Africa :: Sao Tome and Principe
  • Introduction :: Sao Tome and Principe
  • Background:
    Discovered and claimed by Portugal in the late 15th century, the islands' sugar-based economy gave way to coffee and cocoa in the 19th century - all grown with African plantation slave labor, a form of which lingered into the 20th century. While independence was achieved in 1975, democratic reforms were not instituted until the late 1980s. The country held its first free elections in 1991, but frequent internal wrangling between the various political parties precipitated repeated changes in leadership and four failed, non-violent coup attempts in 1995, 1998, 2003, and 2009. In 2012, three opposition parties combined in a no confidence vote to bring down the majority government of former Prime Minister Patrice TROVOADA, but in 2014, legislative elections returned him to the office. President Evaristo CARVALHO, of the same political party as Prime Minister TROVOADA, was elected in September 2016, marking a rare instance in which the positions of president and prime minister are held by the same party. New oil discoveries in the Gulf of Guinea may attract increased attention to the small island nation.
  • Geography :: Sao Tome and Principe
  • Location:
    Central Africa, islands in the Gulf of Guinea, just north of the Equator, west of Gabon
    Geographic coordinates:
    1 00 N, 7 00 E
    Map references:
    Africa
    Area:
    total: 964 sq km
    land: 964 sq km
    water: 0 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 185
    Area - comparative:
    more than five times the size of Washington, DC
    Land boundaries:
    0 km
    Coastline:
    209 km
    Maritime claims:
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
    Climate:
    tropical; hot, humid; one rainy season (October to May)
    Terrain:
    volcanic, mountainous
    Elevation:
    0 m lowest point: Atlantic Ocean
    2024 highest point: Pico de Sao Tome
    Natural resources:
    fish, hydropower
    Land use:
    agricultural land: 50.7% (2011 est.)
    arable land: 9.1% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 40.6% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 1% (2011 est.)
    forest: 28.1% (2011 est.)
    other: 21.2% (2011 est.)
    Irrigated land:
    100 sq km (2012)
    Population distribution:
    Sao Tome, the capital city, has roughly a quarter of the nation's population; Santo Antonio is the largest town on Principe; the northern areas of both islands have the highest population densities
    Natural hazards:
    flooding
    Environment - current issues:
    deforestation and illegal logging; soil erosion and exhaustion; inadequate sewage treatment in cities; biodiversity preservation
    Environment - international agreements:
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    Geography - note:
    the smallest country in Africa; the two main islands form part of a chain of extinct volcanoes and both are mountainous
  • People and Society :: Sao Tome and Principe
  • Population:
    204,454 (July 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 184
    Nationality:
    noun: Sao Tomean(s)
    adjective: Sao Tomean
    Ethnic groups:
    mestico, angolares (descendants of Angolan slaves), forros (descendants of freed slaves), servicais (contract laborers from Angola, Mozambique, and Cabo Verde), tongas (children of servicais born on the islands), Europeans (primarily Portuguese), Asians (mostly Chinese)
    Languages:
    Portuguese 98.4% (official), Forro 36.2%, Cabo Verdian 8.5%, French 6.8%, Angolar 6.6%, English 4.9%, Lunguie 1%, other (including sign language) 2.4% (2012 est.)

    note: shares sum to more than 100% because some respondents gave more than one answer on the census

    Religions:
    Catholic 55.7%, Adventist 4.1%, Assembly of God 3.4%, New Apostolic 2.9%, Mana 2.3%, Universal Kingdom of God 2%, Jehovah's Witness 1.2%, other 6.2%, none 21.2%, unspecified 1% (2012 est.)
    Demographic profile:

    Sao Tome and Principe’s youthful age structure – more than 60% of the population is under the age of 25 – and high fertility rate ensure future population growth. Although Sao Tome has a net negative international migration rate, emigration is not a sufficient safety valve to reduce already high levels of unemployment and poverty. While literacy and primary school attendance have improved in recent years, Sao Tome still struggles to improve its educational quality and to increase its secondary school completion rate. Despite some improvements in education and access to healthcare, Sao Tome and Principe has much to do to decrease its high poverty rate, create jobs, and increase its economic growth.

