Middle East :: Oman
  • Introduction :: Oman
  • Background:

    The inhabitants of the area of Oman have long prospered from Indian Ocean trade. In the late 18th century, the nascent sultanate in Muscat signed the first in a series of friendship treaties with Britain. Over time, Oman's dependence on British political and military advisors increased, although the sultanate never became a British colony. In 1970, QABOOS bin Said Al-Said overthrew his father, and has since ruled as sultan, but he has not designated a successor. His extensive modernization program has opened the country to the outside world, while preserving the longstanding close ties with the UK and US. Oman's moderate, independent foreign policy has sought to maintain good relations with its neighbors and to avoid external entanglements.

    Inspired by the popular uprisings that swept the Middle East and North Africa beginning in January 2011, some Omanis staged demonstrations, calling for more jobs and economic benefits and an end to corruption. In response to those protester demands, QABOOS in 2011 pledged to implement economic and political reforms, such as granting legislative and regulatory powers to the Majlis al-Shura and increasing unemployment benefits. Additionally, in August 2012, the Sultan announced a royal directive mandating the speedy implementation of a national job creation plan for thousands of public and private sector Omani jobs. This initiative took on new urgency in December 2017, when QABOOS instructed the government to create 25,000 new jobs in the public and private sectors for Omanis. As part of the government's efforts to decentralize authority and allow greater citizen participation in local governance, Oman successfully conducted its first municipal council elections in December 2012. Announced by the Sultan in 2011, the municipal councils have the power to advise the Royal Court on the needs of local districts across Oman's 11 governorates. The Sultan returned to Oman in March 2015 after eight months in Germany, where he received medical treatment.

  • Geography :: Oman
  • Location:
    Middle East, bordering the Arabian Sea, Gulf of Oman, and Persian Gulf, between Yemen and the UAE
    Geographic coordinates:
    21 00 N, 57 00 E
    Map references:
    Middle East
    Area:
    total: 309,500 sq km
    land: 309,500 sq km
    water: 0 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 72
    Area - comparative:
    twice the size of Georgia; slightly smaller than Kansas
    Land boundaries:
    total: 1,561 km
    border countries (3): Saudi Arabia 658 km, UAE 609 km, Yemen 294 km
    Coastline:
    2,092 km
    Maritime claims:
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    contiguous zone: 24 nm
    Climate:
    dry desert; hot, humid along coast; hot, dry interior; strong southwest summer monsoon (May to September) in far south
    Terrain:
    central desert plain, rugged mountains in north and south
    Elevation:
    mean elevation: 310 m
    elevation extremes: 0 m lowest point: Arabian Sea
    3004 highest point: Jabal Shams
    Natural resources:
    petroleum, copper, asbestos, some marble, limestone, chromium, gypsum, natural gas
    Land use:
    agricultural land: 4.7% (2011 est.)
    arable land: 0.1% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 0.1% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 4.5% (2011 est.)
    forest: 0% (2011 est.)
    other: 95.3% (2011 est.)
    Irrigated land:
    590 sq km (2012)
    Population distribution:
    the vast majority of the population is located in and around the Al Hagar Mountains in the north of the country; another smaller cluster is found around the city of Salalah in the far south; most of the country remains sparsely poplulated
    Natural hazards:
    summer winds often raise large sandstorms and dust storms in interior; periodic droughts
    Environment - current issues:
    limited natural freshwater resources; high levels of soil and water salinity in the coastal plains; beach pollution from oil spills; industrial effluents seeping into the water tables and aquifers; desertificaiton due to high winds driving desert sand into arable lands
    Environment - international agreements:
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Whaling
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    Geography - note:
    consists of Oman proper and two northern exclaves, Musandam and Al Madhah; the former is a peninsula that occupies a strategic location adjacent to the Strait of Hormuz, a vital transit point for world crude oil
  • People and Society :: Oman
  • Population:
    3,494,116 (July 2017 est.) (July 2018 est.)

    note: immigrants make up approximately 45% of the total population (2017)

    country comparison to the world: 131
    Nationality:
    noun: Omani(s)
    adjective: Omani
    Ethnic groups:
    Arab, Baluchi, South Asian (Indian, Pakistani, Sri Lankan, Bangladeshi), African
    Languages:
    Arabic (official), English, Baluchi, Urdu, Indian dialects
    Religions:
    Muslim 85.9%, Christian 6.5%, Hindu 5.5%, Buddhist 0.8%, Jewish <0.1%, other 1%, unaffiliated 0.2% (2010 est.)

