Africa :: BURKINA FASO
  • Introduction :: BURKINA FASO

  • Burkina Faso (formerly Upper Volta) achieved independence from France in 1960. Repeated military coups during the 1970s and 1980s were followed by multiparty elections in the early 1990s. Former President Blaise COMPAORE (1987-2014) resigned in late October 2014 following popular protests against his efforts to amend the constitution's two-term presidential limit. An interim administration organized presidential and legislative elections - finally held in November 2015 - where Roch Marc Christian KABORE was elected president. The country experienced terrorist attacks in its capital in 2016, 2017, and 2018 and continues to mobilize resources to counter terrorist threats. Burkina Faso's high population growth, recurring drought, pervasive and perennial food insecurity, and limited natural resources result in poor economic prospects for the majority of its citizens.
  • Geography :: BURKINA FASO

  • Western Africa, north of Ghana
    13 00 N, 2 00 W
    Africa
    total: 274,200 sq km
    land: 273,800 sq km
    water: 400 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 76
    slightly larger than Colorado
    total: 3,611 km
    border countries (6): Benin 386 km, Cote d'Ivoire 545 km, Ghana 602 km, Mali 1,325 km, Niger 622 km, Togo 131 km
    0 km (landlocked)
    none (landlocked)
    tropical; warm, dry winters; hot, wet summers
    mostly flat to dissected, undulating plains; hills in west and southeast
    mean elevation: 297 m
    elevation extremes: lowest point: Mouhoun (Black Volta) River 200 m
    highest point: Tena Kourou 749 m
    manganese, limestone, marble; small deposits of gold, phosphates, pumice, salt
    agricultural land: 43%
    arable land 20.8%; permanent crops 0.3%; permanent pasture 21.9%
    forest: 20.4%
    other: 36.6% (2011 est.)
    550 sq km (2012)
    the population is concentrated in the central and southern parts of the country; the east, north, and southwest are less populated
    recurring droughts
    recent droughts and desertification severely affecting agricultural activities, population distribution, and the economy; overgrazing; soil degradation; deforestation
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    landlocked savanna cut by the three principal rivers of the Black, Red, and White Voltas
  • People and Society :: BURKINA FASO