    The population of Sao Tome and Principe descends primarily from the islands’ colonial Portuguese settlers, who first arrived in the late 15th century, and the much larger number of African slaves brought in for sugar production and the slave trade. For about 100 years after the abolition of slavery in 1876, the population was further shaped by the widespread use of imported unskilled contract laborers from Portugal’s other African colonies, who worked on coffee and cocoa plantations. In the first decades after abolition, most workers were brought from Angola under a system similar to slavery. While Angolan laborers were technically free, they were forced or coerced into long contracts that were automatically renewed and extended to their children. Other contract workers from Mozambique and famine-stricken Cape Verde first arrived in the early 20th century under short-term contracts and had the option of repatriation, although some chose to remain in Sao Tome and Principe.

    Today’s Sao Tomean population consists of mesticos (creole descendants of the European immigrants and African slaves that first inhabited the islands), forros (descendants of freed African slaves), angolares (descendants of runaway African slaves that formed a community in the south of Sao Tome Island and today are fishermen), servicais (contract laborers from Angola, Mozambique, and Cape Verde), tongas (locally born children of contract laborers), and lesser numbers of Europeans and Asians.

    Age structure:
    0-14 years: 41.2% (male 42,825 /female 41,403)
    15-24 years: 21.01% (male 21,767 /female 21,188)
    25-54 years: 31.03% (male 31,218 /female 32,229)
    55-64 years: 3.93% (male 3,708 /female 4,332)
    65 years and over: 2.83% (male 2,545 /female 3,239) (2018 est.)
    population pyramid: population pyramid
    Dependency ratios:
    total dependency ratio: 86.7 (2015 est.)
    youth dependency ratio: 81.1 (2015 est.)
    elderly dependency ratio: 5.6 (2015 est.)
    potential support ratio: 17.8 (2015 est.)
    Median age:
    total: 18.7 years
    male: 18.3 years
    female: 19.1 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 207
    Population growth rate:
    1.66% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 62
    Birth rate:
    31.5 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 32
    Death rate:
    6.7 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 138
    Net migration rate:
    -8.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 207
    Population distribution:
    Sao Tome, the capital city, has roughly a quarter of the nation's population; Santo Antonio is the largest town on Principe; the northern areas of both islands have the highest population densities
    Urbanization:
    urban population: 72.8% of total population (2018)
    rate of urbanization: 3.33% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    Major urban areas - population:
    80,000 SAO TOME (capital) (2018)
    Sex ratio:
    at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    25-54 years: 0.96 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    55-64 years: 0.84 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    total population: 1 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    Mother's mean age at first birth:
    19.4 years (2008/09 est.)

