East Asia/Southeast Asia :: Singapore
  • Introduction :: Singapore
  • Background:
    A Malay trading port known as Temasek existed on the island of Singapore by the 14th century. The settlement changed hands several times in the ensuing centuries and was eventually burned in the 17th century and fell into obscurity. The British founded modern Singapore as a trading colony on the site in 1819. It joined the Malaysian Federation in 1963 but was ousted two years later and became independent. Singapore subsequently became one of the world's most prosperous countries with strong international trading links (its port is one of the world's busiest in terms of tonnage handled) and with per capita GDP equal to that of the leading nations of Western Europe.
  • Geography :: Singapore
  • Location:
    Southeastern Asia, islands between Malaysia and Indonesia
    Geographic coordinates:
    1 22 N, 103 48 E
    Map references:
    Southeast Asia
    total: 719 sq km
    land: 709.2 sq km
    water: 10 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 191
    Area - comparative:
    slightly more than 3.5 times the size of Washington, DC
    Area comparison map: Area comparison map
    Land boundaries:
    0 km
    193 km
    Maritime claims:
    territorial sea: 3 nm
    exclusive fishing zone: within and beyond territorial sea, as defined in treaties and practice
    tropical; hot, humid, rainy; two distinct monsoon seasons - northeastern monsoon (December to March) and southwestern monsoon (June to September); inter-monsoon - frequent afternoon and early evening thunderstorms
    lowlying, gently undulating central plateau
    lowest point: Singapore Strait 0 m
    highest point: Bukit Timah 166 m
    Natural resources:
    fish, deepwater ports
    Land use:
    agricultural land: 1% (2011 est.)
    arable land: 0.9% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 0.1% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 0% (2011 est.)
    forest: 3.3% (2011 est.)
    other: 95.7% (2011 est.)
    Irrigated land:
    0 sq km (2012)
    Population distribution:
    most of the urbanization is along the southern coast, with relatively dense population clusters found in the central areas
    Natural hazards:
    flash floods
    Environment - current issues:
    water pollution; industrial pollution; limited natural freshwater resources; limited land availability presents waste disposal problems; air pollution; deforestation; seasonal smoke/haze resulting from forest fires in Indonesia
    Environment - international agreements:
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    Geography - note:
    focal point for Southeast Asian sea routes; consists of about 60 islands, by far the largest of which is Pulau Ujong; land reclamation has removed many former islands and created a number of new ones
  • People and Society :: Singapore
  • Population:
    6,209,660 (July 2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 110
    noun: Singaporean(s)
    adjective: Singapore
    Ethnic groups:
    Chinese 74.3%, Malay 13.4%, Indian 9%, other 3.2% (2018 est.)

    note: individuals self-identify; the population is divided into four categories: Chinese, Malay (includes indigenous Malays and Indonesians), Indian (includes Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, or Sri Lankan), and other ethnic groups (includes Eurasians, Caucasians, Japanese, Filipino, Vietnamese)

    English (official) 36.9%, Mandarin (official) 34.9%, other Chinese dialects (includes Hokkien, Cantonese, Teochew, Hakka) 12.2%, Malay (official) 10.7%, Tamil (official) 3.3%, other 2% (2015 est.)