    note: Omani citizens represent approximately 60% of the population and are overwhelming Muslim (Ibadhi and Sunni sects each constitute about 45% and Shia about 5%); Christians, Hindus, and Buddhists accounting for roughly 5% of Omani citizens

    Age structure:
    0-14 years: 30.1% (male 539,202 /female 512,416)
    15-24 years: 18.26% (male 334,784 /female 303,172)
    25-54 years: 44.15% (male 886,080 /female 656,734)
    55-64 years: 3.94% (male 73,233 /female 64,450)
    65 years and over: 3.55% (male 60,354 /female 63,691) (2018 est.)
    population pyramid: population pyramid
    Dependency ratios:
    total dependency ratio: 32.4 (2015 est.)
    youth dependency ratio: 29.4 (2015 est.)
    elderly dependency ratio: 3.1 (2015 est.)
    potential support ratio: 32.6 (2015 est.)
    Median age:
    total: 25.8 years
    male: 26.8 years
    female: 24.5 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 154
    Population growth rate:
    2% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 47
    Birth rate:
    23.7 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 54
    Death rate:
    3.3 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 219
    Net migration rate:
    -0.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 120
    Population distribution:
    the vast majority of the population is located in and around the Al Hagar Mountains in the north of the country; another smaller cluster is found around the city of Salalah in the far south; most of the country remains sparsely poplulated
    Urbanization:
    urban population: 84.5% of total population (2018)
    rate of urbanization: 5.25% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    Major urban areas - population:
    1.447 million MUSCAT (capital) (2018)
    Sex ratio:
    at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    15-24 years: 1.1 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    25-54 years: 1.38 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    55-64 years: 1.14 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    65 years and over: 0.99 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    total population: 1.19 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    Maternal mortality rate:
    17 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 132
    Infant mortality rate:
    total: 12.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    male: 12.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    female: 12.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 109
    Life expectancy at birth:
    total population: 75.9 years (2018 est.)
    male: 73.9 years (2018 est.)
    female: 78 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 97
    Total fertility rate:
    2.8 children born/woman (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 61
    Contraceptive prevalence rate:
    29.7% (2014)
    Health expenditures:
    3.6% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 171
    Physicians density:
    1.92 physicians/1,000 population (2016)
    Hospital bed density:
    1.6 beds/1,000 population (2014)
    Drinking water source:
    improved: urban: 95.5% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 86.1% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 93.4% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 4.5% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 13.9% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 6.6% of population (2015 est.)
    Sanitation facility access:
    improved: urban: 97.3% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 94.7% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 96.7% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 2.7% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 5.3% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 3.3% of population (2015 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
    NA
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
    NA
    HIV/AIDS - deaths:
    NA
    Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
    27% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 39
    Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
    9.7% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 64
    Education expenditures:
    6.2% of GDP (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 32
    Literacy:
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)
    total population: 93% (2015 est.)
    male: 96.6% (2015 est.)
    female: 86% (2015 est.)
    School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
    total: 14 years (2015)
    male: 13 years (2015)
    female: 15 years (2015)
  • Government :: Oman
  • Country name:
    conventional long form: Sultanate of Oman
    conventional short form: Oman
    local long form: Saltanat Uman
    local short form: Uman
    former: Sultanate of Muscat and Oman
    etymology: the origin of the name is uncertain, but it apparently dates back at least 2,000 years since an "Omana" is mentioned by Pliny the Elder (1st century A.D.) and an "Omanon" by Ptolemy (2nd century A.D.)
    Government type:
    absolute monarchy
    Capital:
    name: Muscat
    geographic coordinates: 23 37 N, 58 35 E
    time difference: UTC+4 (9 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    Administrative divisions:
    11 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafaza); Ad Dakhiliyah, Al Buraymi, Al Wusta, Az Zahirah, Janub al Batinah (Al Batinah South), Janub ash Sharqiyah (Ash Sharqiyah South), Masqat (Muscat), Musandam, Shamal al Batinah (Al Batinah North), Shamal ash Sharqiyah (Ash Sharqiyah North), Zufar (Dhofar)
    Independence:
    1650 (expulsion of the Portuguese)
    National holiday:
    National Day, 18 November; note - coincides with the birthday of Sultan QABOOS, 18 November (1940)
    Constitution:
    history: promulgated by royal decree 6 November 1996 (the Basic Law of the Sultanate of Oman serves as the constitution); amended by royal decree in 2011 (2016)
    amendments: promulgated by the sultan or proposed by the Council of Oman and drafted by a technical committee as stipulated by royal decree and then promulgated through royal decree; amended 2011 (2016)
    International law organization participation:
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
    Citizenship:
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Oman
    dual citizenship recognized: no
    residency requirement for naturalization: unknown
    Suffrage:
    21 years of age; universal; note - members of the military and security forces by law cannot vote
    Executive branch:
    chief of state: Sultan and Prime Minister QABOOS bin Said Al-Said (sultan since 23 July 1970 and prime minister since 23 July 1972); note - the monarch is both chief of state and head of government
    head of government: Sultan and Prime Minister QABOOS bin Said Al-Said (sultan since 23 July 1970 and prime minister since 23 July 1972)
    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the monarch
    elections/appointments: members of the Ruling Family Council determine a successor from the sultan's extended family; if the Council cannot form a consensus within 3 days of the sultan's death or incapacitation, the Defense Council will relay a predetermined heir as chosen by the sultan
    Legislative branch:
    description: bicameral Council of Oman or Majlis Oman consists of:
    Council of State or Majlis al-Dawla (85 seats including the chairman; members appointed by the sultan from among former government officials and prominent educators, businessmen, and citizens)
    Consultative Council or Majlis al-Shura (85 seats; members directly elected in single- and 2-seat constituencies by simple majority popular vote to serve renewable 4-year terms); note - since political reforms in 2011, legislation from the Consultative Council is submitted to the Council of State for review by the Royal Court
    elections: Council of State - last appointments on 7 November 2015 (next - NA)
    Consultative Assembly - last held on 25 October 2015 (next to be held in October 2019)
    election results:
    Council of State - composition - men 72, women 13, percent of women 15.3%
    Consultative Council percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA (organized political parties in Oman are legally banned); composition men 84, women 1, percent of women 1.2%; note - total Council of Oman percent of women 8.2%
    Judicial branch:
    highest courts: Supreme Court (consists of 5 judges)
    judge selection and term of office: judges nominated by the 9-member Supreme Judicial Council (chaired by the monarch) and appointed by the monarch; judges appointed for life
    subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; Administrative Court; Courts of First Instance; sharia courts; magistrates' courts; military courts
    Political parties and leaders:
    none; note - organized political parties are legally banned in Oman, and loyalties tend to form around tribal affiliations
    International organization participation:
    ABEDA, AFESD, AMF, CAEU, FAO, G-77, GCC, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAS, MIGA, NAM, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    Diplomatic representation in the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador Hunaina bint Sultan bin Ahmad al-MUGHAIRI (since 2 December 2005)
    chancery: 2535 Belmont Road, NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 387-1980
    FAX: [1] (202) 745-4933
    Diplomatic representation from the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador Marc J. SIEVERS (since 15 December 2016)
    embassy: Jamait Ad Duwal Al Arabiyya Street, Al Khuwair area, Muscat
    mailing address: P.O. Box 202, P.C. 115, Madinat Al Sultan Qaboos, Muscat
    telephone: [968] 24-643-400
    FAX: [968] 24-643-740
    Flag description:
    three horizontal bands of white (top), red, and green of equal width with a broad, vertical, red band on the hoist side; the national emblem (a khanjar dagger in its sheath superimposed on two crossed swords in scabbards) in white is centered near the top of the vertical band; white represents peace and prosperity, red recalls battles against foreign invaders, and green symbolizes the Jebel al Akhdar (Green Mountains) and fertility
    National symbol(s):
    khanjar dagger superimposed on two crossed swords; national colors: red, white, green
    National anthem:
    name: "Nashid as-Salaam as-Sultani" (The Sultan's Anthem)
    lyrics/music: Rashid bin Uzayyiz al KHUSAIDI/James Frederick MILLS, arranged by Bernard EBBINGHAUS