    note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

    Maternal mortality rate:
    156 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 58
    Infant mortality rate:
    total: 44.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    male: 46 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    female: 42.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 41
    Life expectancy at birth:
    total population: 65.7 years (2018 est.)
    male: 64.3 years (2018 est.)
    female: 67.1 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 179
    Total fertility rate:
    4.11 children born/woman (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 31
    Contraceptive prevalence rate:
    40.6% (2014)
    Health expenditures:
    8.4% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 49
    Hospital bed density:
    2.9 beds/1,000 population (2011)
    Drinking water source:
    improved: urban: 98.9% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 93.6% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 97.1% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 1.1% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 6.4% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 2.9% of population (2015 est.)
    Sanitation facility access:
    improved: urban: 40.8% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 23.3% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 34.7% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 59.2% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 76.7% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 65.3% of population (2015 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
    NA
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
    NA
    HIV/AIDS - deaths:
    NA
    Major infectious diseases:
    degree of risk: high (2016)
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever (2016)
    vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever (2016)
    water contact diseases: schistosomiasis (2016)
    Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
    12.4% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 133
    Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
    8.8% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 66
    Education expenditures:
    3.7% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 122
    Literacy:
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)
    total population: 74.9% (2015 est.)
    male: 81.8% (2015 est.)
    female: 68.4% (2015 est.)
    School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
    total: 13 years (2015)
    male: 13 years (2015)
    female: 13 years (2015)
    Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
    total: 20.8% (2012 est.)
    male: NA (2012 est.)
    female: NA (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 60
  • Government :: Sao Tome and Principe
  • Country name:
    conventional long form: Democratic Republic of Sao Tome and Principe
    conventional short form: Sao Tome and Principe
    local long form: Republica Democratica de Sao Tome e Principe
    local short form: Sao Tome e Principe
    etymology: Sao Tome was named after Saint THOMAS the Apostle by the Portuguese who discovered the island on 21 December 1470 (or 1471), the saint's feast day; Principe is a shortening of the original Portuguese name of "Ilha do Principe" (Isle of the Prince) referring to the Prince of Portugal to whom duties on the island's sugar crop were paid
    Government type:
    semi-presidential republic
    Capital:
    name: Sao Tome
    geographic coordinates: 0 20 N, 6 44 E
    time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    Administrative divisions:
    6 districts (distritos, singular - distrito), 1 autonomous region* (regiao autonoma); Agua Grande, Cantagalo, Caue, Lemba, Lobata, Me-Zochi, Principe*
    Independence:
    12 July 1975 (from Portugal)
    National holiday:
    Independence Day, 12 July (1975)
    Constitution:
    history: approved 5 November 1975 (2017)
    amendments: proposed by the National Assembly; passage requires two-thirds majority vote by the Assembly; the Assembly can propose to the president of the republic that an amendment be submitted to a referendum; revised several times, last in 2006 (2017)
    International law organization participation:
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
    Citizenship:
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Sao Tome and Principe
    dual citizenship recognized: no
    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
    Suffrage:
    18 years of age; universal
    Executive branch:
    chief of state: President Evaristo CARVALHO (since 3 September 2016)
    head of government: Prime Minister Jorge Bom JESUS (since 3 December 2018)
    cabinet: Council of Ministers proposed by the prime minister, appointed by the president
    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 7 July 2016 and 7 August 2016 (next to be held in July 2021); prime minister chosen by the National Assembly and approved by the president
    election results: Evaristo CARVALHO elected president; percent of vote - Evaristo CARVALHO (ADI) 49.8%, Manuel Pinto DA COSTA (independent) 24.8%, Maria DAS NEVES (MLSTP-PSD) 24.1%; note - first round results for CARVALHO were revised downward from just over 50%, prompting the 7 August runoff; however, on 1 August 2016 DA COSTA withdrew from the runoff, citing voting irregularities, and CARVALHO was declared the winner
    Legislative branch:
    description: unicameral National Assembly or Assembleia Nacional (55 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by closed party-list proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms)
    elections: last held on 7 October 2018 (next to be held in October 2022)
    election results: percent of vote by party - ADI 41.8%, MLSTP/PSD 40.3%, PCD-GR 9.5%, MCISTP 2.1%, other 6.3%; seats by party - ADI 25, MLSTP-PSD 23, PCD-MDFM-UDD 5, MCISTP 2
    Judicial branch:
    highest courts: Supreme Court or Supremo Tribunal Justica (consists of 5 judges); Constitutional Court or Tribunal Constitucional (consists of 5 judges, 3 of whom are from the Supreme Court)
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the National Assembly; judge tenure NA; Constitutional Court judges nominated by the president of the republic and elected by the National Assembly for 5-year terms
    subordinate courts: Court of First Instance; Audit Court
    Political parties and leaders:
    Force for Democratic Change Movement or MDFM [Fradique Bandeira Melo DE MENEZES]
    Independent Democratic Action or ADI [Patrice TROVOADA]
    Movement for the Liberation of Sao Tome and Principe-Social Democratic Party or MLSTP-PSD [Aurelio MARTINS]
    Party for Democratic Convergence-Reflection Group or PCD-GR [Leonel Mario D'ALVA]
    other small parties
    International organization participation:
    ACP, AfDB, AOSIS, AU, CD, CEMAC, CPLP, EITI (candidate country), FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OIF, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
    Diplomatic representation in the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador Carlos Filomeno Azevedo Agostinho das NEVES (since 3 December 2013)
    chancery: 675 Third Avenue, Suite 1807, New York, NY 10017
    telephone: [1] (212) 651-8116
    FAX: [1] (212) 651-8117
    Diplomatic representation from the US:
    the US does not have an embassy in Sao Tome and Principe; the US Ambassador to Gabon is accredited to Sao Tome and Principe on a nonresident basis
    Flag description:
    three horizontal bands of green (top), yellow (double width), and green with two black five-pointed stars placed side by side in the center of the yellow band and a red isosceles triangle based on the hoist side; green stands for the country's rich vegetation, red recalls the struggle for independence, and yellow represents cocoa, one of the country's main agricultural products; the two stars symbolize the two main islands

