North America :: Mexico
  • Introduction :: Mexico
  • Background:

    The site of several advanced Amerindian civilizations - including the Olmec, Toltec, Teotihuacan, Zapotec, Maya, and Aztec - Mexico was conquered and colonized by Spain in the early 16th century. Administered as the Viceroyalty of New Spain for three centuries, it achieved independence early in the 19th century. Elections held in 2000 marked the first time since the 1910 Mexican Revolution that an opposition candidate - Vicente FOX of the National Action Party (PAN) - defeated the party in government, the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI). He was succeeded in 2006 by another PAN candidate Felipe CALDERON, but Enrique PENA NIETO regained the presidency for the PRI in 2012, and will serve as president until December 2018. The global financial crisis in late 2008 caused a massive economic downturn in Mexico the following year, although growth returned quickly in 2010. Ongoing economic and social concerns include low real wages, high underemployment, inequitable income distribution, and few advancement opportunities for the largely indigenous population in the impoverished southern states. Since 2007, Mexico's powerful drug-trafficking organizations have engaged in bloody feuding, resulting in tens of thousands of drug-related homicides.

    MEXICO SUMMARY: PDF
  • Geography :: Mexico
  • Location:
    North America, bordering the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico, between Belize and the United States and bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between Guatemala and the United States
    Geographic coordinates:
    23 00 N, 102 00 W
    Map references:
    North America
    Area:
    total: 1,964,375 sq km
    land: 1,943,945 sq km
    water: 20,430 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 15
    Area - comparative:
    slightly less than three times the size of Texas
    Area comparison map: Area comparison map
    Land boundaries:
    total: 4,389 km
    border countries (3): Belize 276 km, Guatemala 958 km, US 3155 km
    Coastline:
    9,330 km
    Maritime claims:
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    contiguous zone: 24 nm
    continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
    Climate:
    varies from tropical to desert
    Terrain:
    high, rugged mountains; low coastal plains; high plateaus; desert
    Elevation:
    mean elevation: 1,111 m
    elevation extremes: -10 m lowest point: Laguna Salada
    5636 highest point: Volcan Pico de Orizaba
    Natural resources:
    petroleum, silver, copper, gold, lead, zinc, natural gas, timber
    Land use:
    agricultural land: 54.9% (2011 est.)
    arable land: 11.8% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 1.4% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 41.7% (2011 est.)
    forest: 33.3% (2011 est.)
    other: 11.8% (2011 est.)
    Irrigated land:
    65,000 sq km (2012)
    Population distribution:
    most of the population is found in the middle of the country between the states of Jalisco and Veracruz; approximately a quarter of the population lives in and around Mexico City
    Natural hazards:

    tsunamis along the Pacific coast, volcanoes and destructive earthquakes in the center and south, and hurricanes on the Pacific, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean coasts

    volcanism: volcanic activity in the central-southern part of the country; the volcanoes in Baja California are mostly dormant; Colima (3,850 m), which erupted in 2010, is Mexico's most active volcano and is responsible for causing periodic evacuations of nearby villagers; it has been deemed a Decade Volcano by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; Popocatepetl (5,426 m) poses a threat to Mexico City; other historically active volcanoes include Barcena, Ceboruco, El Chichon, Michoacan-Guanajuato, Pico de Orizaba, San Martin, Socorro, and Tacana; see note 2 under "Geography - note"

    Environment - current issues:
    scarcity of hazardous waste disposal facilities; rural to urban migration; natural freshwater resources scarce and polluted in north, inaccessible and poor quality in center and extreme southeast; raw sewage and industrial effluents polluting rivers in urban areas; deforestation; widespread erosion; desertification; deteriorating agricultural lands; serious air and water pollution in the national capital and urban centers along US-Mexico border; land subsidence in Valley of Mexico caused by groundwater depletion

    note: the government considers the lack of clean water and deforestation national security issues

