South America :: Uruguay
  • Introduction :: Uruguay
  • Background:

    Montevideo, founded by the Spanish in 1726 as a military stronghold, soon took advantage of its natural harbor to become an important commercial center. Claimed by Argentina but annexed by Brazil in 1821, Uruguay declared its independence four years later and secured its freedom in 1828 after a three-year struggle. The administrations of President Jose BATLLE in the early 20th century launched widespread political, social, and economic reforms that established a statist tradition. A violent Marxist urban guerrilla movement named the Tupamaros, launched in the late 1960s, led Uruguay's president to cede control of the government to the military in 1973. By yearend, the rebels had been crushed, but the military continued to expand its hold over the government. Civilian rule was restored in 1985. In 2004, the left-of-center Frente Amplio Coalition won national elections that effectively ended 170 years of political control previously held by the Colorado and National (Blanco) parties. Uruguay's political and labor conditions are among the freest on the continent.

    URUGUAY SUMMARY: PDF
  • Geography :: Uruguay
  • Location:
    Southern South America, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Argentina and Brazil
    Geographic coordinates:
    33 00 S, 56 00 W
    Map references:
    South America
    Area:
    total: 176,215 sq km
    land: 175,015 sq km
    water: 1,200 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 92
    Area - comparative:
    about the size of Virginia and West Virginia combined; slightly smaller than the state of Washington
    Land boundaries:
    total: 1,591 km
    border countries (2): Argentina 541 km, Brazil 1050 km
    Coastline:
    660 km
    Maritime claims:
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    contiguous zone: 24 nm
    continental shelf: 200 nm or the edge of continental margin
    Climate:
    warm temperate; freezing temperatures almost unknown
    Terrain:
    mostly rolling plains and low hills; fertile coastal lowland
    Elevation:
    mean elevation: 109 m
    elevation extremes: 0 m lowest point: Atlantic Ocean
    514 highest point: Cerro Catedral
    Natural resources:
    arable land, hydropower, minor minerals, fish
    Land use:
    agricultural land: 87.2% (2011 est.)
    arable land: 10.1% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 0.2% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 76.9% (2011 est.)
    forest: 10.2% (2011 est.)
    other: 2.6% (2011 est.)
    Irrigated land:
    2,380 sq km (2012)
    Population distribution:
    most of the country's population resides in the southern half of the country; approximately 80% of the populace is urban, living in towns or cities; nearly half of the population lives in and around the capital of Montevideo
    Natural hazards:
    seasonally high winds (the pampero is a chilly and occasional violent wind that blows north from the Argentine pampas), droughts, floods; because of the absence of mountains, which act as weather barriers, all locations are particularly vulnerable to rapid changes from weather fronts
    Environment - current issues:
    water pollution from meat packing/tannery industry; heavy metal pollution; inadequate solid/hazardous waste disposal; deforestation
    Environment - international agreements:
    party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation
    Geography - note:
    second-smallest South American country (after Suriname); most of the low-lying landscape (three-quarters of the country) is grassland, ideal for cattle and sheep raising
  • People and Society :: Uruguay
  • Population:
    3,369,299 (July 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 133
    Nationality:
    noun: Uruguayan(s)
    adjective: Uruguayan
    Ethnic groups:
    white 87.7%, black 4.6%, indigenous 2.4%, other 0.3%, none or unspecified 5% (2011 est.)

    note: data represent primary ethnic identity

    Languages:
    Spanish (official)
    Religions:
    Roman Catholic 47.1%, non-Catholic Christians 11.1%, nondenominational 23.2%, Jewish 0.3%, atheist or agnostic 17.2%, other 1.1% (2006 est.)
    Demographic profile:

    Uruguay rates high for most development indicators and is known for its secularism, liberal social laws, and well-developed social security, health, and educational systems. It is one of the few countries in Latin America and the Caribbean where the entire population has access to clean water. Uruguay's provision of free primary through university education has contributed to the country's high levels of literacy and educational attainment. However, the emigration of human capital has diminished the state's return on its investment in education. Remittances from the roughly 18% of Uruguayans abroad amount to less than 1 percent of national GDP. The emigration of young adults and a low birth rate are causing Uruguay's population to age rapidly.

