudanese Republic
    etymology: name derives from the West African Mali Empire of the 13th to 16th centuries A.D.
    Government type:
    semi-presidential republic
    Capital:
    name: Bamako
    geographic coordinates: 12 39 N, 8 00 W
    time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    Administrative divisions:
    8 regions (regions, singular - region), 1 district*; District de Bamako*, Gao, Kayes, Kidal, Koulikoro, Mopti, Segou, Sikasso, Tombouctou (Timbuktu); note - two new regions, Menaka and Taoudenni, were reportedly created in early 2016, but these have not yet been vetted by the US Board on Geographic Names
    Independence:
    22 September 1960 (from France)
    National holiday:
    Independence Day, 22 September (1960)
    Constitution:
    history: several previous; latest drafted August 1991, approved by referendum 12 January 1992, effective 25 February 1992, suspended briefly in 2012 (2017)
    amendments: proposed by the president of the republic or by members of the National Assembly; passage requires two-thirds majority vote by the Assembly and approval in a referendum; constitutional sections on the integrity of the state, its republican and secular form of government, and its multiparty system cannot be amended; amended 1999 (2017)
    International law organization participation:
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    Citizenship:
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Mali
    dual citizenship recognized: yes
    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
    Suffrage:
    18 years of age; universal
    Executive branch:
    chief of state: President Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA (since 4 September 2013)
    head of government: Prime Minister Soumeylou Boubeye MAIGA (since 31 December 2017)
    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 29 July 2018 with a runoff on 12 August 2018; prime minister appointed by the president
    election results: Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA elected president in second round; percent of vote - Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA (RPM) 77.6%, Soumaila CISSE (URD) 22.4%
    Legislative branch:
    description: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (147 seats; members directly elected in single and multi-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed; 13 seats reserved for citizens living abroad; members serve 5-year terms)
    elections: last held on 24 November and 15 December 2013 (next to be held on 25 November 2018)
    election results: percent of vote by party - RPM 29.4%, URD 22.6%, ADEMA 11.5, other 36.5%; seats by party - RPM 66, URD 17, ADEMA 16, FARE 6, CODEM 5, SADI 5, CNID 4, other 24, independent 4
    Judicial branch:
    highest courts: Supreme Court or Cour Supreme (consists of 19 members organized into 3 civil chambers and a criminal chamber); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 members)
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court members appointed by the Ministry of Justice to serve 5-year terms; Constitutional Court members selected - 3 each by the president, the National Assembly, and the Supreme Council of the Magistracy; members serve single renewable 7-year terms
    subordinate courts: Court of Appeal; High Court of Justice (jurisdiction limited to cases of high treason or criminal offenses by the president or ministers while in office); magistrate courts; first instance courts; labor dispute courts; special court of state security
    Political parties and leaders:
    African Solidarity for Democracy and Independence or SADI [Oumar MARIKO]
    Alliance for Democracy in Mali-Pan-African Party for Liberty, Solidarity, and Justice or ADEMA-PASJ [Tiemoko SANGARE]
    Alliance for Democracy and Progress or ADP-Maliba [Amadou THIAM]
    Alliance for the Solidarity of Mali-Convergence of Patriotic Forces or ASMA-CFP [Soumeylou Boubeye MAIGA]
    Alternative Forces for Renewal and Emergence or FARE [Modibo SIDIBE]
    Convergence for the Development of Mali or CODEM [Housseyni Amion GUINDO]
    Economic and Social Development Party or PDES [Jamille BITTAR]
    Front for Democracy and the Republic or FDR (coalition of smaller opposition parties)
    National Congress for Democratic Initiative or CNID [Mountaga TALL]
    Party for National Renewal or PARENA [Tiebile DRAME]
    Patriotic Movement for Renewal or MPR [Choguel Kokalla MAIGA]
    Rally for Mali or RPM [Boucary TRETA]
    Union for Republic and Democracy or URD [Younoussi TOURE]
    International organization participation:
    ACP, AfDB, AU, CD, ECOWAS, EITI (compliant country), FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMISS, UNWTO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    Diplomatic representation in the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador Mahamadou NIMAGA (since 22 June 2018)
    chancery: 2130 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 332-2249, 939-8950
    FAX: [1] (202) 332-6603
    Diplomatic representation from the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador Paul A. FOLMSBEE (since 3 June 2015)
    embassy: located off the Roi Bin Fahad Aziz Bridge west of the Bamako central district
    mailing address: ACI 2000, Rue 243, Porte 297, Bamako
    telephone: [223] 2070-2300
    FAX: [223] 2070-2479
    Flag description:
    three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), yellow, and red

    note: uses the popular Pan-African colors of Ethiopia; the colors from left to right are the same as those of neighboring Senegal (which has an additional green central star) and the reverse of those on the flag of neighboring Guinea