    note: data represent language most frequently spoken at home

    Buddhist 33.2%, Christian 18.8%, Muslim 14%, Taoist 10%, Hindu 5%, other 0.6%, none 18.5% (2015 est.)
    Age structure:
    0-14 years: 12.8% (male 406,983/female 387,665)
    15-24 years: 15.01% (male 457,190/female 474,676)
    25-54 years: 50.73% (male 1,531,088/female 1,618,844)
    55-64 years: 10.58% (male 328,024/female 328,808)
    65 years and over: 10.89% (male 310,123/female 366,259) (2020 est.)
    population pyramid : population pyramid
    Dependency ratios:
    total dependency ratio: 34.5
    youth dependency ratio: 16.5
    elderly dependency ratio: 18
    potential support ratio: 5.6 (2020 est.)
    Median age:
    total: 35.6 years
    male: 35.4 years
    female: 35.7 years (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 82
    Population growth rate:
    1.73% (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 59
    Birth rate:
    8.9 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 207
    Death rate:
    3.6 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 218
    Net migration rate:
    11.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 5
    Population distribution:
    most of the urbanization is along the southern coast, with relatively dense population clusters found in the central areas
    urban population: 100% of total population (2020)
    rate of urbanization: 1.39% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030: PDF
    Major urban areas - population:
    5.935 million SINGAPORE (capital) (2020)
    Sex ratio:
    at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
    Mother's mean age at first birth:
    30.5 years (2015 est.)
    median age
    Maternal mortality rate:
    8 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 153
    Infant mortality rate:
    total: 2.3 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 2.4 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 2 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 224
    Life expectancy at birth:
    total population: 86 years
    male: 83.3 years
    female: 88.9 years (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 3
    Total fertility rate:
    0.87 children born/woman (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 228
    Drinking water source:
    improved: urban: 100% of population
    total: 100% of population
    unimproved: urban: 0% of population
    total: 0% of population (2017 est.)
    Current Health Expenditure:
    4.4% (2017)
    Physicians density:
    2.29 physicians/1,000 population (2016)
    Hospital bed density:
    2.5 beds/1,000 population (2017)
    Sanitation facility access:
    improved: urban: 100% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 100% of population
    unimproved: urban: 0% of population
    total: 0% of population (2017 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
    0.2% (2019 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 109
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
    7,900 (2019 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 111
    HIV/AIDS - deaths:
    <100 (2019 est.)
    Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
    6.1% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 171
    Education expenditures:
    2.9% of GDP (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 144
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 97.3%
    male: 98.9%
    female: 95.9% (2018)
    School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
    total: 17 years
    male: 16 years
    female: 17 years (2018)
    Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
    total: 9.1%
    male: 6.2%
    female: 12.5% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 134
  • Government :: Singapore
  • Country name:
    conventional long form: Republic of Singapore
    conventional short form: Singapore
    local long form: Republic of Singapore
    local short form: Singapore
    etymology: name derives from the Sanskrit words "simha" (lion) and "pura" (city) to describe the city-state's leonine symbol
    Government type:
    parliamentary republic
    name: Singapore
    geographic coordinates: 1 17 N, 103 51 E
    time difference: UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    etymology: name derives from the Sanskrit words "simha" (lion) and "pura" (city), thus creating the city's epithet "lion city"
    Administrative divisions:
    no first order administrative divisions; there are five community development councils: Central Singapore Development Council, North East Development Council, North West Development Council, South East Development Council, South West Development Council (2019)
    9 August 1965 (from Malaysian Federation)
    National holiday:
    National Day, 9 August (1965)
    history: several previous; latest adopted 22 December 1965
    amendments: proposed by Parliament; passage requires two-thirds majority vote in the second and third readings by the elected Parliament membership and assent of the president of the republic; passage of amendments affecting sovereignty or control of the Police Force or the Armed Forces requires at least two-thirds majority vote in a referendum; amended many times, last in 2016
