Europe :: Ukraine
  • Introduction :: Ukraine
  • Background:

    Ukraine was the center of the first eastern Slavic state, Kyivan Rus, which during the 10th and 11th centuries was the largest and most powerful state in Europe. Weakened by internecine quarrels and Mongol invasions, Kyivan Rus was incorporated into the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and eventually into the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The cultural and religious legacy of Kyivan Rus laid the foundation for Ukrainian nationalism through subsequent centuries. A new Ukrainian state, the Cossack Hetmanate, was established during the mid-17th century after an uprising against the Poles. Despite continuous Muscovite pressure, the Hetmanate managed to remain autonomous for well over 100 years. During the latter part of the 18th century, most Ukrainian ethnographic territory was absorbed by the Russian Empire. Following the collapse of czarist Russia in 1917, Ukraine achieved a short-lived period of independence (1917-20), but was reconquered and endured a brutal Soviet rule that engineered two forced famines (1921-22 and 1932-33) in which over 8 million died. In World War II, German and Soviet armies were responsible for 7 to 8 million more deaths. Although Ukraine achieved independence in 1991 with the dissolution of the USSR, democracy and prosperity remained elusive as the legacy of state control and endemic corruption stalled efforts at economic reform, privatization, and civil liberties.

    A peaceful mass protest referred to as the "Orange Revolution" in the closing months of 2004 forced the authorities to overturn a rigged presidential election and to allow a new internationally monitored vote that swept into power a reformist slate under Viktor YUSHCHENKO. Subsequent internal squabbles in the YUSHCHENKO camp allowed his rival Viktor YANUKOVYCH to stage a comeback in parliamentary (Rada) elections, become prime minister in August 2006, and be elected president in February 2010. In October 2012, Ukraine held Rada elections, widely criticized by Western observers as flawed due to use of government resources to favor ruling party candidates, interference with media access, and harassment of opposition candidates. President YANUKOVYCH's backtracking on a trade and cooperation agreement with the EU in November 2013 - in favor of closer economic ties with Russia - and subsequent use of force against students, civil society activists, and other civilians in favor of the agreement led to a three-month protest occupation of Kyiv's central square. The government's use of violence to break up the protest camp in February 2014 led to all out pitched battles, scores of deaths, international condemnation, and the president's abrupt departure for Russia. New elections in the spring allowed pro-West president Petro POROSHENKO to assume office in June 2014; he was succeeded by Volodymyr ZELENSKY in May 2019.

    Shortly after YANUKOVYCH's departure in late February 2014, Russian President PUTIN ordered the invasion of Ukraine's Crimean Peninsula falsely claiming the action was to protect ethnic Russians living there. Two weeks later, a "referendum" was held regarding the integration of Crimea into the Russian Federation. The "referendum" was condemned as illegitimate by the Ukrainian Government, the EU, the US, and the UN General Assembly (UNGA). In response to Russia's purported annexation of Crimea, 100 members of the UN passed UNGA resolution 68/262, rejecting the "referendum" as baseless and invalid and confirming the sovereignty, political independence, unity, and territorial integrity of Ukraine. Russia also continues to supply proxies in two of Ukraine's eastern provinces with manpower, funding, and materiel resulting in an armed conflict with the Ukrainian Government. Representatives from Ukraine, Russia, and the unrecognized Russia proxy republics signed the Minsk Protocol and Memorandum in September 2014 to end the conflict. However, this agreement failed to stop the fighting. In a renewed attempt to alleviate ongoing clashes, leaders of Ukraine, Russia, France, and Germany negotiated a follow-on package of measures in February 2015 to implement the Minsk agreements. Representatives from Ukraine, Russia, France, Germany, and the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe also meet regularly to facilitate implementation of the peace deal. More than 10,000 civilians have been killed or wounded as a result of the Russian intervention in eastern Ukraine.

     

     

  • Geography :: Ukraine
  • Location:
    Eastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Poland, Romania, and Moldova in the west and Russia in the east
    Geographic coordinates:
    49 00 N, 32 00 E
    Map references:
    AsiaEurope
    Area:
    total: 603,550 sq km
    land: 579,330 sq km
    water: 24,220 sq km

    note: approximately 43,133 sq km, or about 7.1% of Ukraine's area, is Russian occupied; the seized area includes all of Crimea and about one-third of both Luhans'k and Donets'k oblasts