  • 20,107,509
    note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 59
    noun: Burkinabe (singular and plural)
    adjective: Burkinabe
    Mossi 52%, Fulani 8.4%, Gurma 7%, Bobo 4.9%, Gurunsi 4.6%, Senufo 4.5%, Bissa 3.7%, Lobi 2.4%, Dagara 2.4%, Tuareg/Bella 1.9%, Dioula 0.8%, unspecified/no answer 0.3%, other 7.2% (2010 est.)
    French (official), native African languages belonging to Sudanic family spoken by 90% of the population
    Muslim 61.5%, Roman Catholic 23.3%, traditional/animist 7.8%, Protestant 6.5%, other/no answer 0.2%, none 0.7% (2010 est.)
    Burkina Faso has a young age structure – the result of declining mortality combined with steady high fertility – and continues to experience rapid population growth, which is putting increasing pressure on the country’s limited arable land. More than 65% of the population is under the age of 25, and the population is growing at 3% annually. Mortality rates, especially those of infants and children, have decreased because of improved health care, hygiene, and sanitation, but women continue to have an average of almost 6 children. Even if fertility were substantially reduced, today’s large cohort entering their reproductive years would sustain high population growth for the foreseeable future. Only about a third of the population is literate and unemployment is widespread, dampening the economic prospects of Burkina Faso’s large working-age population.
    Migration has traditionally been a way of life for Burkinabe, with seasonal migration being replaced by stints of up to two years abroad. Cote d’Ivoire remains the top destination, although it has experienced periods of internal conflict. Under French colonization, Burkina Faso became a main labor source for agricultural and factory work in Cote d’Ivoire. Burkinabe also migrated to Ghana, Mali, and Senegal for work between the world wars. Burkina Faso attracts migrants from Cote d’Ivoire, Ghana, and Mali, who often share common ethnic backgrounds with the Burkinabe. Despite its food shortages and high poverty rate, Burkina Faso has become a destination for refugees in recent years and hosts about 33,500 Malians as of May 2017.
    0-14 years: 44.88% (male 4,519,960/female 4,503,937)
    15-24 years: 20.07% (male 2,024,501/female 2,012,053)
    25-54 years: 29.42% (male 2,999,941/female 2,915,264)
    55-64 years: 3.2% (male 284,374/female 359,159)
    65 years and over: 2.43% (male 181,996/female 306,324) (2017 est.)
    total dependency ratio: 92.2
    youth dependency ratio: 87.6
    elderly dependency ratio: 4.6
    potential support ratio: 21.6 (2015 est.)
    total: 17.3 years
    male: 17.1 years
    female: 17.4 years (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 219
    3% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 8
    41.2 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 7
    11.2 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 28
    0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 76
    the population is concentrated in the central and southern parts of the country; the east, north, and southwest are less populated
    urban population: 29.4% of total population (2018)
    rate of urbanization: 4.99% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    OUAGADOUGOU (capital) 2.531 million; Bobo-Dioulasso 879,000 (2018)
    at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.77 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.6 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    19.4 years
    note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2010 est.)
    371 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 31
    total: 72.2 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 79.3 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 64.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 7
    total population: 55.9 years
    male: 53.8 years
    female: 58 years (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 211
    5.71 children born/woman (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 6
    25.5% (2016)
    5% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 140
    0.05 physicians/1,000 population (2012)
    0.4 beds/1,000 population (2010)
    improved:
    urban: 97.5% of population
    rural: 75.8% of population
    total: 82.3% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 2.5% of population
    rural: 24.2% of population
    total: 17.7% of population (2015 est.)
    improved:
    urban: 50.4% of population
    rural: 6.7% of population
    total: 19.7% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 49.6% of population
    rural: 93.3% of population
    total: 80.3% of population (2015 est.)
    0.8% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 51
    95,000 (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 44
    3,100 (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 40
    degree of risk: very high
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
    vectorborne disease: dengue fever, malaria, and yellow fever
    water contact disease: schistosomiasis
    respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
    animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
    5.6% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 175
    19.2% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 24
    4.2% of GDP (2015)
    country comparison to the world: 128
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 36%
    male: 43%
    female: 29.3% (2015 est.)
    total: 8 years
    male: 8 years
    female: 7 years (2013)
  • Government :: BURKINA FASO