    International law organization participation:
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICC (2019)
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Singapore
    dual citizenship recognized: no
    residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years
    21 years of age; universal and compulsory
    Executive branch:
    chief of state: President HALIMAH Yacob (since 14 September 2017); note - President TAN's term ended on 31 August 2017; HALIMAH is Singapore's first female president; the head of the Council of Presidential Advisors, J.Y. PILLAY, served as acting president until HALIMAH was sworn in as president on 14 September 2017
    head of government: Prime Minister LEE Hsien Loong (since 12 August 2004, reelected 10 July 2020); Deputy Prime Ministers HENG Swee Keat (since 1 May 2019) (2019)
    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister; Cabinet responsible to Parliament
    elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a fixed term of 6-years (there are no term limits); election last held on 13 September 2017 (next to be held in 2023); following legislative elections, leader of majority party or majority coalition appointed prime minister by president; deputy prime ministers appointed by the president
    election results: HALIMAH Yacob was declared president on 13 September 2017, being the only eligible candidate; Tony TAN Keng Yam elected president in the previous contested election on 27 August 2011; percent of vote - Tony TAN Keng Yam (independent) 35.2% , TAN Cheng Bock (independent) 34.9%, TAN Jee Say (independent) 25%, TAN Kin Lian (independent) 4.9%
    Legislative branch:
    description: unicameral Parliament (104 seats; 93 members directly elected by popular vote, up to 9 nominated by a parliamentary selection committee and appointed by the president, and up to 12 non-constituency members from opposition parties to ensure political diversity; members serve 5-year terms); note - the number of nominated members will increase to 12 for the 2020 election for the first time (2020)
    elections: last held on 10 July 2020 (next must be held by 2025)
    election results: percent of vote by party - PAP 61.2%, WP 11.2%, PSP 10.2%; seats by party - PAP 83, WP 10, PSP 2; composition - men 79, women 25, percent of women 24%
    Judicial branch:
    highest courts: Supreme Court (although the number of judges varies - as of April 2019, the court totaled 20 judges, 7 judicial commissioners, 4 judges of appeal, and 16 international judges); the court is organized into an upper tier Appeal Court and a lower tier High Court
    judge selection and term of office: judges appointed by the president from candidates recommended by the prime minister after consultation with the chief justice; judges usually serve until retirement at age 65, but terms can be extended
    subordinate courts: district, magistrates', juvenile, family, community, and coroners' courts; small claims tribunals; employment claims tribunals
    Political parties and leaders:
    National Solidarity Party or NSP [Reno FONG]
    People's Action Party or PAP [LEE Hsien Loong]
    People's Power Party or (PPP) [Goh Meng SENG]
    People's Voice or PV [Lim TEAN]
    Progress Singapore Party or PSP [Tan Cheng Bock]
    Red Dot United or RDU [Ravi PHILEMON]
    Reform Party or RP [Kenneth JEYARETNAM]
    Singapore Democratic Alliance or SDA [Abu MOHAMED]
    Singapore Democratic Party or SDP [Dr. CHEE Soon Juan]
    Singapore People's Party or SPP [Steve Chia]
    Workers' Party or WP [Pritam SINGH] (2020)
    International organization participation:
    ADB, AOSIS, APEC, Arctic Council (observer), ARF, ASEAN, BIS, C, CP, EAS, FAO, FATF, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OPCW, Pacific Alliance (observer), PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    Diplomatic representation in the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador Ashok KUMAR Mirpuri since 30 July 2012)
    chancery: 3501 International Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 537-3100
    FAX: [1] (202) 537-0876
    consulate(s) general: San Francisco
    consulate(s): New York
    Diplomatic representation from the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Rafik MANSOUR (since July 2019)
    telephone: [65] 6476-9100
    embassy: 27 Napier Road, Singapore 258508
    mailing address: FPO AP 96507-0001
    FAX: [65] 6476-9340
    Flag description:
    two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; near the hoist side of the red band, there is a vertical, white crescent (closed portion is toward the hoist side) partially enclosing five white five-pointed stars arranged in a circle; red denotes brotherhood and equality; white signifies purity and virtue; the waxing crescent moon symbolizes a young nation on the ascendancy; the five stars represent the nation's ideals of democracy, peace, progress, justice, and equality
    National symbol(s):
    lion, merlion (mythical half lion-half fish creature), orchid; national colors: red, white
    National anthem:
    name: "Majulah Singapura" (Onward Singapore)
    lyrics/music: ZUBIR Said