    country comparison to the world: 47
    Area - comparative:
    almost four times the size of Georgia; slightly smaller than Texas
    Area comparison map: Area comparison map
    Land boundaries:
    total: 5,618 km
    border countries (7): Belarus 1111 km, Hungary 128 km, Moldova 1202 km, Poland 535 km, Romania 601 km, Russia 1944 km, Slovakia 97 km
    Coastline:
    2,782 km
    Maritime claims:
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    continental shelf: 200 m or to the depth of exploitation
    Climate:
    temperate continental; Mediterranean only on the southern Crimean coast; precipitation disproportionately distributed, highest in west and north, lesser in east and southeast; winters vary from cool along the Black Sea to cold farther inland; warm summers across the greater part of the country, hot in the south
    Terrain:
    mostly fertile plains (steppes) and plateaus, with mountains found only in the west (the Carpathians) or in the extreme south of the Crimean Peninsula
    Elevation:
    mean elevation: 175 m
    lowest point: Black Sea 0 m
    highest point: Hora Hoverla 2,061 m
    Natural resources:
    iron ore, coal, manganese, natural gas, oil, salt, sulfur, graphite, titanium, magnesium, kaolin, nickel, mercury, timber, arable land
    Land use:
    agricultural land: 71.2% (2011 est.)
    arable land: 56.1% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 1.5% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 13.6% (2011 est.)
    forest: 16.8% (2011 est.)
    other: 12% (2011 est.)
    Irrigated land:
    21,670 sq km (2012)
    Population distribution:
    densest settlement in the eastern (Donbas) and western regions; noteable concentrations in and around major urban areas of Kyiv, Kharkiv, Donets'k, Dnipropetrovs'k, and Odesa
    Natural hazards:
    occasional floods; occasional droughts
    Environment - current issues:
    air and water pollution; land degradation; solid waste management; biodiversity loss; deforestation; radiation contamination in the northeast from 1986 accident at Chornobyl' Nuclear Power Plant
    Environment - international agreements:
    party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds
    Geography - note:
    strategic position at the crossroads between Europe and Asia; second-largest country in Europe after Russia
  • People and Society :: Ukraine
  • Population:
    43,952,299 (July 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 32
    Nationality:
    noun: Ukrainian(s)
    adjective: Ukrainian
    Ethnic groups:
    Ukrainian 77.8%, Russian 17.3%, Belarusian 0.6%, Moldovan 0.5%, Crimean Tatar 0.5%, Bulgarian 0.4%, Hungarian 0.3%, Romanian 0.3%, Polish 0.3%, Jewish 0.2%, other 1.8% (2001 est.)
    Languages:
    Ukrainian (official) 67.5%, Russian (regional language) 29.6%, other (includes small Crimean Tatar-, Moldovan/Romanian-, and Hungarian-speaking minorities) 2.9% (2001 est.)

    note: in February 2018, the Constitutional Court ruled that 2012 language legislation entitling a language spoken by at least 10% of an oblast's population to be given the status of "regional language" - allowing for its use in courts, schools, and other government institutions - was unconstitutional, thus making the law invalid; Ukrainian remains the country's only official nationwide language

    Religions:
    Orthodox (includes Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox (UAOC), Ukrainian Orthodox - Kyiv Patriarchate (UOC-KP), Ukrainian Orthodox - Moscow Patriarchate (UOC-MP)), Ukrainian Greek Catholic, Roman Catholic, Protestant, Muslim, Jewish (2013 est.)

    note: Ukraine's population is overwhelmingly Christian; the vast majority - up to two-thirds - identify themselves as Orthodox, but many do not specify a particular branch; the UOC-KP and the UOC-MP each represent less than a quarter of the country's population, the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church accounts for 8-10%, and the UAOC accounts for 1-2%; Muslim and Jewish adherents each compose less than 1% of the total population

    Age structure:
    0-14 years: 15.95% (male 3,609,386 /female 3,400,349)
    15-24 years: 9.57% (male 2,156,338 /female 2,047,821)
    25-54 years: 44.03% (male 9,522,108 /female 9,831,924)
    55-64 years: 13.96% (male 2,638,173 /female 3,499,718)
    65 years and over: 16.49% (male 2,433,718 /female 4,812,764) (2018 est.)
    population pyramid: population pyramid
    Dependency ratios:
    total dependency ratio: 44.8 (2015 est.)
    youth dependency ratio: 21.8 (2015 est.)
    elderly dependency ratio: 23 (2015 est.)
    potential support ratio: 4.3 (2015 est.)