    note: adopted 1932; new lyrics written after QABOOS bin Said al Said gained power in 1970; first performed by the band of a British ship as a salute to the Sultan during a 1932 visit to Muscat; the bandmaster of the HMS Hawkins was asked to write a salutation to the Sultan on the occasion of his ship visit

  • Economy :: Oman
  • Economy - overview:

    Oman is heavily dependent on oil and gas resources, which can generate between and 68% and 85% of government revenue, depending on fluctuations in commodity prices. In 2016, low global oil prices drove Oman’s budget deficit to $13.8 billion, or approximately 20% of GDP, but the budget deficit is estimated to have reduced to 12% of GDP in 2017 as Oman reduced government subsidies. As of January 2018, Oman has sufficient foreign assets to support its currency’s fixed exchange rates. It is issuing debt to cover its deficit.

    Oman is using enhanced oil recovery techniques to boost production, but it has simultaneously pursued a development plan that focuses on diversification, industrialization, and privatization, with the objective of reducing the oil sector's contribution to GDP. The key components of the government's diversification strategy are tourism, shipping and logistics, mining, manufacturing, and aquaculture.

    Muscat also has notably focused on creating more Omani jobs to employ the rising number of nationals entering the workforce. However, high social welfare benefits - that had increased in the wake of the 2011 Arab Spring - have made it impossible for the government to balance its budget in light of current oil prices. In response, Omani officials imposed austerity measures on its gasoline and diesel subsidies in 2016. These spending cuts have had only a moderate effect on the government’s budget, which is projected to again face a deficit of $7.8 billion in 2018.

    GDP (purchasing power parity):
    $190.1 billion (2017 est.)
    $191.9 billion (2016 est.)
    $182.8 billion (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 67
    GDP (official exchange rate):
    $70.78 billion (2017 est.) (2017 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate:
    -0.9% (2017 est.)
    5% (2016 est.)
    4.7% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 201
    GDP - per capita (PPP):
    $46,000 (2017 est.)
    $47,900 (2016 est.)
    $48,400 (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 37
    Gross national saving:
    16.1% of GDP (2017 est.)
    10.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
    14.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 127
    GDP - composition, by end use:
    household consumption: 36.8% (2017 est.)
    government consumption: 26.2% (2017 est.)
    investment in fixed capital: 27.8% (2017 est.)
    investment in inventories: 3% (2017 est.)
    exports of goods and services: 51.5% (2017 est.)
    imports of goods and services: -46.6% (2017 est.)
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
    agriculture: 1.8% (2017 est.)
    industry: 46.4% (2017 est.)
    services: 51.8% (2017 est.)
    Agriculture - products:
    dates, limes, bananas, alfalfa, vegetables; camels, cattle; fish
    Industries:
    crude oil production and refining, natural and liquefied natural gas production; construction, cement, copper, steel, chemicals, optic fiber
    Industrial production growth rate:
    -3% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 188
    Labor force:
    2.255 million (2016 est.)

    note: about 60% of the labor force is non-national

    country comparison to the world: 119
    Labor force - by occupation:
    agriculture: 4.7% NA
    industry: 49.6% NA
    services: 45% NA (2016 est.)
    Unemployment rate:

    NA

    Population below poverty line:
    NA
    Household income or consumption by percentage share:
    lowest 10%: NA
    highest 10%: NA
    Budget:
    revenues: 22.14 billion (2017 est.)
    expenditures: 31.92 billion (2017 est.)
    Taxes and other revenues:
    31.3% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 73
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
    -13.8% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 216
    Public debt:
    46.9% of GDP (2017 est.)
    32.5% of GDP (2016 est.)

    note: excludes indebtedness of state-owned enterprises

    country comparison to the world: 113
    Fiscal year:
    calendar year
    Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    1.6% (2017 est.)
    1.1% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 90
    Central bank discount rate:
    2% (31 December 2010)
    0.05% (31 December 2009)
    country comparison to the world: 119
    Commercial bank prime lending rate:
    5.2% (31 December 2017 est.)
    5.08% (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 148
    Stock of narrow money:
    $12.85 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $12.95 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 79
    Stock of broad money:
    $12.85 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $12.95 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 80
    Stock of domestic credit:
    $48.47 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $46.47 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 67
    Market value of publicly traded shares:
    $41.12 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $37.83 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $36.77 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 57
    Current account balance:
    -$10.76 billion (2017 est.)
    -$12.32 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 192
    Exports:
    $103.3 billion (2017 est.)
    $27.54 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 35
    Exports - partners:
    China 43.7%, UAE 11%, South Korea 7.9%, Saudi Arabia 4.2% (2017)
    Exports - commodities:
    petroleum, reexports, fish, metals, textiles
    Imports:
    $24.12 billion (2017 est.)
    $21.29 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 71
    Imports - commodities:
    machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, food, livestock, lubricants
    Imports - partners:
    UAE 35.5%, US 27.8%, Brazil 4% (2017)
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
    $16.09 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $20.26 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 64
    Debt - external:
    $46.27 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $27.05 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 70
    Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:

    NA

    Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:

    NA

    Exchange rates:
    Omani rials (OMR) per US dollar -
    0.3845 (2017 est.)
    0.3845 (2016 est.)
    0.3845 (2015 est.)
    0.3845 (2014 est.)
    0.3845 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: Oman
  • Electricity access:
    population without electricity: 100,000 (2013)
    electrification - total population: 98% (2013)
    electrification - urban areas: 99% (2013)
    electrification - rural areas: 93% (2013)
    Electricity - production:
    32.16 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 62
    Electricity - consumption:
    28.92 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 63
    Electricity - exports:
    0 kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 181
    Electricity - imports:
    0 kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 183
    Electricity - installed generating capacity:
    8.167 million kW (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 70
    Electricity - from fossil fuels:
    100% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 14
    Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
    0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 160
    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
    0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 192
    Electricity - from other renewable sources:
    0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 204
    Crude oil - production:
    970,400 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 19
    Crude oil - exports:
    844,100 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 14
    Crude oil - imports:
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 179
    Crude oil - proved reserves:
    5.373 billion bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 21
    Refined petroleum products - production:
    229,600 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 48
    Refined petroleum products - consumption:
    188,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 59
    Refined petroleum products - exports:
    33,700 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 60
    Refined petroleum products - imports:
    6,041 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 165
    Natural gas - production:
    31.23 billion cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 26
    Natural gas - consumption:
    21.94 billion cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 35
    Natural gas - exports:
    11.16 billion cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 20
    Natural gas - imports:
    1.982 billion cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 53
    Natural gas - proved reserves:
    651.3 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 28
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
    68.94 million Mt (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 52
  • Communications :: Oman
  • Telephones - fixed lines:
    total subscriptions: 497,716 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 11 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 95
    Telephones - mobile cellular:
    total subscriptions: 6,943,910 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 151 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 107
    Telephone system:
    general assessment: modern system consisting of open-wire, microwave, and radiotelephone communication stations; limited coaxial cable; domestic satellite system with 8 earth stations (2016)
    domestic: fixed-line and mobile-cellular subscribership both increasing with fixed-line phone service gradually being introduced to remote villages using wireless local loop systems (2016)
    international: country code - 968; the Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG) and the SEA-ME-WE-3 submarine cable provide connectivity to Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Indian Ocean), 1 Arabsat (2016)
    Broadcast media:
    1 state-run TV broadcaster; TV stations transmitting from Saudi Arabia, the UAE, Iran, and Yemen available via satellite TV; state-run radio operates multiple stations; first private radio station began operating in 2007 and several additional stations now operating (2018)
    Internet country code:
    .om
    Internet users:
    total: 2,342,483 (July 2016 est.)
    percent of population: 69.8% (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 107
    Broadband - fixed subscriptions:
    total: 348,926 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 8 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 91
  • Transportation :: Oman
  • National air transport system:
    number of registered air carriers: 1 (2015)
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 45 (2015)
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 6,365,784 (2015)
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 412,234,008 mt-km (2015)
    Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
    A4O (2016)
    Airports:
    132 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 44
    Airports - with paved runways:
    total: 13 (2017)
    over 3,047 m: 7 (2017)
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 5 (2017)
    914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2017)
    Airports - with unpaved runways:
    total: 119 (2013)
    over 3,047 m: 2 (2013)
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 7 (2013)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 51 (2013)
    914 to 1,523 m: 33 (2013)
    under 914 m: 26 (2013)
    Heliports:
    3 (2013)
    Pipelines:
    106 km condensate, 4224 km gas, 3558 km oil, 33 km oil/gas/water, 264 km refined products (2013)
    Railways:
    Roadways:
    total: 60,230 km (2012)
    paved: 29,685 km (includes 1,943 km of expressways) (2012)
    unpaved: 30,545 km (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 70
    Merchant marine:
    total: 51 (2017)
    by type: general cargo 9, other 42 (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 115
    Ports and terminals:
    major seaport(s): Mina' Qabus, Salalah, Suhar
    container port(s) (TEUs): Salalah (3,325,044) (2016)
    LNG terminal(s) (export): Qalhat
  • Military and Security :: Oman
  • Military expenditures:
    13.73% of GDP (2016)
    14.38% of GDP (2015)
    13.51% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 1
    Military branches:
    Sultan's Armed Forces (SAF): Royal Army of Oman, Royal Navy of Oman, Royal Air Force of Oman (al-Quwwat al-Jawwiya al-Sultanat Oman) (2013)
    Military service age and obligation:
    18-30 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2012)
  • Transnational Issues :: Oman
  • Disputes - international:
    boundary agreement reportedly signed and ratified with UAE in 2003 for entire border, including Oman's Musandam Peninsula and Al Madhah exclave, but details of the alignment have not been made public
    Refugees and internally displaced persons:
    refugees (country of origin): 5,000 (Yemen) (2017)