    note: uses the popular Pan-African colors of Ethiopia

    National symbol(s):
    palm tree; national colors: green, yellow, red, black
    National anthem:
    name: "Independencia total" (Total Independence)
    lyrics/music: Alda Neves DA GRACA do Espirito Santo/Manuel dos Santos Barreto de Sousa e ALMEIDA

    note: adopted 1975

  • Economy :: Sao Tome and Principe
  • Economy - overview:

    The economy of São Tomé and Príncipe is small, based mainly on agricultural production, and, since independence in 1975, increasingly dependent on the export of cocoa beans. Cocoa production has substantially declined in recent years because of drought and mismanagement. Sao Tome depends heavily on imports of food, fuels, most manufactured goods, and consumer goods, and changes in commodity prices affect the country’s inflation rate. Maintaining control of inflation, fiscal discipline, and increasing flows of foreign direct investment into the nascent oil sector are major economic problems facing the country. In recent years the government has attempted to reduce price controls and subsidies. In 2017, several business-related laws were enacted that aim to improve the business climate.

    São Tomé and Príncipe has had difficulty servicing its external debt and has relied heavily on concessional aid and debt rescheduling. In April 2011, the country completed a Threshold Country Program with The Millennium Challenge Corporation to help increase tax revenues, reform customs, and improve the business environment. In 2016, Sao Tome and Portugal signed a five-year cooperation agreement worth approximately $64 million, some of which will be provided as loans. In 2017, China and São Tomé signed a mutual cooperation agreement in areas such as infrastructure, health, and agriculture worth approximately $146 million over five years.

    Considerable potential exists for development of tourism, and the government has taken steps to expand tourist facilities in recent years. Potential also exists for the development of petroleum resources in São Tomé and Príncipe's territorial waters in the oil-rich Gulf of Guinea, some of which are being jointly developed in a 60-40 split with Nigeria, but production is at least several years off.

    Volatile aid and investment inflows have limited growth, and poverty remains high. Restricteded capacity at the main port increases the periodic risk of shortages of consumer goods. Contract enforcement in the country’s judicial system is difficult. The IMF in late 2016 expressed concern about vulnerabilities in the country’s banking sector, although the country plans some austerity measures in line with IMF recommendations under their three year extended credit facility. Deforestation, coastal erosion, poor waste management, and misuse of natural resources also are challenging issues.