    note: data include Crimea

    Median age:
    total: 40.8 years
    male: 37.7 years
    female: 43.9 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 47
    Population growth rate:
    0.04% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 187
    Birth rate:
    10.1 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 190
    Death rate:
    14.3 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 6
    Net migration rate:
    4.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 29
    Population distribution:
    densest settlement in the eastern (Donbas) and western regions; noteable concentrations in and around major urban areas of Kyiv, Kharkiv, Donets'k, Dnipropetrovs'k, and Odesa
    Urbanization:
    urban population: 69.4% of total population (2018)
    rate of urbanization: -0.33% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    Major urban areas - population:
    2.957 million KYIV (capital), 1.436 million Kharkiv, 1.01 million Odesa, 969,000 Dnipropetrovsk, 919,000 Donetsk (2018)
    Sex ratio:
    at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.75 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.51 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.86 male(s)/female (2018 est.)
    Mother's mean age at first birth:
    24.9 years (2014 est.)
    Maternal mortality rate:
    24 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 125
    Infant mortality rate:
    total: 7.7 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 8.6 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 6.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 157
    Life expectancy at birth:
    total population: 72.4 years
    male: 67.7 years
    female: 77.4 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 148
    Total fertility rate:
    1.55 children born/woman (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 190
    Contraceptive prevalence rate:
    65.4% (2012)
    Health expenditures:
    7.1% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 80
    Physicians density:
    3.01 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
    Hospital bed density:
    8.8 beds/1,000 population (2013)
    Drinking water source:
    improved: urban: 95.5% of population
    rural: 97.8% of population
    total: 96.2% of population
    unimproved: urban: 4.5% of population
    rural: 2.2% of population
    total: 3.8% of population (2015 est.)
    Sanitation facility access:
    improved: urban: 97.4% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 92.6% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 95.9% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 2.6% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 7.4% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 4.1% of population (2015 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
    0.9% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 49
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
    240,000 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 24
    HIV/AIDS - deaths:
    9,000 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 21
    Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
    24.1% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 61
    Education expenditures:
    5% of GDP (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 68
    Literacy:
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)
    total population: 99.8%
    male: 99.8%
    female: 99.7% (2015 est.)
    School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
    total: 15 years
    male: 15 years
    female: 16 years (2014)
    Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
    total: 23%
    male: 24%
    female: 21.5% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 57
  • Government :: Ukraine
  • Country name:
    conventional long form: none
    conventional short form: Ukraine
    local long form: none
    local short form: Ukrayina
    former: Ukrainian National Republic, Ukrainian State, Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic
    etymology: name derives from the Old East Slavic word "ukraina" meaning "borderland or march (militarized border region)" and began to be used extensively in the 19th century; originally Ukrainians referred to themselves as Rusyny (Rusyns, Ruthenians, or Ruthenes), an endonym derived from the medieval Rus state (Kyivan Rus)
    Government type:
    semi-presidential republic
    Capital:
    name: Kyiv (Kiev)
    geographic coordinates: 50 26 N, 30 31 E
    time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

    note: pronounced KAY-yiv

    etymology: the name is associated with that of Kyi, who along with his brothers Shchek and Khoryv, and their sister Lybid, are the legendary founders of the medieval city of Kyiv; Kyi being the eldest brother, the city was named after him

    Administrative divisions:
    24 provinces (oblasti, singular - oblast'), 1 autonomous republic* (avtonomna respublika), and 2 municipalities** (mista, singular - misto) with oblast status; Cherkasy, Chernihiv, Chernivtsi, Crimea or Avtonomna Respublika Krym* (Simferopol'), Dnipropetrovs'k (Dnipro), Donets'k, Ivano-Frankivs'k, Kharkiv, Kherson, Khmel'nyts'kyy, Kirovohrad (Kropyvnyts'kyy), Kyiv**, Kyiv, Luhans'k, L'viv, Mykolayiv, Odesa, Poltava, Rivne, Sevastopol'**, Sumy, Ternopil', Vinnytsya, Volyn' (Luts'k), Zakarpattya (Uzhhorod), Zaporizhzhya, Zhytomyr

    note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses); plans include the eventual renaming of Dnipropetrovsk and Kirovohrad oblasts, but because these names are mentioned in the Constitution of Ukraine, the change will require a constitutional amendment

    note: the US Government does not recognize Russia's annexation of Ukraine's Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the municipality of Sevastopol, nor their redesignation as the "Republic of Crimea" and the "Federal City of Sevastopol"