    note: adopted 1965; first performed in 1958 at the Victoria Theatre, the anthem is sung only in Malay

  • Economy :: Singapore
  • Economy - overview:

    Singapore has a highly developed and successful free-market economy. It enjoys an open and corruption-free environment, stable prices, and a per capita GDP higher than that of most developed countries. Unemployment is very low. The economy depends heavily on exports, particularly of electronics, petroleum products, chemicals, medical and optical devices, pharmaceuticals, and on Singapore’s vibrant transportation, business, and financial services sectors.

    The economy contracted 0.6% in 2009 as a result of the global financial crisis, but has continued to grow since 2010. Growth from 2012-2017 was slower than during the previous decade, a result of slowing structural growth - as Singapore reached high-income levels - and soft global demand for exports. Growth recovered to 3.6% in 2017 with a strengthening global economy.

    The government is attempting to restructure Singapore’s economy to reduce its dependence on foreign labor, raise productivity growth, and increase wages amid slowing labor force growth and an aging population. Singapore has attracted major investments in advanced manufacturing, pharmaceuticals, and medical technology production and will continue efforts to strengthen its position as Southeast Asia's leading financial and technology hub. Singapore is a signatory of the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP), and a party to the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) negotiations with nine other ASEAN members plus Australia, China, India, Japan, South Korea, and New Zealand. In 2015, Singapore formed, with the other ASEAN members, the ASEAN Economic Community.

    GDP (purchasing power parity):
    $528.1 billion (2017 est.)
    $509.7 billion (2016 est.)
    $497.8 billion (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 38
    GDP (official exchange rate):
    $323.9 billion (2017 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate:
    0.73% (2019 est.)
    3.48% (2018 est.)
    4.34% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 180
    GDP - per capita (PPP):
    $94,100 (2017 est.)
    $90,900 (2016 est.)
    $89,900 (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 7
    Gross national saving:
    46.5% of GDP (2017 est.)
    46% of GDP (2016 est.)
    45.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 5
    GDP - composition, by end use:
    household consumption: 35.6% (2017 est.)
    government consumption: 10.9% (2017 est.)
    investment in fixed capital: 24.8% (2017 est.)
    investment in inventories: 2.8% (2017 est.)
    exports of goods and services: 173.3% (2017 est.)
    imports of goods and services: -149.1% (2017 est.)
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
    agriculture: 0% (2017 est.)
    industry: 24.8% (2017 est.)
    services: 75.2% (2017 est.)
    Agriculture - products:
    vegetables; poultry, eggs; fish, ornamental fish, orchids
    electronics, chemicals, financial services, oil drilling equipment, petroleum refining, biomedical products, scientific instruments, telecommunication equipment, processed food and beverages, ship repair, offshore platform construction, entrepot trade
    Industrial production growth rate:
    5.7% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 46
    Labor force:
    3.778 million (2019 est.)

    note: excludes non-residents

    country comparison to the world: 92
    Labor force - by occupation:
    agriculture: 0.7%
    industry: 25.6%
    services: 73.7% (2017)

    note: excludes non-residents

    Unemployment rate:
    2.25% (2019 est.)
    2.1% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 22
    Population below poverty line:
    Household income or consumption by percentage share:
    lowest 10%: 1.6%
    highest 10%: 27.5% (2017)
    revenues: 50.85 billion (2017 est.)
    expenditures: 51.87 billion (2017 est.)

    note: expenditures include both operational and development expenditures

    Taxes and other revenues:
    15.7% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 187
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
    -0.3% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 55
    Public debt:
    111.1% of GDP (2017 est.)
    106.8% of GDP (2016 est.)

    note: Singapore's public debt consists largely of Singapore Government Securities (SGS) issued to assist the Central Provident Fund (CPF), which administers Singapore's defined contribution pension fund; special issues of SGS are held by the CPF, and are non-tradable; the government has not borrowed to finance deficit expenditures since the 1980s; Singapore has no external public debt