  • conventional long form: none
    conventional short form: Burkina Faso
    local long form: none
    local short form: Burkina Faso
    former: Upper Volta, Republic of Upper Volta
    etymology: name translates as "Land of the Honest (Incorruptible) Men"
    presidential republic
    name: Ouagadougou
    geographic coordinates: 12 22 N, 1 31 W
    time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    13 regions; Boucle du Mouhoun, Cascades, Centre, Centre-Est, Centre-Nord, Centre-Ouest, Centre-Sud, Est, Hauts-Bassins, Nord, Plateau-Central, Sahel, Sud-Ouest
    5 August 1960 (from France)
    Republic Day, 11 December (1958); note - commemorates the day that Upper Volta became an autonomous republic in the French Community
    history: several previous; latest approved by referendum 2 June 1991, adopted 11 June 1991, temporarily suspended late October to mid-November 2014
    amendments: proposed by the president, by a majority of National Assembly membership, or by petition of at least 30,000 eligible voters submitted to the Assembly; passage requires at least three-fourths majority vote in the Assembly; failure to meet that threshold requires majority voter approval in a referendum; constitutional provisions on the form of government, the multiparty system, and national sovereignty cannot be amended; amended several times, last in 2012 (2017)
    civil law based on the French model and customary law
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Burkina Faso
    dual citizenship recognized: yes
    residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: President Roch Marc Christian KABORE (since 29 December 2015)
    head of government: Prime Minister Paul Kaba THIEBA (since 6 January 2016)
    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
    elections/appointments: president elected by absolute majority popular vote in two rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second); election last held on 29 November 2015 (next scheduled for November 2020); prime minister appointed by the president with consent of the National Assembly
    election results: Roch Marc Christian KABORE elected president in first round; percent of vote - Roch Marc Christian KABORE (MPP) 53.5%, Zephirin DIABRE (UPC) 29.6%, Tahirou BARRY (PAREN) 3.1%. Benewende Stanislas SANKARA (UNIR-MS) 2.8%, other 10.9%
    description: unicameral National Assembly (127 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms)
    elections: last held on 29 November 2015 (next to be held in 2020)
    election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - MPP 55, UPC 32, CDP 18, Union for Rebirth/Sankarist Party 5, ADF/RDA 3, NTD 3, other 10
    highest court(s): Supreme Court of Appeals or Cour de Cassation (consists of NA judges); Council of State (consists of NA judges); Constitutional Council or Conseil Constitutionnel (consists of the council president and 9 members)
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judge appointments mostly controlled by the president of Burkina Faso; judges have no term limits; Council of State judge appointment and tenure NA; Constitutional Council judges appointed by the president of Burkina Faso upon the proposal of the minister of justice and the president of the National Assembly; judges appointed for 9-year terms with one-third of membership renewed every 3 years
    subordinate courts: Appeals Court; High Court; first instance tribunals; district courts; specialized courts relating to issues of labor, children, and juveniles; village (customary) courts
    African Democratic Rally/Alliance for Democracy and Federation or ADF/RDA [Gilbert Noel OUEDRAOGO]
    African People’s Movement or MAP [Victorien TOUGOUMA]
    Congress for Democracy and Progress or CDP [Eddie KOMBOIGO]
    Le Faso Autrement [Ablasse OUEDRAOGO]
    New Alliance of the Faso or NAFA [Mahamoudou DICKO]
    New Time for Democracy or NTD [Vincent DABILGOU]
    Organization for Democracy and Work or ODT [Anatole BONKOUNGOU]
    Party for Development and Change or PDC [Aziz SEREME]
    Party for Democracy and Progress-Socialist Party or PDP-PS [Drabo TORO]
    Party for Democracy and Socialism/Metba or PDS/Metba [Philippe OUEDRAOGO]
    Party for National Renaissance or PAREN [Michel BERE]
    People's Movement for Progress or MPP [Simon COMPAORE]
    Rally for Democracy and Socialism or RDS [Francois OUEDRAOGO]
    Rally for the Development of Burkina or RDB [Celestin Saidou COMPAORE]
    Rally of Ecologists of Burkina Faso or RDEB [Adama SERE]
    Union for a New Burkina or UBN [Diemdioda DICKO]
    Union for Progress and Change or UPC [Zephirin DIABRE]
    Union for Rebirth - Sankarist Movement or UNIR-MS [Benewende Stanislas SANKARA]
    Union for the Republic or UPR [Toussaint Abel COULIBALY]
    Youth Alliance for the Republic and Independence or AJIR [Adama KANAZOE]
    ACP, AfDB, AU, CD, ECOWAS, EITI (compliant country), Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNITAR, UNWTO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    chief of mission: Ambassador Seydou KABORE (since 18 January 2017)
    chancery: 2340 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 332-5577
    FAX: [1] (202) 667-1882
    chief of mission: Ambassador Andrew YOUNG (since 1 December 2016)
    embassy: Rue 15.873, Avenue Sembene Ousmane, Ouaga 2000, Secteur 15
    mailing address: 01 B. P. 35, Ouagadougou 01; pouch mail - US Department of State, 2440 Ouagadougou Place, Washington, DC 20521-2440
    telephone: [226] 25-49-53-00
    FAX: [226] 25-49-56-28
    two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green with a yellow five-pointed star in the center; red recalls the country's struggle for independence, green is for hope and abundance, and yellow represents the country's mineral wealth
    note: uses the popular Pan-African colors of Ethiopia
    white stallion; national colors: red, yellow, green
    name: "Le Ditanye" (Anthem of Victory)
    lyrics/music: Thomas SANKARA
    note: adopted 1974; also known as "Une Seule Nuit" (One Single Night); written by the country's president, an avid guitar player
  • Economy :: BURKINA FASO