    Independence:
    24 August 1991 (from the Soviet Union); notable earlier dates: ca. 982 (VOLODYMYR I consolidates Kyivan Rus); 1199 (Principality (later Kingdom) of Ruthenia formed; 1648 (establishment of the Cossack Hetmanate)
    National holiday:
    Independence Day, 24 August (1991); note - 22 January 1918, the day Ukraine first declared its independence from Soviet Russia, and the date the short-lived Western and Greater (Eastern) Ukrainian republics united (1919), is now celebrated as Unity Day
    Constitution:
    history: several previous; latest adopted and ratified 28 June 1996
    amendments: proposed by the president of Ukraine or by at least one-third of the Supreme Council members; adoption requires simple majority vote by the Council and at least two-thirds majority vote in its next regular session; adoption of proposals relating to general constitutional principles, elections, and amendment procedures requires two-thirds majority vote by the Council and approval in a referendum; constitutional articles on personal rights and freedoms, national independence, and territorial integrity cannot be amended; amended 2004, 2010, 2015, latest in 2016 (2018)
    International law organization participation:
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
    Citizenship:
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Ukraine
    dual citizenship recognized: no
    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
    Suffrage:
    18 years of age; universal
    Executive branch:
    chief of state: President Volodymyr ZELENSKY (since 20 May 2019)
    head of government: Prime Minister Volodymyr HROYSMAN (since 14 April 2016); First Deputy Prime Minister Stepan KUBIV (since 14 April 2016)
    cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers nominated by the prime minister, approved by the Verkhovna Rada
    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 31 March and 21 April 2019 (next to be held in March 2024); prime minister selected by the Verkhovna Rada
    election results: first round results: percent of vote - Volodymyr ZELENSKY (Servant of the People) 30.2%, Petro POROSHENKO (BPP) 15.6%, Yuliya TYMOSHENKO (Fatherland) 13.4%, Yuriy BOYKO (independent) 11.7%, 35 other candidates 29.1%; second round results: percent of vote - Volodymyr ZELENSKY (Servant of the People) 73.2%, Petro POROSHENKO (BPP) 24.5%; Volodymyr HROYSMAN (BPP) elected prime minister; Verkhovna Rada vote - 257-50

    note: there is also a National Security and Defense Council or NSDC originally created in 1992 as the National Security Council; the NSDC staff is tasked with developing national security policy on domestic and international matters and advising the president; a presidential administration helps draft presidential edicts and provides policy support to the president

    Legislative branch:
    description: unicameral Supreme Council or Verkhovna Rada (450 seats; 225 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 225 directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by closed, party-list proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)
    elections: last held on 26 October 2014 (next to be held by 27 October 2019)
    election results: percent of vote by party/coalition - NF 22.1%, BPP 21.8%, Samopomich 11%, OB 9.4%, Radical 7.4%, Batkivshchyna 5.7%, Svoboda 4.7%, CPU 3.9%, other 14%; seats by party/coalition - BPP 132, NF 82, Samopomich 33, OB 29, Radical 22, Batkivshchyna 19, Svoboda 6, other 4, independent 96, vacant 27; composition - men 374, women 49, percent of women 12%; note - voting not held in Crimea and parts of two Russian-occupied eastern oblasts leaving 27 seats vacant

    note: seats by party/coalition as of December 2018 - BPP 135, NF 81, OB 38, Samopomich 25, Vidrodzhennya 24, Radical 21, Batkivshchyna 20, VN 19, independent 60, vacant 27; composition - men 371, women 52, percent of women 12.3%

    Judicial branch:
    highest courts: Supreme Court of Ukraine or SCU (consists of 113 judges, with the possibility of up to 200 and organized into civil, criminal, commercial and administrative chambers, and a grand chamber); Constitutional Court (consists of 18 justices)
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges recommended by the High Qualification Commission of Judges of Ukraine (a 16-member state body responsible for judicial candidate testing and assessment, and judicial administration), proposed by the Supreme Council of Justice  (SCJ), a 21-member independent body of judicial officials and other appointees, and appointed by the president; judges serve until mandatory retirement at age 65; Constitutional Court justices appointed - 6 each by the president, by the SCU, and by the Verkhovna Rada; justices serve 9-year nonrenewable terms
    subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; High Anti-Corruption Court (came into force mid-2018); district courts; note - specialized courts were abolished as part of Ukraine's judicial reform program

    note: in 2014, President POROSHENKO initiated a national judicial reform program with the formation of the Judicial Reform Council; it produced a multi-year strategy for judicial reform that the president approved that same year

    Political parties and leaders:
    Batkivshchyna (Fatherland) [Yuliya TYMOSHENKO]
    Bloc of Petro Poroshenko – Solidarnist or BPP [Petro POROSHENKO] (formed from the merger of Solidarnist and UDAR)
    Hromadyanska Positsiya (Civic Position) [Anatoliy HRYTSENKO]
    Narodnyy Front (People's Front) or NF [Arseniy YATSENIUK]
    Opposition Bloc or OB [Vadym NOVINSKYY]
    Opposition Platform For Life [Yuriy BOYKO]
    Radical Party [Oleh LYASHKO]
    Samopomich (Self Reliance) [Andriy SADOVYY]
    Svoboda (Freedom) [Oleh TYAHNYBOK]
    Ukrainian Association of Patriots or UKROP [Taras BATENKO]
    Vidrodzhennya (Revival) [Vitaliy KHOMUTYNNIK]
    Volya Narodu (People's Will) or VN [Yaroslav MOSKALENKO] (parliamentary group)
    International organization participation:
    Australia Group, BSEC, CBSS (observer), CD, CE, CEI, CICA (observer), CIS (participating member, has not signed the 1993 CIS charter), EAEC (observer), EAPC, EBRD, FAO, GCTU, GUAM, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAIA (observer), MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, SELEC (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
    Diplomatic representation in the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador Valeriy CHALYY (since 3 August 2015)
    chancery: 3350 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20007
    telephone: [1] (202) 349-2920
    FAX: [1] (202) 333-0817
    consulate(s) general: Chicago, New York, San Francisco, Seattle
    Diplomatic representation from the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador Marie YOVANOVITCH (since 29 August 2016)
    embassy: 4 A. I. Igor Sikorsky Street, 04112 Kyiv
    mailing address: 5850 Kyiv Place, Washington, DC 20521-5850
    telephone: [380] (44) 521-5000
    FAX: [380] (44) 521-5155
    Flag description:
    two equal horizontal bands of azure (top) and golden yellow represent grain fields under a blue sky
    National symbol(s):
    tryzub (trident); national colors: blue, yellow
    National anthem:
    name: "Shche ne vmerla Ukraina" (Ukraine Has Not Yet Perished)
    lyrics/music: Paul CHUBYNSKYI/Mikhail VERBYTSKYI