    country comparison to the world: 11
    Fiscal year:
    1 April - 31 March
    Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    0.6% (2017 est.)
    -0.5% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 33
    Current account balance:
    $63.109 billion (2019 est.)
    $64.042 billion (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 8
    $396.8 billion (2017 est.)
    $338 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 13
    Exports - partners:
    China 14.7%, Hong Kong 12.6%, Malaysia 10.8%, US 6.6%, Indonesia 5.8%, Japan 4.7%, South Korea 4.6%, Thailand 4% (2017)
    Exports - commodities:
    machinery and equipment (including electronics and telecommunications), pharmaceuticals and other chemicals, refined petroleum products, foodstuffs and beverages
    $312.1 billion (2017 est.)
    $277.6 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 16
    Imports - commodities:
    machinery and equipment, mineral fuels, chemicals, foodstuffs, consumer goods
    Imports - partners:
    China 13.9%, Malaysia 12%, US 10.7%, Japan 6.3%, South Korea 5% (2017)
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
    $279.9 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $271.8 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 11
    Debt - external:
    $566.1 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $464.1 billion (30 September 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 20
    Exchange rates:
    Singapore dollars (SGD) per US dollar -
    1.3 (2017 est.)
    1.35 (2016 est.)
    1.3815 (2015 est.)
    1.3748 (2014 est.)
    1.2671 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: Singapore
  • Electricity access:
    electrification - total population: 100% (2020)
    Electricity - production:
    48.66 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 55
    Electricity - consumption:
    47.69 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 51
    Electricity - exports:
    0 kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 198
    Electricity - imports:
    0 kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 200
    Electricity - installed generating capacity:
    13.35 million kW (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 53
    Electricity - from fossil fuels:
    98% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 29
    Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
    0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 183
    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
    0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 200
    Electricity - from other renewable sources:
    2% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 144
    Crude oil - production:
    0 bbl/day (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 200
    Crude oil - exports:
    14,780 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 54
    Crude oil - imports:
    783,300 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 15
    Crude oil - proved reserves:
    0 bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 195
    Refined petroleum products - production:
    755,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 24
    Refined petroleum products - consumption:
    1.322 million bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 17
    Refined petroleum products - exports:
    1.82 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 4
    Refined petroleum products - imports:
    2.335 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 1
    Natural gas - production:
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 196
    Natural gas - consumption:
    12.97 billion cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 44
    Natural gas - exports:
    622.9 million cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 41
    Natural gas - imports:
    13.48 billion cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 23
    Natural gas - proved reserves:
    0 cu m (1 January 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 194
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
    249.5 million Mt (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 27
  • Communications :: Singapore
  • Telephones - fixed lines:
    total subscriptions: 2,003,594
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 32.83 (2019 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 54
    Telephones - mobile cellular:
    total subscriptions: 9,543,773
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 156.38 (2019 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 89
    Telecommunication systems:
    general assessment: excellent service; world leader in telecommunications and perhaps the first 'Smart Nation' where a sensor network is implemented, for water and air, smart logistics and smart sensor in the home of elderly or chronically ill; roll out of 4G and 5G networks to ensure faster speeds; wireless and fiber broadband growing segments of telecommunications; roll out of 'Next Generation Network' (NGNBN) almost complete with FttH and wireless network fiber based services; mobile sector saturated, but with mobile operators competing to offer more to the consumer such as value-added services; 4 MNVO; demand for data storage in Singapore (2020)
    domestic: excellent domestic facilities; fixed-line 33 per 100 and mobile-cellular 156 per 100 teledensity; multiple providers of high-speed Internet connectivity (2019)