  • Burkina Faso is a poor, landlocked country that depends on adequate rainfall. Irregular patterns of rainfall, poor soil, and the lack of adequate communications and other infrastructure contribute to the economy’s vulnerability to external shocks. About 80% of the population is engaged in subsistence farming and cotton is the main cash crop. The country has few natural resources and a weak industrial base.
    Cotton and gold are Burkina Faso’s key exports - gold has accounted for about three-quarters of the country’s total export revenues. Burkina Faso’s economic growth and revenue depends largely on production levels and global prices for the two commodities. The country has seen an upswing in gold exploration, production, and exports.
    The fall of the COMPAORE government in 2014 and failed coup in September 2015 disrupted economic activity and strained government finances. In 2015, President Roch Marc Christian KABORE was elected to office, and in 2016, the government adopted a new development strategy, set forth in the 2016-2020 National Plan for Economic and Social Development, that aims to reduce poverty, build human capital, and to satisfy basic needs. A new three-year IMF program (2018-2020), approved in 2018, will allow the government to reduce the budget deficit and preserve critical spending on social services and priority public investments.
    While the end of the political crisis has allowed Burkina Faso’s economy to resume positive growth, the country’s fragile security situation could put these gains at risk. Political insecurity in neighboring Mali, unreliable energy supplies, and poor transportation links pose long-term challenges.
    $35.68 billion (2017 est.)
    $33.54 billion (2016 est.)
    $31.68 billion (2015 est.)
    note: data are in 2017 dollars
    country comparison to the world: 127
    $13.19 billion (2017 est.)
    6.4% (2017 est.)
    5.9% (2016 est.)
    4% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 27
    $1,900 (2017 est.)
    $1,800 (2016 est.)
    $1,700 (2015 est.)
    note: data are in 2017 dollars
    country comparison to the world: 210
    9.2% of GDP (2017 est.)
    7.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
    5.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 162
    household consumption: 56.7%
    government consumption: 26.2%
    investment in fixed capital: 29.4%
    investment in inventories: 2.4%
    exports of goods and services: 20.9%
    imports of goods and services: -35.7% (2017 est.)
    agriculture: 31.9%
    industry: 22%
    services: 46.1% (2017 est.)
    cotton, peanuts, shea nuts, sesame, sorghum, millet, corn, rice; livestock
    cotton lint, beverages, agricultural processing, soap, cigarettes, textiles, gold
    5.1% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 44
    8.501 million
    note: a large part of the male labor force migrates annually to neighboring countries for seasonal employment (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 61
    agriculture: 90%
    industry and services: 10% (2000 est.)
    77% (2004)
    country comparison to the world: 217
    40.1% (2009 est.)
    lowest 10%: 2.9%
    highest 10%: 32.2% (2009 est.)
    39.5 (2007)
    48.2 (1994)
    country comparison to the world: 70
    revenues: $2.635 billion
    expenditures: $3.332 billion (2017 est.)
    20% of GDP (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 156
    -5.3% of GDP (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 170
    32.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
    32.5% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 155
    calendar year
    1.5% (2017 est.)
    -0.2% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 69
    4.25% (31 December 2010)
    4.25% (31 December 2009)
    country comparison to the world: 97
    5.3% (31 December 2017 est.)
    5.3% (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 141
    $2.606 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $2.274 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 123
    $4.904 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $4.228 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 130
    $3.804 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $3.205 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 132
    $NA
    -$947 million (2017 est.)
    -$828 million (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 132
    $2.797 billion (2017 est.)
    $2.641 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 131
    gold, cotton, livestock
    Switzerland 44.9%, India 15.6%, South Africa 11.3%, Cote dIvoire 4.9% (2017)
    $2.923 billion (2017 est.)
    $2.802 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 148
    capital goods, foodstuffs, petroleum
    China 13.2%, Cote dIvoire 9.5%, US 8.2%, Thailand 8.1%, France 6.5%, Ghana 4.4%, Togo 4.4%, India 4.3% (2017)
    $45.3 million (31 December 2017 est.)
    $50.9 million (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 174
    $3.075 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $2.88 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 141
    Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar -
    605.3 (2017 est.)
    593.01 (2016 est.)
    593.01 (2015 est.)
    591.45 (2014 est.)
    494.42 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: BURKINA FASO

  • population without electricity: 14,100,000
    electrification - total population: 17%
    electrification - urban areas: 56%
    electrification - rural areas: 1% (2013)
    944 million kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 155
    1.321 billion kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 149
    0 kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 210
    443 million kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 85
    306,000 kW (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 156
    86.9% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 69
    0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 200
    10.5% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 118
    3.3% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 109
    0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 206
    0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 205
    0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 205
    0 bbl (1 January 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 206
    0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 208
    22,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 136
    0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 209
    20,890 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 119
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 142
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 206
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 203
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 203
    0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 202
    1.4 million Mt (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 158
  • Communications :: BURKINA FASO