    National symbol(s):
    Great Mosque of Djenne; national colors: green, yellow, red
    National anthem:
    name: "Le Mali" (Mali)
    lyrics/music: Seydou Badian KOUYATE/Banzoumana SISSOKO

    note: adopted 1962; also known as "Pour L'Afrique et pour toi, Mali" (For Africa and for You, Mali) and "A ton appel Mali" (At Your Call, Mali)

  • Economy :: Mali
  • Economy - overview:

    Among the 25 poorest countries in the world, landlocked Mali depends on gold mining and agricultural exports for revenue. The country's fiscal status fluctuates with gold and agricultural commodity prices and the harvest; cotton and gold exports make up around 80% of export earnings. Mali remains dependent on foreign aid.

    Economic activity is largely confined to the riverine area irrigated by the Niger River; about 65% of Mali’s land area is desert or semidesert. About 10% of the population is nomadic and about 80% of the labor force is engaged in farming and fishing. Industrial activity is concentrated on processing farm commodities. The government subsidizes the production of cereals to decrease the country’s dependence on imported foodstuffs and to reduce its vulnerability to food price shocks.

    Mali is developing its iron ore extraction industry to diversify foreign exchange earnings away from gold, but the pace will depend on global price trends. Although the political coup in 2012 slowed Mali’s growth, the economy has since bounced back, with GDP growth above 5% in 2014-17, although physical insecurity, high population growth, corruption, weak infrastructure, and low levels of human capital continue to constrain economic development. Higher rainfall helped to boost cotton output in 2017, and the country’s 2017 budget increased spending more than 10%, much of which was devoted to infrastructure and agriculture. Corruption and political turmoil are strong downside risks in 2018 and beyond.

    GDP (purchasing power parity):
    $41.22 billion (2017 est.)
    $39.1 billion (2016 est.)
    $36.97 billion (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 116
    GDP (official exchange rate):
    $15.37 billion (2017 est.) (2017 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate:
    5.4% (2017 est.)
    5.8% (2016 est.)
    6.2% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 39
    GDP - per capita (PPP):
    $2,200 (2017 est.)
    $2,100 (2016 est.)
    $2,100 (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 206
    Gross national saving:
    16.5% of GDP (2017 est.)
    15.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
    15.4% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 126
    GDP - composition, by end use:
    household consumption: 82.9% (2017 est.)
    government consumption: 17.4% (2017 est.)
    investment in fixed capital: 19.3% (2017 est.)
    investment in inventories: -0.7% (2017 est.)
    exports of goods and services: 22.1% (2017 est.)
    imports of goods and services: -41.1% (2017 est.)
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
    agriculture: 41.8% (2017 est.)
    industry: 18.1% (2017 est.)
    services: 40.5% (2017 est.)
    Agriculture - products:
    cotton, millet, rice, corn, vegetables, peanuts; cattle, sheep, goats
    Industries:
    food processing; construction; phosphate and gold mining
    Industrial production growth rate:
    6.3% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 37
    Labor force:
    6.447 million (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 71
    Labor force - by occupation:
    agriculture: 80%
    industry and services: 20% (2005 est.)
    Unemployment rate:
    7.9% (2017 est.)
    7.8% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 114
    Population below poverty line:
    36.1% (2005 est.)
    Household income or consumption by percentage share:
    lowest 10%: 25.8% (2010 est.)
    highest 10%: 25.8% (2010 est.)
    Distribution of family income - Gini index:
    40.1 (2001)
    50.5 (1994)
    country comparison to the world: 67
    Budget:
    revenues: 3.075 billion (2017 est.)
    expenditures: 3.513 billion (2017 est.)
    Taxes and other revenues:
    20% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 153
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
    -2.9% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 128
    Public debt:
    35.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
    36% of GDP (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 150
    Fiscal year:
    calendar year
    Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    1.8% (2017 est.)
    -1.8% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 94
    Central bank discount rate:
    16% (31 December 2010)
    4.25% (31 December 2009)
    country comparison to the world: 10
    Commercial bank prime lending rate:
    5.2% (31 December 2017 est.)
    5.3% (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 147
    Stock of narrow money:
    $3.04 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $2.553 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 122
    Stock of broad money:
    $3.04 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $2.553 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 128
    Stock of domestic credit:
    $5.972 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $4.891 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 126
    Market value of publicly traded shares:

    NA

    Current account balance:
    -$886 million (2017 est.)
    -$1.015 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 138
    Exports:
    $3.06 billion (2017 est.)
    $2.803 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 130
    Exports - partners:
    Switzerland 31.8%, UAE 15.4%, Burkina Faso 7.8%, Cote dIvoire 7.3%, South Africa 5%, Bangladesh 4.6% (2017)
    Exports - commodities:
    cotton, gold, livestock
    Imports:
    $3.644 billion (2017 est.)
    $3.403 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 143
    Imports - commodities:
    petroleum, machinery and equipment, construction materials, foodstuffs, textiles
    Imports - partners:
    Senegal 24.4%, China 13.2%, Cote dIvoire 9%, France 7.3% (2017)
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
    $647.8 million (31 December 2017 est.)
    $395.7 million (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 144
    Debt - external:
    $4.192 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $3.981 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 137
    Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
    $3.845 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $3.266 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 111
    Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
    $286.2 million (31 December 2017 est.)
    $62.2 million (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 103
    Exchange rates:
    Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar -
    605.3 (2017 est.)
    593.01 (2016 est.)
    593.01 (2015 est.)
    591.45 (2014 est.)
    494.42 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: Mali
  • Electricity access:
    population without electricity: 11.4 million (2013)
    electrification - total population: 26% (2013)
    electrification - urban areas: 53% (2013)
    electrification - rural areas: 9% (2013)
    Electricity - production:
    2.489 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 136
    Electricity - consumption:
    2.982 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 136
    Electricity - exports:
    0 kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 166
    Electricity - imports:
    800 million kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 73
    Electricity - installed generating capacity:
    590,000 kW (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 140
    Electricity - from fossil fuels:
    68% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 113
    Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
    0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 138
    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
    31% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 68
    Electricity - from other renewable sources:
    1% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 160
    Crude oil - production:
    0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 169
    Crude oil - exports:
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 161
    Crude oil - imports:
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 161
    Crude oil - proved reserves:
    0 bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 165
    Refined petroleum products - production:
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 173
    Refined petroleum products - consumption:
    22,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 134
    Refined petroleum products - exports:
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 178
    Refined petroleum products - imports:
    20,610 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 119
    Natural gas - production:
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 166
    Natural gas - consumption:
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 172
    Natural gas - exports:
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 147
    Natural gas - imports:
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 154
    Natural gas - proved reserves:
    0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 167
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
    3.388 million Mt (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 143
  • Communications :: Mali
  • Telephones - fixed lines:
    total subscriptions: 200,812 (July 2016 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1 (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 124
    Telephones - mobile cellular:
    total subscriptions: 20,217,697 (July 2016 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 113 (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 56
    Telephone system:
    general assessment: domestic system improving; increasing use of local radio loops to extend network coverage to remote areas (2016)
    domestic: fixed-line subscribership remains less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular subscribership has increased sharply to over 115 per 100 persons (2016)
    international: country code - 223; satellite communications center and fiber-optic links to neighboring countries; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean, 1 Indian Ocean) (2016)
    Broadcast media:
    national public TV broadcaster; 2 privately owned companies provide subscription services to foreign multi-channel TV packages; national public radio broadcaster supplemented by a large number of privately owned and community broadcast stations; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are available (2007)
    Internet country code:
    .ml
    Internet users:
    total: 1,940,978 (July 2016 est.)
    percent of population: 11.1% (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 115
    Broadband - fixed subscriptions:
    total: 21,444 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 151
  • Transportation :: Mali
  • National air transport system:
    number of registered air carriers: 1 (2015)
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 2 (2015)
    Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
    TZ, TT (2016)
    Airports:
    25 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 128
    Airports - with paved runways:
    total: 8 (2017)
    over 3,047 m: 1 (2017)
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 4 (2017)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (2017)
    914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2017)
    Airports - with unpaved runways:
    total: 17 (2013)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 (2013)
    914 to 1,523 m: 9 (2013)
    under 914 m: 5 (2013)
    Heliports:
    2 (2013)
    Railways:
    total: 593 km (2014)
    narrow gauge: 593 km 1.000-m gauge (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 110
    Roadways:
    total: 22,474 km (2009)
    paved: 5,522 km (2009)
    unpaved: 16,952 km (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 104
    Waterways:
    1,800 km (downstream of Koulikoro; low water levels on the River Niger cause problems in dry years; in the months before the rainy season the river is not navigable by commercial vessels) (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 43
    Ports and terminals:
    river port(s): Koulikoro (Niger)
  • Military and Security :: Mali
  • Military expenditures:
    2.63% of GDP (2016)
    2.43% of GDP (2015)
    1.56% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 36
    Military branches:
    Malian Armed Forces: Army (Armee de Terre), Republic of Mali Air Force (Force Aerienne de la Republique du Mali, FARM), National Guard (Garde National du Mali) (2013)
    Military service age and obligation:
    18 years of age for selective compulsory and voluntary military service; 2-year conscript service obligation (2012)
  • Terrorism :: Mali
  • Terrorist groups - home based:
    al-Mulathamun Battalion:
    aim(s): implement ISIS's strict interpretation of Sharia; replace the Malian Government with an Islamic state
    area(s) of operation:
    headquartered in the north; targets primarily international interests, especially Westerners and Western entities
    (November 2018)
    al-Qa'ida-affiliated Jama'at Nusrat al-Islam wal-Muslimin (JNIM):
    aim(s): establish an Islamic state centered in Mali
    area(s) of operation: primarily based in northern and central Mali; targets Western and local interests in West Africa and Sahel; has claimed responsibility for attacks in Mali, Niger and Burkina Faso
    note: pledged allegiance to al-Qa'ida and AQIM; holds Western hostages; wages attacks against security and peacekeeping forces in Mali (April 2018)
    Islamic State of Iraq and ash-sham networks in the Greater Sahara (ISGS):
    aim(s): replace regional governments with an Islamic state
    area(s) of operation: mostly concentrated along the Mali-Niger border region; targets primarily security forces (April 2018)
  • Transnational Issues :: Mali
  • Disputes - international:
    demarcation is underway with Burkina Faso
    Refugees and internally displaced persons:
    refugees (country of origin): 15,319 (Mauritania) (2018)
    IDPs: 68,978 (Tuareg rebellion since 2012) (2018)
    Trafficking in persons:
    current situation: Mali is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; internal trafficking is more prevalent than transnational trafficking, but foreign women and girls are forced into domestic servitude, agricultural labor, and support roles in gold mines, as well as subjected to sex trafficking; Malian boys are forced to work in agricultural settings, gold mines, the informal commercial sector and to beg within Mali and neighboring countries; Malians and other Africans who travel through Mali to Mauritania, Algeria, or Libya in hopes of reaching Europe are particularly at risk of becoming victims of human trafficking; men and boys, primarily of Songhai ethnicity, are subjected to debt bondage in the salt mines of Taoudenni in northern Mali; some members of Mali's Tamachek community are subjected to hereditary slavery-related practices; Malian women and girls are victims of sex trafficking in Gabon, Libya, Lebanon, and Tunisia; the recruitment of child soldiers by armed groups in northern Mali decreased
    tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Mali does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; in 2014, Mali was granted a waiver from an otherwise required downgrade to Tier 3 because its government has a written plan that, if implemented would constitute making significant efforts to bring itself into compliance with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; officials failed to distribute the 2012 anti-trafficking law to judicial and law enforcement personnel, perpetuating a lack of understanding and awareness of the legislation; anti-trafficking law enforcement efforts decreased in 2014, with only one case investigated and no prosecutions or convictions; fewer victims were identified, and the government did not support the privately funded NGOs and international organizations it relied upon to provide victims with services; the government did not conduct any awareness-raising campaigns, workshops, or training sessions (2015)