    international: country code - 65; landing points for INDIGO-West, SeaMeWe -3,-4,-5, SIGMAR, SJC, i2icn, PGASCOM, BSCS, IGG, B3JS, SAEx2, APCN-2, APG, ASC, SEAX-1, ASE, EAC-C2C, Matrix Cable System and SJC2 submarine cables providing links throughout Asia, Southeast Asia, Africa, Australia, the Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 3, Bukit Timah, Seletar, and Sentosa; supplemented by VSAT coverage (2019 )
    note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
    Broadcast media:
    state controls broadcast media; 6 domestic TV stations operated by MediaCorp which is wholly owned by a state investment company; broadcasts from Malaysian and Indonesian stations available; satellite dishes banned; multi-channel cable TV services available; a total of 19 domestic radio stations broadcasting, with MediaCorp operating 11, Singapore Press Holdings, also government-linked, another 5, 2 controlled by the Singapore Armed Forces Reservists Association and one owned by BBC Radio; Malaysian and Indonesian radio stations are available as is BBC; a number of Internet service radio stations are also available (2019)
    Internet country code:
    Internet users:
    total: 5,286,665
    percent of population: 88.17% (July 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 80
    Broadband - fixed subscriptions:
    total: 1,610,500
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 27 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 60
  • Transportation :: Singapore
  • National air transport system:
    number of registered air carriers: 4 (2020)
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 230
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 40,401,515 (2018)
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 5,194,900,000 mt-km (2018)
    Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
    9V (2016)
    9 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 158
    Airports - with paved runways:
    total: 9 (2017)
    over 3,047 m: 2 (2017)
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 (2017)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 (2017)
    914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2017)
    under 914 m: 1 (2017)
    3220 km domestic gas (2014), 1122 km cross-border pipelines (2017), 8 km refined products (2013)
    total: 3,500 km (2017)
    paved: 3,500 km (includes 164 km of expressways) (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 158
    Merchant marine:
    total: 3,433
    by type: bulk carrier 585, container ship 492, general cargo 130, oil tanker 724, other 1,502 (2019)
    country comparison to the world: 8
    Ports and terminals:
    major seaport(s): Singapore
    container port(s) (TEUs): Singapore (33,666,000) (2017)
    LNG terminal(s) (import): Singapore
  • Military and Security :: Singapore
  • Military and security forces:
    Singapore Armed Forces: Singapore Army, Republic of Singapore Navy, Republic of Singapore Air Force (includes air defense);  Police Coast Guard (subordinate to the Singapore Police Force) (2019)
    Military expenditures:
    3.2% of GDP (2019)
    3.1% of GDP (2018)
    3.1% of GDP (2017)
    3.2% of GDP (2016)
    3.1% of GDP (2015)
    country comparison to the world: 24
    Military and security service personnel strengths:
    the Singapore Armed Forces (SAF) have approximately 62,000 active duty troops (45,000 Army; 7,000 Navy; 10,000 Air Force) (2019)
    Military equipment inventories and acquisitions:
    the SAF has a diverse and largely modern mix of domestically-produced and imported weapons; Singapore has the most developed arms industry in Southeast Asia and is also the largest importer of weapons; the chief suppliers since 2010 are France, Germany, Spain, and the US (2019 est.)
    Military deployments:
    maintains permanent training bases and detachments of military personnel in Australia, France, and the US (June 2020)
    Military service age and obligation:
    18-21 years of age for male compulsory military service; 16 1/2 years of age for voluntary enlistment (with parental consent); 2-year conscript service obligation, with a reserve obligation to age 40 (enlisted) or age 50 (officers) (2019)
    Maritime threats:
    the International Maritime Bureau reports the territorial and offshore waters in the South China Sea as high risk for piracy and armed robbery against ships; numerous commercial vessels have been attacked and hijacked both at anchor and while underway; hijacked vessels are often disguised and cargo diverted to ports in East Asia; crews have been murdered or cast adrift; the Singapore Straits saw three attacks against commercial vessels in 2018, a slight decrease from the four attacks in 2017 (2018)
  • Terrorism :: Singapore
  • Transnational Issues :: Singapore
  • Disputes - international:

    disputes with Malaysia over territorial waters, airspace, the price of fresh water delivered to Singapore from Malaysia, Singapore's extensive land reclamation works, bridge construction, and maritime boundaries in the Johor and Singapore Straits; in 2008, ICJ awarded sovereignty of Pedra Branca (Pulau Batu Puteh/Horsburgh Island) to Singapore, and Middle Rocks to Malaysia, but did not rule on maritime regimes, boundaries, or disposition of South Ledge; Indonesia and Singapore continue to work on finalization of their 1973 maritime boundary agreement by defining unresolved areas north of Indonesia's Batam Island; piracy remains a problem in the Malacca Strait

    Refugees and internally displaced persons:
    stateless persons: 1,303 (2019)
    Illicit drugs:
    drug abuse limited because of aggressive law enforcement efforts, including carrying out death sentences; as a transportation and financial services hub, Singapore is vulnerable, despite strict laws and enforcement, as a venue for money laundering