    Environment - international agreements:
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    Geography - note:

    note 1: strategic location on southern border of US; corn (maize), one of the world's major grain crops, almost certainly originated in Mexico

    note 2: Mexico is one of the countries along the Ring of Fire, a belt of active volcanoes and earthquake epicenters bordering the Pacific Ocean; up to 90% of the world's earthquakes and some 75% of the world's volcanoes occur within the Ring of Fire

  • People and Society :: Mexico
  • Population:
    125,959,205 (July 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 11
    Nationality:
    noun: Mexican(s)
    adjective: Mexican
    Ethnic groups:
    mestizo (Amerindian-Spanish) 62%, predominantly Amerindian 21%, Amerindian 7%, other 10% (mostly European) (2012 est.)

    note: Mexico does not collect census data on ethnicity

    Languages:
    Spanish only 92.7%, Spanish and indigenous languages 5.7%, indigenous only 0.8%, unspecified 0.8% (2005)

    note: indigenous languages include various Mayan, Nahuatl, and other regional languages

    Religions:
    Roman Catholic 82.7%, Pentecostal 1.6%, Jehovah's Witness 1.4%, other Evangelical Churches 5%, other 1.9%, none 4.7%, unspecified 2.7% (2010 est.)
    Age structure:
    0-14 years: 26.61% (male 17,143,124 /female 16,378,309)
    15-24 years: 17.35% (male 11,072,817 /female 10,779,029)
    25-54 years: 40.91% (male 24,916,204 /female 26,612,272)
    55-64 years: 7.87% (male 4,538,167 /female 5,375,867)
    65 years and over: 7.26% (male 4,079,513 /female 5,063,903) (2018 est.)
    population pyramid: population pyramid
    Dependency ratios:
    total dependency ratio: 51.4 (2015 est.)
    youth dependency ratio: 41.6 (2015 est.)
    elderly dependency ratio: 9.8 (2015 est.)
    potential support ratio: 10.2 (2015 est.)
    Median age:
    total: 28.6 years
    male: 27.5 years
    female: 29.7 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 135
    Population growth rate:
    1.09% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 101
    Birth rate:
    18.1 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 93
    Death rate:
    5.4 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 180
    Net migration rate:
    -1.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 155
    Population distribution:
    most of the population is found in the middle of the country between the states of Jalisco and Veracruz; approximately a quarter of the population lives in and around Mexico City
    Urbanization:
    urban population: 80.2% of total population (2018)
    rate of urbanization: 1.59% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    Major urban areas - population:
    21.581 million MEXICO CITY (capital), 5.023 million Guadalajara, 4.712 million Monterrey, 3.097 million Puebla, 2.354 million Toluca de Lerdo, 2.058 million Tijuana (2018)
    Sex ratio:
    at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    25-54 years: 0.93 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    55-64 years: 0.85 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    Mother's mean age at first birth:
    21.3 years (2008 est.)
    Maternal mortality rate:
    38 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 107
    Infant mortality rate:
    total: 11.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    male: 12.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    female: 9.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 125
    Life expectancy at birth:
    total population: 76.3 years (2018 est.)
    male: 73.5 years (2018 est.)
    female: 79.2 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 89
    Total fertility rate:
    2.22 children born/woman (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 94
    Contraceptive prevalence rate:
    66.9% (2015)
    Health expenditures:
    6.3% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 101
    Physicians density:
    2.23 physicians/1,000 population (2015)
    Hospital bed density:
    1.5 beds/1,000 population (2015)
    Drinking water source:
    improved: urban: 97.2% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 92.1% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 96.1% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 2.8% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 7.9% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 3.9% of population (2015 est.)
    Sanitation facility access:
    improved: urban: 88% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 74.5% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 85.2% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 12% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 25.5% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 14.8% of population (2015 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
    0.3% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 85
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
    230,000 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 25
    HIV/AIDS - deaths:
    4,000 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 35
    Major infectious diseases:
    degree of risk: intermediate (2016)
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea and hepatitis A (2016)
    vectorborne diseases: dengue fever (2016)

    note: active local transmission of Zika virus by Aedes species mosquitoes has been identified in this country (as of August 2016); it poses an important risk (a large number of cases possible) among US citizens if bitten by an infective mosquito; other less common ways to get Zika are through sex, via blood transfusion, or during pregnancy, in which the pregnant woman passes Zika virus to her fetus

    Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
    28.9% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 29
    Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
    3.9% (2015)
    country comparison to the world: 89
    Education expenditures:
    5.3% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 60
    Literacy:
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)
    total population: 94.5% (2015 est.)
    male: 95.5% (2015 est.)
    female: 93.5% (2015 est.)
    School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
    total: 13 years (2014)
    male: 13 years (2014)
    female: 13 years (2014)
    Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
    total: 6.9% (2017 est.)
    male: 6.3% (2017 est.)
    female: 8.8% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 147
  • Government :: Mexico
  • Country name:
    conventional long form: United Mexican States
    conventional short form: Mexico
    local long form: Estados Unidos Mexicanos
    local short form: Mexico
    etymology: named after the Mexica, the largest and most powerful branch of the Aztecs; the meaning of the name is uncertain
    Government type:
    federal presidential republic
    Capital:
    name: Mexico City (Ciudad de Mexico)
    geographic coordinates: 19 26 N, 99 08 W
    time difference: UTC-6 (1 hour behind Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: +1hr, begins first Sunday in April; ends last Sunday in October

    note: Mexico has four time zones

    Administrative divisions:
    32 states (estados, singular - estado); Aguascalientes, Baja California, Baja California Sur, Campeche, Chiapas, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Colima, Cuidad de Mexico, Durango, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Mexico, Michoacan, Morelos, Nayarit, Nuevo Leon, Oaxaca, Puebla, Queretaro, Quintana Roo, San Luis Potosi, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Tlaxcala, Veracruz, Yucatan, Zacatecas
    Independence:
    16 September 1810 (declared independence from Spain);27 September 1821 (recognized by Spain)
    National holiday:
    Independence Day, 16 September (1810)
    Constitution:
    history: several previous; latest approved 5 February 1917 (2018)
    amendments: proposed by the Congress of the Union; passage requires approval by at least two-thirds of the members present and approval by a majority of the state legislatures; amended many times, last in 2017 (2018)
    International law organization participation:
    accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    Citizenship:
    citizenship by birth: yes
    citizenship by descent only: yes
    dual citizenship recognized: not specified
    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
    Suffrage:
    18 years of age; universal and compulsory
    Executive branch:
    chief of state: President Enrique PENA NIETO (since 1 December 2012); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
    head of government: President Enrique PENA NIETO (since 1 December 2012)
    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president; note - appointment of attorney general, the head of the Bank of Mexico, and senior treasury officials require consent of the Senate
    elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a single 6-year term; election last held on 1 July 2018 (next to be held in July 2024)
    election results: Andres Manuel LOPEZ OBRADOR elected president; percent of vote - Andres Manuel LOPEZ OBRADOR (MORENA) 53.2%, Ricardo ANAYA (PAN) 22.3%, Jose Antonio MEADE Kuribrena (PRI) 16.4%, Jaime RODRIGUEZ Calderon 5.2% (independent), other 2.9%; note - LOPEZ OBRADOR will take office 1 December 2018
    Legislative branch:
    description: bicameral National Congress or Congreso de la Union consists of:
    Senate or Camara de Senadores (128 seats; 96 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 32 directly elected in a single, nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote; members serve 6-year terms)
    Chamber of Deputies or Camara de Diputados (500 seats; 300 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 200 directly elected in a single, nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote; members serve 3-year terms)
    elections:
    Senate - last held on 1 July 2018 (next to be held on 1 July 2024)
    Chamber of Deputies - last held on 1 July 2018 (next to be held on 1 July 2021)
    election results:
    Senate - percent of vote by party - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - MORENA 58, PAN 22, PRI 14, PRD 9, MC 7, PT 7, PES 5, PVEM 5, PNA/PANAL 1;
    Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - MORENA 193, PAN 79, PT 61, PES 58, PRI 42, MC 26, PRD 23, PVEM 17, PNA/PANAL 1