    note: music adopted 1991, lyrics adopted 2003; song first performed in 1864 at the Ukraine Theatre in Lviv; the lyrics, originally written in 1862, were revised in 2003

  • Economy :: Ukraine
  • Economy - overview:

    After Russia, the Ukrainian Republic was the most important economic component of the former Soviet Union, producing about four times the output of the next-ranking republic. Its fertile black soil accounted for more than one-fourth of Soviet agricultural output, and its farms provided substantial quantities of meat, milk, grain, and vegetables to other republics. Likewise, its diversified heavy industry supplied unique equipment such as large diameter pipes and vertical drilling apparatus, and raw materials to industrial and mining sites in other regions of the former USSR.

    Shortly after independence in August 1991, the Ukrainian Government liberalized most prices and erected a legal framework for privatization, but widespread resistance to reform within the government and the legislature soon stalled reform efforts and led to some backtracking. Output by 1999 had fallen to less than 40% of the 1991 level. Outside institutions - particularly the IMF encouraged Ukraine to quicken the pace and scope of reforms to foster economic growth. Ukrainian Government officials eliminated most tax and customs privileges in a March 2005 budget law, bringing more economic activity out of Ukraine's large shadow economy. From 2000 until mid-2008, Ukraine's economy was buoyant despite political turmoil between the prime minister and president. The economy contracted nearly 15% in 2009, among the worst economic performances in the world. In April 2010, Ukraine negotiated a price discount on Russian gas imports in exchange for extending Russia's lease on its naval base in Crimea.

    Ukraine’s oligarch-dominated economy grew slowly from 2010 to 2013, but remained behind peers in the region and among Europe’s poorest. After former President YANUKOVYCH fled the country during the Revolution of Dignity, Ukraine’s economy fell into crisis because of Russia’s annexation of Crimea, military conflict in the eastern part of the country, and a trade war with Russia, resulting in a 17% decline in GDP, inflation at nearly 60%, and dwindling foreign currency reserves. The international community began efforts to stabilize the Ukrainian economy, including a March 2014 IMF assistance package of $17.5 billion, of which Ukraine has received four disbursements, most recently in April 2017, bringing the total disbursed as of that date to approximately $8.4 billion. Ukraine has made significant progress on reforms designed to make the country prosperous, democratic, and transparent, including creation of a national anti-corruption agency, overhaul of the banking sector, establishment of a transparent VAT refund system, and increased transparency in government procurement. But more improvements are needed, including fighting corruption, developing capital markets, improving the business environment to attract foreign investment, privatizing state-owned enterprises, and land reform. The fifth tranche of the IMF program, valued at $1.9 billion, was delayed in mid-2017 due to lack of progress on outstanding reforms, including adjustment of gas tariffs to import parity levels and adoption of legislation establishing an independent anti-corruption court.

    Russia’s occupation of Crimea in March 2014 and ongoing aggression in eastern Ukraine have hurt economic growth. With the loss of a major portion of Ukraine’s heavy industry in Donbas and ongoing violence, the economy contracted by 6.6% in 2014 and by 9.8% in 2015, but it returned to low growth in in 2016 and 2017, reaching 2.3% and 2.0%, respectively, as key reforms took hold. Ukraine also redirected trade activity towards the EU following the implementation of a bilateral Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Agreement, displacing Russia as its largest trading partner. A prohibition on commercial trade with separatist-controlled territories in early 2017 has not impacted Ukraine’s key industrial sectors as much as expected, largely because of favorable external conditions. Ukraine returned to international debt markets in September 2017, issuing a $3 billion sovereign bond.