    GDP (purchasing power parity):
    $686 million (2017 est.)
    $660.4 million (2016 est.)
    $633.9 million (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 208
    GDP (official exchange rate):
    $393 million (2017 est.) (2017 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate:
    3.9% (2017 est.)
    4.2% (2016 est.)
    3.8% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 83
    GDP - per capita (PPP):
    $3,200 (2017 est.)
    $3,200 (2016 est.)
    $3,100 (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 191
    Gross national saving:
    18.7% of GDP (2017 est.)
    21% of GDP (2016 est.)
    19.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 107
    GDP - composition, by end use:
    household consumption: 81.4% (2017 est.)
    government consumption: 17.6% (2017 est.)
    investment in fixed capital: 33.4% (2017 est.)
    investment in inventories: 0% (2017 est.)
    exports of goods and services: 7.9% (2017 est.)
    imports of goods and services: -40.4% (2017 est.)
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
    agriculture: 11.8% (2017 est.)
    industry: 14.8% (2017 est.)
    services: 73.4% (2017 est.)
    Agriculture - products:
    cocoa, coconuts, palm kernels, copra, cinnamon, pepper, coffee, bananas, papayas, beans; poultry; fish
    Industries:
    light construction, textiles, soap, beer, fish processing, timber
    Industrial production growth rate:
    5% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 57
    Labor force:
    72,600 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 186
    Labor force - by occupation:
    agriculture: 26.1%
    industry: 21.4%
    services: 52.5% (2014 est.)
    Unemployment rate:
    12.2% (2017 est.)
    12.6% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 163
    Population below poverty line:
    66.2% (2009 est.)
    Household income or consumption by percentage share:
    lowest 10%: NA
    highest 10%: NA
    Distribution of family income - Gini index:
    30.8 (2010 est.)
    32.1 (2000 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 129
    Budget:
    revenues: 103 million (2017 est.)
    expenditures: 112.4 million (2017 est.)
    Taxes and other revenues:
    26.2% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 114
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
    -2.4% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 113
    Public debt:
    88.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
    93.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 27
    Fiscal year:
    calendar year
    Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    5.7% (2017 est.)
    5.4% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 182
    Central bank discount rate:
    16% (31 December 2009)
    28% (31 December 2008)
    country comparison to the world: 11
    Commercial bank prime lending rate:
    19.61% (31 December 2017 est.)
    19.59% (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 15
    Stock of narrow money:
    $75.38 million (31 December 2017 est.)
    $64.95 million (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 189
    Stock of broad money:
    $75.38 million (31 December 2017 est.)
    $64.95 million (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 194
    Stock of domestic credit:
    $96.03 million (31 December 2017 est.)
    $73.35 million (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 188
    Market value of publicly traded shares:

    NA

    Current account balance:
    -$32 million (2017 est.)
    -$23 million (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 76
    Exports:
    $15.6 million (2017 est.)
    $9.31 million (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 215
    Exports - partners:
    Guyana 43.7%, Germany 23.6%, Portugal 6%, Netherlands 5.5%, Poland 4.4% (2017)
    Exports - commodities:
    cocoa 68%, copra, coffee, palm oil (2010 est.)
    Imports:
    $127.7 million (2017 est.)
    $119.1 million (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 212
    Imports - commodities:
    machinery and electrical equipment, food products, petroleum products
    Imports - partners:
    Portugal 54.7%, Angola 16.5%, China 5.6% (2017)
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
    $58.95 million (31 December 2017 est.)
    $61.5 million (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 185
    Debt - external:
    $292.9 million (31 December 2017 est.)
    $308.5 million (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 185
    Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
    $469.5 million (31 December 2017 est.)
    $430.3 million (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 130
    Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
    $3.98 million (31 December 2017 est.)
    $2.2 million (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 117
    Exchange rates:
    dobras (STD) per US dollar -
    22,689 (2017 est.)
    21,797 (2016 est.)
    22,149 (2015 est.)
    22,091 (2014 est.)
    18,466 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: Sao Tome and Principe
  • Electricity access:
    population without electricity: 100,000 (2013)
    electrification - total population: 59% (2013)
    electrification - urban areas: 70% (2013)
    electrification - rural areas: 40% (2013)
    Electricity - production:
    66 million kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 203
    Electricity - consumption:
    61.38 million kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 203
    Electricity - exports:
    0 kWh (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 193
    Electricity - imports:
    0 kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 195
    Electricity - installed generating capacity:
    18,100 kW (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 205
    Electricity - from fossil fuels:
    88% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 60
    Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
    0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 177
    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
    11% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 115
    Electricity - from other renewable sources:
    1% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 166
    Crude oil - production:
    0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 195
    Crude oil - exports:
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 189
    Crude oil - imports:
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 191
    Crude oil - proved reserves:
    0 bbl (1 January 2018)
    country comparison to the world: 191
    Refined petroleum products - production:
    0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 198
    Refined petroleum products - consumption:
    1,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 206
    Refined petroleum products - exports:
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 199
    Refined petroleum products - imports:
    1,027 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 202
    Natural gas - production:
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 193
    Natural gas - consumption:
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 195
    Natural gas - exports:
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 178
    Natural gas - imports:
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 184
    Natural gas - proved reserves:
    0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 190
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
    148,100 Mt (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 204
  • Communications :: Sao Tome and Principe
  • Telephones - fixed lines:
    total subscriptions: 5,569 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 3 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 205
    Telephones - mobile cellular:
    total subscriptions: 173,646 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 86 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 185
    Telephone system:
    general assessment: local telephone network of adequate quality with most lines connected to digital switches (2016)
    domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 70 telephones per 100 persons (2016)
    international: country code - 239; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2016)
    Broadcast media:
    1 government-owned TV station; 1 government-owned radio station; 3 independent local radio stations authorized in 2005 with 2 operating at the end of 2006; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are available (2007)
    Internet country code:
    .st
    Internet users:
    total: 50,000 (July 2016 est.)
    percent of population: 25.8% (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 194
    Broadband - fixed subscriptions:
    total: 1,479 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 187
  • Transportation :: Sao Tome and Principe
  • National air transport system:
    number of registered air carriers: 1 (2015)
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 1 (2015)
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 50,716 (2015)
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 0 mt-km (2015)
    Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
    S9 (2016)
    Airports:
    2 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 207
    Airports - with paved runways:
    total: 2 (2017)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2017)
    914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2017)
    Roadways:
    total: 320 km (2000)
    paved: 218 km (2000)
    unpaved: 102 km (2000)
    country comparison to the world: 206
    Merchant marine:
    total: 16 (2017)
    by type: general cargo 12, other 4 (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 144
    Ports and terminals:
    major seaport(s): Sao Tome
  • Military and Security :: Sao Tome and Principe
  • Military branches:
    Armed Forces of Sao Tome and Principe (Forcas Armadas de Sao Tome e Principe, FASTP): Army, Coast Guard of Sao Tome e Principe (Guarda Costeira de Sao Tome e Principe, GCSTP; also called "Navy"), Presidential Guard, National Guard (2015)
    Military service age and obligation:
    18 is the legal minimum age for compulsory military service; 17 is the legal minimum age for voluntary service (2012)
    Military - note:
    Sao Tome and Principe's army is a tiny force with almost no resources at its disposal and would be wholly ineffective operating unilaterally; infantry equipment is considered simple to operate and maintain but may require refurbishment or replacement after 25 years in tropical climates; poor pay, working conditions, and alleged nepotism in the promotion of officers have been problems in the past, as reflected in the 1995 and 2003 coups; these issues are being addressed with foreign assistance aimed at improving the army and its focus on realistic security concerns; command is exercised from the president, through the Minister of Defense, to the Chief of the Armed Forces (infantry, technical issues) and the Chief of the General Staff (logistics, administration, finances) (2012)
  • Transnational Issues :: Sao Tome and Principe
  • Disputes - international:
    none