    note: for the 2018 election, senators will be eligible for a second term and deputies up to 4 consecutive terms
    Judicial branch:
    highest courts: Supreme Court of Justice or Suprema Corte de Justicia de la Nacion (consists of the chief justice and 11 justices and organized into civil, criminal, administrative, and labor panels) and the Electoral Tribunal of the Federal Judiciary (organized into the superior court, with 7 judges including the court president and 5 regional courts, each with 3 judges)
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court justices nominated by the president of the republic and approved by two-thirds vote of the members present in the Senate; justices serve for life; Electoral Tribunal superior and regional court judges nominated by the Supreme Court and elected by two-thirds vote of members present in the Senate; superior court president elected from among its members to hold office for a 4-year term; other judges of the superior and regional courts serve staggered, 9-year terms
    subordinate courts: federal level includes circuit, collegiate, and unitary courts; state and district level courts
    Political parties and leaders:
    Citizen's Movement (Movimiento Ciudadano) or MC [Dante DELGADO Rannaoro]
    Institutional Revolutionary Party (Partido Revolucionario Institucional) or PRI [Claudia RUIZ Massieu]
    Labor Party (Partido del Trabajo) or PT [Alberto ANAYA Gutierrez]
    Mexican Green Ecological Party (Partido Verde Ecologista de Mexico) or PVEM [Carlos Alberto PUENTE Salas]
    Movement for National Regeneration (Movimiento Regeneracion Nacional) or MORENA [Andres Manuel LOPEZ Obrador]
    National Action Party (Partido Accion Nacional) or PAN [Damian ZEPEDA Vidales]
    New Alliance Party (Partido Nueva Alianza) or PNA/PANAL [Luis CASTRO Obregon]
    Party of the Democratic Revolution (Partido de la Revolucion Democratica) or PRD [Manuel GRANADOS]
    Social Encounter Party (Partido Encuentro Social) or PES [Hugo Eric FLORES Cervantes]
    International organization participation:
    APEC, Australia Group, BCIE, BIS, CAN (observer), Caricom (observer), CD, CDB, CE (observer), CELAC, CSN (observer), EBRD, FAO, FATF, G-3, G-15, G-20, G-24, G-5, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, MIGA, NAFTA, NAM (observer), NEA, NSG, OAS, OECD, OPANAL, OPCW, Pacific Alliance, Paris Club (associate), PCA, SICA (observer), UN, UNASUR (observer), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina (observer), UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    Diplomatic representation in the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador Geronimo GUTIERREZ Fernandez (since 24 April 2017)
    chancery: 1911 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20006
    telephone: [1] (202) 728-1600
    FAX: [1] (202) 728-1698
    consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Austin, Boston, Chicago, Dallas, Denver, El Paso (TX), Houston, Laredo (TX), Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Nogales (AZ), Phoenix, Sacramento (CA), San Antonio (TX), San Diego, San Francisco, San Jose (CA), San Juan (Puerto Rico), Saint Paul (MN)
    consulate(s): Albuquerque (NM), Anchorage (AK), Boise (ID), Brownsville (TX), Calexico (CA), Del Rio (TX), Detroit, Douglas (AZ), Eagle Pass (TX), Fresno (CA), Indianapolis (IN), Kansas City (MO), Las Vegas, Little Rock (AR), McAllen (TX), Minneapolis (MN), New Orleans, Omaha (NE), Orlando (FL), Oxnard (CA), Philadelphia, Portland (OR), Presidio (TX), Raleigh (NC), Salt Lake City, San Bernardino (CA), Santa Ana (CA), Seattle, Tucson (AZ), Yuma (AZ); note - Washington DC Consular Section is located in a separate building from the Mexican Embassy and has jurisdiction over DC, parts of Virginia, Maryland, and West Virginia
    Diplomatic representation from the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires John S. CREAMER (since 16 July 2018)
    embassy: Paseo de la Reforma 305, Colonia Cuauhtemoc, 06500 Mexico, Distrito Federal
    mailing address: P. O. Box 9000, Brownsville, TX 78520-9000
    telephone: (011) 52-55-5080-2000
    FAX: (011) 52-55-5080-2005
    consulate(s) general: Ciudad Juarez, Guadalajara, Hermosillo, Matamoros, Merida, Monterrey, Nogales, Nuevo Laredo, Tijuana
    Flag description:
    three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and red; Mexico's coat of arms (an eagle with a snake in its beak perched on a cactus) is centered in the white band; green signifies hope, joy, and love; white represents peace and honesty; red stands for hardiness, bravery, strength, and valor; the coat of arms is derived from a legend that the wandering Aztec people were to settle at a location where they would see an eagle on a cactus eating a snake; the city they founded, Tenochtitlan, is now Mexico City