    GDP (purchasing power parity):
    $369.6 billion (2017 est.)
    $360.5 billion (2016 est.)
    $351.9 billion (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 50
    GDP (official exchange rate):
    $112.1 billion (2017 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate:
    2.5% (2017 est.)
    2.4% (2016 est.)
    -9.8% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 135
    GDP - per capita (PPP):
    $8,800 (2017 est.)
    $8,500 (2016 est.)
    $8,300 (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 146
    Gross national saving:
    18.9% of GDP (2017 est.)
    20.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
    17.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 105
    GDP - composition, by end use:
    household consumption: 66.5% (2017 est.)
    government consumption: 20.4% (2017 est.)
    investment in fixed capital: 16% (2017 est.)
    investment in inventories: 4.7% (2017 est.)
    exports of goods and services: 47.9% (2017 est.)
    imports of goods and services: -55.6% (2017 est.)
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
    agriculture: 12.2% (2017 est.)
    industry: 28.6% (2017 est.)
    services: 60% (2017 est.)
    Agriculture - products:
    grain, sugar beets, sunflower seeds, vegetables; beef, milk
    Industries:
    coal, electric power, ferrous and nonferrous metals, machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, food processing
    Industrial production growth rate:
    3.1% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 100
    Labor force:
    17.99 million (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 34
    Labor force - by occupation:
    agriculture: 5.8%
    industry: 26.5%
    services: 67.8% (2014)
    Unemployment rate:
    9.2% (2017 est.)
    9.3% (2016 est.)

    note: officially registered workers; large number of unregistered or underemployed workers

    country comparison to the world: 133
    Population below poverty line:
    3.8% (2016 est.)
    Household income or consumption by percentage share:
    lowest 10%: 4.2%
    highest 10%: 21.6% (2015 est.)
    Distribution of family income - Gini index:
    25.5 (2015)
    28.2 (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 151
    Budget:
    revenues: 29.82 billion (2017 est.)
    expenditures: 31.55 billion (2017 est.)

    note: this is the planned, consolidated budget

    Taxes and other revenues:
    26.6% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 108
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
    -1.5% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 92
    Public debt:
    71% of GDP (2017 est.)
    81.2% of GDP (2016 est.)

    note: the total public debt of $64.5 billion consists of: domestic public debt ($23.8 billion); external public debt ($26.1 billion); and sovereign guarantees ($14.6 billion)

    country comparison to the world: 48
    Fiscal year:
    calendar year
    Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    14.4% (2017 est.)
    13.9% (2016 est.)

    note: Excluding the temporarily occupied territories of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, the city of Sevastopol and part of the anti-terrorist operation zone

    country comparison to the world: 210
    Central bank discount rate:
    22% (23 December 2015)
    7.5% (31 January 2012)
    country comparison to the world: 3
    Commercial bank prime lending rate:
    16.38% (31 December 2017 est.)
    19.24% (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 30
    Stock of narrow money:
    $21.92 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $19.49 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 67
    Stock of broad money:
    $21.92 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $19.49 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 68
    Stock of domestic credit:
    $63.63 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $61.65 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 61
    Market value of publicly traded shares:
    $20.71 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    $25.56 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $39.46 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 62
    Current account balance:
    -$2.088 billion (2017 est.)
    -$1.394 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 166
    Exports:
    $39.69 billion (2017 est.)
    $33.56 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 55
    Exports - partners:
    Russia 9.2%, Poland 6.5%, Turkey 5.6%, India 5.5%, Italy 5.2%, China 4.6%, Germany 4.3% (2017)
    Exports - commodities:
    ferrous and nonferrous metals, fuel and petroleum products, chemicals, machinery and transport equipment, foodstuffs
    Imports:
    $49.06 billion (2017 est.)
    $40.5 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 53
    Imports - commodities:
    energy, machinery and equipment, chemicals
    Imports - partners:
    Russia 14.5%, China 11.3%, Germany 11.2%, Poland 7%, Belarus 6.7%, US 5.1% (2017)
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
    $18.81 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $15.54 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 61
    Debt - external:
    $130 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $121.1 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 45
    Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
    $67.22 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $64.95 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 54
    Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
    $7.59 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $7.983 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 68
    Exchange rates:
    hryvnia (UAH) per US dollar -
    26.71 (2017 est.)
    25.5513 (2016 est.)
    25.5513 (2015 est.)
    21.8447 (2014 est.)
    11.8867 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: Ukraine
  • Electricity access:
    electrification - total population: 100% (2016)
    Electricity - production:
    153.6 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 26
    Electricity - consumption:
    133.2 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 28
    Electricity - exports:
    3.591 billion kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 39
    Electricity - imports:
    77 million kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 103
    Electricity - installed generating capacity:
    57.28 million kW (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 20
    Electricity - from fossil fuels:
    65% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 120
    Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
    23% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 4
    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
    8% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 125
    Electricity - from other renewable sources:
    3% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 129
    Crude oil - production:
    29,650 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 62
    Crude oil - exports:
    413 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 79
    Crude oil - imports:
    4,720 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 76
    Crude oil - proved reserves:
    395 million bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 49
    Refined petroleum products - production:
    63,670 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 77
    Refined petroleum products - consumption:
    233,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 53
    Refined petroleum products - exports:
    1,828 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 105
    Refined petroleum products - imports:
    167,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 37
    Natural gas - production:
    19.73 billion cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 31
    Natural gas - consumption:
    30.92 billion cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 30
    Natural gas - exports:
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 206
    Natural gas - imports:
    12.97 billion cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 25
    Natural gas - proved reserves:
    1.104 trillion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 24
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
    238.9 million Mt (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 28
  • Communications :: Ukraine
  • Telephones - fixed lines:
    total subscriptions: 7,186,579 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 16 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 22
    Telephones - mobile cellular:
    total subscriptions: 55,714,733 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 127 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 27
    Telephone system:
    general assessment: Ukraine's telecommunication development plan emphasizes improving domestic trunk lines, international connections, and the mobile-cellular system; Turkey and Russian have made investments to telecom market; competition available between 3 alternative operators; LTE services available; Fttp networks taking over DSL platforms; political tensions have not added to growth and telecom regulators must not count Crimea numbers (Annexed by Russia in 2014); mobile broadband services present a growth opportunity
    domestic: the country's former sole telephone provider, Ukrtelekom, was successfully privatized 2011 and independent foreign-invested private companies now provide substantial telecommunications services; fixed-line teledensity is 16 per 100; the mobile-cellular telephone system's expansion has slowed, largely due to saturation of the market that is now 127 mobile phones per 100 persons
    international: country code - 380; 2 new domestic trunk lines are a part of the fiber-optic Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) system and 3 Ukrainian links have been installed in the fiber-optic Trans-European Lines (TEL) project that connects 18 countries; additional international service is provided by the Italy-Turkey-Ukraine-Russia (ITUR) fiber-optic submarine cable and by an unknown number of earth stations in the Intelsat, Inmarsat, and Intersputnik satellite systems; new cable to Crimean peninsula is operational
    Broadcast media:

    Ukraine’s media landscape is dominated by oligarch-owned news outlets, which are often politically motivated and at odds with one another and/or the government; while polls suggest most Ukrainians still receive news from traditional media sources, social media is a crucial component of information dissemination in Ukraine; almost all Ukrainian politicians and opinion leaders communicate with the public via social media and maintain at least one social media page, if not more; this allows them direct communication with audiences, and news often breaks on Facebook or Twitter before being picked up by traditional news outlets

    Ukraine television serves as the principal source of news; the largest national networks are controlled by oligarchs: TRK Ukraina is owned by Rinat Akhmetov; Studio 1+1 is owned by Igor Kolomoisky; Inter is owned by Dmytro Firtash and Serhii Lyovochkin; and StarlightMedia channels (ICTV, STB, and Novyi Kanal) are owned by Victor Pinchuk;  a set of 24-hour news channels also have clear political affiliations: 112-Ukraine and NewsOne tacitly support pro-Russian opposition and are believed to be controlled by political and business tycoon Viktor Medvedchuk; pro-Ukrainian government Channel 5 and Pryamyi are linked to President Petro Poroshenko; 24 and ZIK are owned by opposition, but not pro-Russian, politicians; UA: Suspilne is a public television station under the umbrella of the National Public Broadcasting Company of Ukraine; while it is often praised by media experts for balanced coverage, it lags in popularity; Ukrainian Radio, institutionally linked to UA: Suspilne, is one of only two national talk radio networks, with the other being the privately owned Radio NV