  • total subscriptions: 75,727
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 148
    total: 15,404,040
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 77 (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 64
    general assessment: system includes microwave radio relay, open-wire, and radiotelephone communication stations
    domestic: fixed-line connections stand at less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular usage, fostered by multiple providers, is increasing steadily from a low base; 3 entities provide internet services; internet penetration is 11% countrywide, but higher in urban areas
    international: country code - 226; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2016)
    since the official inauguration of Terrestrial Digital Television (TNT) in December 2017, Burkina Faso now has 14 digital TV channels among which 2 are state-owned; there are more than 140 radio stations (commercial, religious, community) available throughout the country including a national and regional state-owned network; the state-owned Radio Burkina and the private Radio Omega are among the most widespread stations and both include broadcasts in French and local languages (2018)
    .bf
    total: 2,723,950
    percent of population: 14.0% (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 99
  • Transportation :: BURKINA FASO

  • number of registered air carriers: 1
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 3
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 122,589
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 55,868 mt-km (2015)
    XT (2016)
    23 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 133
    total: 2
    over 3,047 m: 1
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2017)
    total: 21
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
    914 to 1,523 m: 13
    under 914 m: 5 (2013)
    total: 622 km
    narrow gauge: 622 km 1.000-m gauge
    note: another 660 km of this railway extends into Cote d'Ivoire (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 109
    total: 15,272 km
    note: does not include urban roads (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 122
  • Military and Security :: BURKINA FASO

  • 1.23% of GDP (2016)
    1.33% of GDP (2015)
    1.43% of GDP (2014)
    1.39% of GDP (2013)
    1.32% of GDP (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 93
    Army, Central Army Group (joint logistics command), Air Force of Burkina Faso (Force Aerienne de Burkina Faso, FABF), National Gendarmerie, National Fire Brigade (Brigade Nationale des Sapeurs-Pompiers, BNSP) (2018)
    18 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription; women may serve in supporting roles (2013)
  • Terrorism :: BURKINA FASO

  • Ansarul Islam:
    aim(s): to end government control in parts of the north of the country and enforce sharia in the area of the ancient Fulani Empire of Djeelgodji
    area(s) of operation: targets Burkinabe security forces and civilians primarily in the country’s northern Sahel Region (April 2018)
    al-Qa'ida-affiliated Jama'at Nusrat al-Islam wal-Muslimin (JNIM):
    aim(s): establish an Islamic state centered in Mali
    area(s) of operation: primarily based in northern and central Mali; targets Western and local interests in West Africa and Sahel; has claimed responsibility for attacks in Mali, Niger, and Burkina Faso
    note(s): pledged allegiance to al-Qa'ida and AQIM; holds Western hostages; wages attacks against security and peacekeeping forces in Mali (April 2018)
  • Transnational Issues :: BURKINA FASO

  • adding to illicit cross-border activities, Burkina Faso has issues concerning unresolved boundary alignments with its neighbors; demarcation is currently underway with Mali; the dispute with Niger was referred to the ICJ in 2010, and a dispute over several villages with Benin persists; Benin retains a border dispute with Burkina Faso around the town of Koualou
    refugees (country of origin): 24,248 (Mali) (2018)
    current situation: Burkina Faso is a source, transit, and destination country for women and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; Burkinabe children are forced to work as farm hands, gold panners and washers, street vendors, domestic servants, and beggars or in the commercial sex trade, with some transported to nearby countries; to a lesser extent, Burkinabe women are recruited for legitimate jobs in the Middle East or Europe and subsequently forced into prostitution; women from other West African countries are also lured to Burkina Faso for work and subjected to forced prostitution, forced labor in restaurants, or domestic servitude
    tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List – Burkina Faso does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; law enforcement efforts decreased in 2014, with a significant decline in trafficking prosecutions (none for forced begging involving Koranic school teachers – a prevalent form of trafficking) and no convictions, a 2014 law criminalizing the sale of children, child prostitution, and child pornography is undermined by a provision allowing offenders to pay a fine in lieu of serving prison time proportionate to the crime; the government sustained efforts to identify and protect a large number of child victims, relying on support from NGOs and international organizations; nationwide awareness-raising activities were sustained, but little was done to stop forced begging (2015)