    note: similar to the flag of Italy, which is shorter, uses lighter shades of red and green, and does not display anything in its white band

    National symbol(s):
    golden eagle; national colors: green, white, red
    National anthem:
    name: "Himno Nacional Mexicano" (National Anthem of Mexico)
    lyrics/music: Francisco Gonzalez BOCANEGRA/Jaime Nuno ROCA

    note: adopted 1943, in use since 1854; also known as "Mexicanos, al grito de Guerra" (Mexicans, to the War Cry); according to tradition, Francisco Gonzalez BOCANEGRA, an accomplished poet, was uninterested in submitting lyrics to a national anthem contest; his fiancee locked him in a room and refused to release him until the lyrics were completed

  • Economy :: Mexico
  • Economy - overview:

    Mexico's $2.4 trillion economy – 11th largest in the world - has become increasingly oriented toward manufacturing since the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) entered into force in 1994. Per capita income is roughly one-third that of the US; income distribution remains highly unequal.

    Mexico has become the US' second-largest export market and third-largest source of imports. In 2017, two-way trade in goods and services exceeded $623 billion. Mexico has free trade agreements with 46 countries, putting more than 90% of its trade under free trade agreements. In 2012, Mexico formed the Pacific Alliance with Peru, Colombia, and Chile.

    Mexico's current government, led by President Enrique PENA NIETO, has emphasized economic reforms, passing and implementing sweeping energy, financial, fiscal, and telecommunications reform legislation, among others, with the long-term aim to improve competitiveness and economic growth across the Mexican economy. Since 2015, Mexico has held public auctions of oil and gas exploration and development rights and for long-term electric power generation contracts. Mexico has also issued permits for private sector import, distribution, and retail sales of refined petroleum products in an effort to attract private investment into the energy sector and boost production.

    Since 2013, Mexico’s economic growth has averaged 2% annually, falling short of private-sector expectations that President PENA NIETO’s sweeping reforms would bolster economic prospects. Growth is predicted to remain below potential given falling oil production, weak oil prices, structural issues such as low productivity, high inequality, a large informal sector employing over half of the workforce, weak rule of law, and corruption. Mexico’s economy remains vulnerable to uncertainty surrounding the future of NAFTA — because the United States is its top trading partner and the two countries share integrated supply chains — and to potential shifts in domestic policies following the inauguration of a new a president in December 2018.