    Internet country code:
    .ua
    Internet users:
    total: 23,202,067 (July 2016 est.)
    percent of population: 52.5% (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 29
    Broadband - fixed subscriptions:
    total: 5,239,743 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 12 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 27
  • Transportation :: Ukraine
  • National air transport system:
    number of registered air carriers: 17 (2015)
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 92 (2015)
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 4,613,224 (2015)
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 37,721,565 mt-km (2015)
    Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
    UR (2016)
    Airports:
    187 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 31
    Airports - with paved runways:
    total: 108 (2013)
    over 3,047 m: 13 (2013)
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 42 (2013)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 22 (2013)
    914 to 1,523 m: 3 (2013)
    under 914 m: 28 (2013)
    Airports - with unpaved runways:
    total: 79 (2013)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 5 (2013)
    914 to 1,523 m: 5 (2013)
    under 914 m: 69 (2013)
    Heliports:
    9 (2013)
    Pipelines:
    36720 km gas, 4514 km oil, 4363 km refined products (2013)
    Railways:
    total: 21,733 km (2014)
    standard gauge: 49 km 1.435-m gauge (49 km electrified) (2014)
    broad gauge: 21,684 km 1.524-m gauge (9,250 km electrified) (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 12
    Roadways:
    total: 169,694 km (2012)
    paved: 166,095 km (includes 17 km of expressways) (2012)
    unpaved: 3,599 km (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 27
    Waterways:
    1,672 km (most on Dnieper River) (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 46
    Merchant marine:
    total: 417
    by type: container ship 1, general cargo 92, oil tanker 14, other 310 (2018)
    country comparison to the world: 43
    Ports and terminals:
    major seaport(s): Feodosiya (Theodosia), Illichivsk, Mariupol', Mykolayiv, Odesa, Yuzhnyy
  • Military and Security :: Ukraine
  • Military expenditures:
    3.5% of GDP (2017)
    3.67% of GDP (2016)
    3.97% of GDP (2015)
    3.02% of GDP (2014)
    2.39% of GDP (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 22
    Military branches:
    Armed Forces of Ukraine (Zbroyni Syly Ukrayiny, ZSU): Ground Forces (Sukhoputni Viys’ka), Naval Forces (Viys’kovo-Mors’ki Syly, VMS), Air Forces (Povitryani Syly, PS), Air Assault Forces (Desantno-shturmovi Viyska, DShV) (2019)
    Military service age and obligation:
    20-27 years of age for compulsory military service; conscript service obligation is 12 months (2019)
  • Transnational Issues :: Ukraine
  • Disputes - international:

    1997 boundary delimitation treaty with Belarus remains unratified due to unresolved financial claims, stalling demarcation and reducing border security; delimitation of land boundary with Russia is complete and demarcation began in 2012; the dispute over the boundary between Russia and Ukraine through the Kerch Strait and Sea of Azov is suspended due to the occupation of Crimea by Russia; Ukraine and Moldova signed an agreement officially delimiting their border in 1999, but the border has not been demarcated due to Moldova's difficulties with the break-away region of Transnistria; Moldova and Ukraine operate joint customs posts to monitor transit of people and commodities through Moldova's Transnistria Region, which remains under the auspices of an Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe-mandated peacekeeping mission comprised of Moldovan, Transnistrian, Russian, and Ukrainian troops; the ICJ ruled largely in favor of Romania in its dispute submitted in 2004 over Ukrainian-administered Zmiyinyy/Serpilor (Snake) Island and Black Sea maritime boundary delimitation; Romania opposes Ukraine's reopening of a navigation canal from the Danube border through Ukraine to the Black Sea

    Refugees and internally displaced persons:
    IDPs: 1.5 million (Russian-sponsored separatist violence in Crimea and eastern Ukraine) (2019)
    stateless persons: 35,650 (2018); note - citizens of the former USSR who were permanently resident in Ukraine were granted citizenship upon Ukraine's independence in 1991, but some missed this window of opportunity; people arriving after 1991, Crimean Tatars, ethnic Koreans, people with expired Soviet passports, and people with no documents have difficulty acquiring Ukrainian citizenship; following the fall of the Soviet Union in 1989, thousands of Crimean Tatars and their descendants deported from Ukraine under the STALIN regime returned to their homeland, some being stateless and others holding the citizenship of Uzbekistan or other former Soviet republics; a 1998 bilateral agreement between Ukraine and Uzbekistan simplified the process of renouncing Uzbek citizenship and obtaining Ukrainian citizenship
    Trafficking in persons:
    current situation: Ukraine is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; Ukrainian victims are sex trafficked within Ukraine as well as in Russia, Poland, Iraq, Spain, Turkey, Cyprus, Greece, Seychelles, Portugal, the Czech Republic, Israel, Italy, South Korea, Moldova, China, the United Arab Emirates, Montenegro, UK, Kazakhstan, Tunisia, and other countries; small numbers of foreigners from Moldova, Russia, Vietnam, Uzbekistan, Pakistan, Cameroon, and Azerbaijan were victims of labor trafficking in Ukraine; Ukrainian recruiters most often target Ukrainians from rural areas with limited job prospects using fraud, coercion, and debt bondage
    tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List – Ukraine does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; the government’s focus on its security situation constrained its anti-trafficking capabilities; law enforcement efforts to pursue trafficking cases weakened in 2014, continuing a multi-year decline, and no investigations, prosecutions, or convictions of government officials were made, despite reports of official complicity in the sex and labor trafficking of children living in state-run institutions; fewer victims were identified and referred to NGOs, which continued to provide and to fund the majority of victims’ services (2015)
    Illicit drugs:
    limited cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy, mostly for CIS consumption; some synthetic drug production for export to the West; limited government eradication program; used as transshipment point for opiates and other illicit drugs from Africa, Latin America, and Turkey to Europe and Russia; Ukraine has improved anti-money-laundering controls, resulting in its removal from the Financial Action Task Force's (FATF's) Noncooperative Countries and Territories List in February 2004; Ukraine's anti-money-laundering regime continues to be monitored by FATF