    GDP (purchasing power parity):
    $2.463 trillion (2017 est.)
    $2.413 trillion (2016 est.)
    $2.346 trillion (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 11
    GDP (official exchange rate):
    $1.151 trillion (2017 est.) (2017 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate:
    2% (2017 est.)
    2.9% (2016 est.)
    3.3% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 152
    GDP - per capita (PPP):
    $19,900 (2017 est.)
    $19,700 (2016 est.)
    $19,400 (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 90
    Gross national saving:
    21.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
    21.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
    20.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 85
    GDP - composition, by end use:
    household consumption: 67% (2017 est.)
    government consumption: 11.8% (2017 est.)
    investment in fixed capital: 22.3% (2017 est.)
    investment in inventories: 0.8% (2017 est.)
    exports of goods and services: 37.8% (2017 est.)
    imports of goods and services: -39.7% (2017 est.)
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
    agriculture: 3.6% (2017 est.)
    industry: 31.9% (2017 est.)
    services: 64.5% (2017 est.)
    Agriculture - products:
    corn, wheat, soybeans, rice, beans, cotton, coffee, fruit, tomatoes; beef, poultry, dairy products; wood products
    Industries:
    food and beverages, tobacco, chemicals, iron and steel, petroleum, mining, textiles, clothing, motor vehicles, consumer durables, tourism
    Industrial production growth rate:
    -0.6% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 174
    Labor force:
    54.51 million (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 12
    Labor force - by occupation:
    agriculture: 61.9% (2011)
    industry: 24.1% (2011)
    services: 61.9% (2011)
    Unemployment rate:
    3.4% (2017 est.)
    3.9% (2016 est.)

    note: underemployment may be as high as 25%

    country comparison to the world: 42
    Population below poverty line:
    46.2% (2014 est.)

    note: from a food-based definition of poverty; asset-based poverty amounted to more than 47%

    Household income or consumption by percentage share:
    lowest 10%: 40% (2014)
    highest 10%: 40% (2014)
    Distribution of family income - Gini index:
    48.2 (2014)
    48.3 (2008)
    country comparison to the world: 24
    Budget:
    revenues: 261.4 billion (2017 est.)
    expenditures: 273.8 billion (2017 est.)
    Taxes and other revenues:
    22.7% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 131
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
    -1.1% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 83
    Public debt:
    54.3% of GDP (2017 est.)
    56.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 82
    Fiscal year:
    calendar year
    Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    6% (2017 est.)
    2.8% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 186
    Central bank discount rate:
    7.25% (31 December 2017)
    5.75% (31 December 2016)
    country comparison to the world: 44
    Commercial bank prime lending rate:
    7.34% (31 December 2017 est.)
    4.72% (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 113
    Stock of narrow money:
    $215.5 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $186.6 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 24
    Stock of broad money:
    $215.5 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $186.6 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 24
    Stock of domestic credit:
    $431.6 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $393.8 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 28
    Market value of publicly traded shares:
    $402.3 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $480.2 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $526 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 25
    Current account balance:
    -$19.35 billion (2017 est.)
    -$23.32 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 198
    Exports:
    $409.8 billion (2017 est.)
    $374.3 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 12
    Exports - commodities:
    manufactured goods, electronics, vehicles and auto parts, oil and oil products, silver, plastics, fruits, vegetables, coffee, cotton; Mexico is the world's leading producer of silver
    Exports - partners:
    US 79.9% (2017)
    Imports:
    $420.8 billion (2017 est.)
    $387.4 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 13
    Imports - commodities:
    metalworking machines, steel mill products, agricultural machinery, electrical equipment, automobile parts for assembly and repair, aircraft, aircraft parts, plastics, natural gas and oil products
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
    $175.3 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $178.4 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

    note: Mexico also maintains access to an $88 million Flexible Credit Line with the IMF

    country comparison to the world: 14
    Imports - partners:
    US 46.4%, China 17.7%, Japan 4.3% (2017)
    Debt - external:
    $445.8 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $450.2 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 28
    Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
    $554.3 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $473.5 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 16
    Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
    $243.8 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $148.6 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 25
    Exchange rates:
    Mexican pesos (MXN) per US dollar -
    18.26 (2017 est.)
    18.664 (2016 est.)
    18.664 (2015 est.)
    15.848 (2014 est.)
    13.292 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: Mexico
  • Electricity access:
    population without electricity: 1,231,667 (2012)
    electrification - total population: 99% (2012)
    electrification - urban areas: 100% (2012)
    electrification - rural areas: 97% (2012)
    Electricity - production:
    292.7 billion kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 13
    Electricity - consumption:
    245.2 billion kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 15
    Electricity - exports:
    7.308 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 27
    Electricity - imports:
    392 million kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 86
    Electricity - installed generating capacity:
    65.45 million kW (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 18
    Electricity - from fossil fuels:
    72.2% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 99
    Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
    2.1% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 27
    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
    18.1% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 96
    Electricity - from other renewable sources:
    8.5% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 75
    Crude oil - production:
    2.187 million bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 11
    Crude oil - exports:
    1.224 million bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 14
    Crude oil - imports:
    0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 165
    Crude oil - proved reserves:
    7.64 billion bbl (1 January 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 19
    Refined petroleum products - production:
    1.043 million bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 18
    Refined petroleum products - consumption:
    2.027 million bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 11
    Refined petroleum products - exports:
    181,600 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 33
    Refined petroleum products - imports:
    751,500 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 10
    Natural gas - production:
    40.37 billion cu m (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 21
    Natural gas - consumption:
    77.93 billion cu m (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 9
    Natural gas - exports:
    31 million cu m (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 50
    Natural gas - imports:
    36.47 billion cu m (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 11
    Natural gas - proved reserves:
    355.7 billion cu m (1 January 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 35
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
    455 million Mt (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 15
  • Communications :: Mexico
  • Telephones - fixed lines:
    total subscriptions: 20,602,668 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 17 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 13
    Telephones - mobile cellular:
    total subscriptions: 114,326,842 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 92 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 14
    Telephone system:
    general assessment: adequate telephone service for business and government; improving quality and increasing mobile cellular availability, with mobile subscribers far outnumbering fixed-line subscribers; domestic satellite system with 120 earth stations; extensive microwave radio relay network; considerable use of fiber-optic cable and coaxial cable (2016)
    domestic: competition has spurred the mobile-cellular market; fixed-line teledensity exceeds 15 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity is about 90 per 100 persons (2016)
    international: country code - 52; Columbus-2 fiber-optic submarine cable with access to the US, Virgin Islands, Canary Islands, Spain, and Italy; the Americas Region Caribbean Ring System (ARCOS-1) and the MAYA-1 submarine cable system together provide access to Central America, parts of South America and the Caribbean, and the US; satellite earth stations - 120 (32 Intelsat, 2 Solidaridad (giving Mexico improved access to South America, Central America, and much of the US as well as enhancing domestic communications), 1 Panamsat, numerous Inmarsat mobile earth stations); linked to Central American Microwave System of trunk connections (2016)
    Broadcast media:
    telecom reform in 2013 enabled the creation of new broadcast television channels after decades of a quasi-monopoly; Mexico has 821 TV stations and 1,745 radio stations and most are privately owned; the Televisa group once had a virtual monopoly in TV broadcasting, but new broadcasting groups and foreign satellite and cable operators are now available; in 2016, Mexico became the first country in Latin America to complete the transition from analog to digital transmissions, allowing for better image and audio quality and a wider selection of programming from networks (2016)
    Internet country code:
    .mx
    Internet users:
    total: 73,334,032 (July 2016 est.)
    percent of population: 59.5% (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 7
    Broadband - fixed subscriptions:
    total: 17,131,820 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 14 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 11
  • Transportation :: Mexico
  • National air transport system:
    number of registered air carriers: 21 (2015)
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 357 (2015)
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 45,560,063 (2015)
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 713,985,467 mt-km (2015)
    Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
    XA (2016)
    Airports:
    1,714 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 3
    Airports - with paved runways:
    total: 243 (2017)
    over 3,047 m: 12 (2017)
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 32 (2017)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 80 (2017)
    914 to 1,523 m: 86 (2017)
    under 914 m: 33 (2017)
    Airports - with unpaved runways:
    total: 1,471 (2013)
    over 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 42 (2013)
    914 to 1,523 m: 281 (2013)
    under 914 m: 1,146 (2013)
    Heliports:
    1 (2013)
    Pipelines:
    14739 km natural gas (2017), 10365 km oil (2017), 8946 km refined products (2016)
    Railways:
    total: 15,389 km (2014)
    standard gauge: 15,389 km 1.435-m gauge (27 km electrified) (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 19
    Roadways:
    total: 377,660 km (2012)
    paved: 137,544 km (includes 7,176 km of expressways) (2012)
    unpaved: 240,116 km (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 20
    Waterways:
    2,900 km (navigable rivers and coastal canals mostly connected with ports on the country's east coast) (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 33
    Merchant marine:
    total: 622 (2017)
    by type: bulk carrier 5, general cargo 9, oil tanker 32, other 576 (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 33
    Ports and terminals:
    major seaport(s): Altamira, Coatzacoalcos, Lazaro Cardenas, Manzanillo, Veracruz
    oil terminal(s): Cayo Arcas terminal, Dos Bocas terminal
    cruise port(s): Cancun, Cozumel, Ensenada
    container port(s) (TEUs): Manzanillo (2,580,660), Lazaro Cardenas (1,115,452) (2016)
    LNG terminal(s) (import): Altamira, Ensenada
  • Military and Security :: Mexico
  • Military expenditures:
    0.58% of GDP (2016)
    0.67% of GDP (2015)
    0.67% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 141
    Military branches:
    Secretariat of National Defense (Secretaria de Defensa Nacional, Sedena): Army (Ejercito), Mexican Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Mexicana, FAM); Secretariat of the Navy (Secretaria de Marina, Semar): Mexican Navy (Armada de Mexico (ARM); includes Naval Air Force (FAN), Mexican Naval Infantry Corps (Cuerpo de Infanteria de Marina, Mexmar or CIM)) (2013)
    Military service age and obligation:
    18 years of age for compulsory military service, conscript service obligation is 12 months; 16 years of age with consent for voluntary enlistment; conscripts serve only in the Army; Navy and Air Force service is all voluntary; women are eligible for voluntary military service; cadets enrolled in military schools from the age of 15 are considered members of the armed forces (2012)
  • Transnational Issues :: Mexico
  • Disputes - international:
    abundant rainfall in recent years along much of the Mexico-US border region has ameliorated periodically strained water-sharing arrangementsthe US has intensified security measures to monitor and control legal and illegal personnel, transport, and commodities across its border with MexicoMexico must deal with thousands of impoverished Guatemalans and other Central Americans who cross the porous border looking for work in Mexico and the USBelize and Mexico are working to solve minor border demarcation discrepancies arising from inaccuracies in the 1898 border treaty
    Refugees and internally displaced persons:
    refugees (country of origin): 31,935 (Venezuela) (economic and political crisis; includes Venezuelans who have claimed asylum or have received alternative legal stay) (2018)
    IDPs: 345,000 (government's quashing of Zapatista uprising in 1994 in eastern Chiapas Region; drug cartel violence and government's military response since 2007; violence between and within indigenous groups) (2017)
    stateless persons: 13 (2017)
    Illicit drugs:
    major drug-producing and transit nation; Mexico is estimated to be the world's third largest producer of opium with poppy cultivation in 2015 estimated to be 28,000 hectares yielding a potential production of 475 metric tons of raw opium; government conducts the largest independent illicit-crop eradication program in the world; continues as the primary transshipment country for US-bound cocaine from South America, with an estimated 95% of annual cocaine movements toward the US stopping in Mexico; major drug syndicates control the majority of drug trafficking throughout the country; producer and distributor of ecstasy; significant money-laundering center; major supplier of heroin and largest foreign supplier of marijuana and methamphetamine to the US market