    In the 1960s, Uruguayans for the first time emigrated en masse - primarily to Argentina and Brazil - because of economic decline and the onset of more than a decade of military dictatorship. Economic crises in the early 1980s and 2002 also triggered waves of emigration, but since 2002 more than 70% of Uruguayan emigrants have selected the US and Spain as destinations because of better job prospects. Uruguay had a tiny population upon its independence in 1828 and welcomed thousands of predominantly Italian and Spanish immigrants, but the country has not experienced large influxes of new arrivals since the aftermath of World War II. More recent immigrants include Peruvians and Arabs.

    Age structure:
    0-14 years: 19.91% (male 341,402 /female 329,474)
    15-24 years: 15.56% (male 265,486 /female 258,611)
    25-54 years: 39.48% (male 658,871 /female 671,172)
    55-64 years: 10.68% (male 169,385 /female 190,392)
    65 years and over: 14.38% (male 194,269 /female 290,237) (2018 est.)
    population pyramid: population pyramid
    Dependency ratios:
    total dependency ratio: 55.9 (2015 est.)
    youth dependency ratio: 33.4 (2015 est.)
    elderly dependency ratio: 22.5 (2015 est.)
    potential support ratio: 4.4 (2015 est.)
    Median age:
    total: 35.1 years
    male: 33.3 years
    female: 36.9 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 82
    Population growth rate:
    0.27% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 175
    Birth rate:
    13 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 150
    Death rate:
    9.4 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 54
    Net migration rate:
    -0.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 137
    Population distribution:
    most of the country's population resides in the southern half of the country; approximately 80% of the populace is urban, living in towns or cities; nearly half of the population lives in and around the capital of Montevideo
    Urbanization:
    urban population: 95.3% of total population (2018)
    rate of urbanization: 0.46% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    Major urban areas - population:
    1.737 million MONTEVIDEO (capital) (2018)
    Sex ratio:
    at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    25-54 years: 0.98 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    55-64 years: 0.89 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    65 years and over: 0.66 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    Maternal mortality rate:
    15 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 137
    Infant mortality rate:
    total: 8.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    male: 9 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    female: 7.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 151
    Life expectancy at birth:
    total population: 77.6 years (2018 est.)
    male: 74.4 years (2018 est.)
    female: 80.8 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 69
    Total fertility rate:
    1.79 children born/woman (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 149
    Contraceptive prevalence rate:
    79.6% (2015)

    note: percent of women aged 15-44

    Health expenditures:
    8.6% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 47
    Physicians density:
    3.94 physicians/1,000 population (2008)
    Hospital bed density:
    2.8 beds/1,000 population (2014)
    Drinking water source:
    improved: urban: 100% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 93.9% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 99.7% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 0% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 6.1% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 0.3% of population (2015 est.)
    Sanitation facility access:
    improved: urban: 96.6% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 92.6% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 96.4% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 3.4% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 7.4% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 3.6% of population (2015 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
    0.6% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 62
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
    13,000 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 94
    HIV/AIDS - deaths:
    <500 (2017 est.)
    Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
    27.9% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 34
    Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
    4% (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 88
    Education expenditures:
    4.4% of GDP (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 100
    Literacy:
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)
    total population: 98.5% (2015 est.)
    male: 98.1% (2015 est.)
    female: 98.9% (2015 est.)
    School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
    total: 16 years (2010)
    male: 14 years (2010)
    female: 17 years (2010)
    Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
    total: 23.8% (2016 est.)
    male: 20.2% (2016 est.)
    female: 28.7% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 52
  • Government :: Uruguay
  • Country name:
    conventional long form: Oriental Republic of Uruguay
    conventional short form: Uruguay
    local long form: Republica Oriental del Uruguay
    local short form: Uruguay
    former: Banda Oriental, Cisplatine Province
    etymology: name derives from the Spanish pronunciation of the Guarani Indian designation of the Uruguay River, which makes up the western border of the country and whose name later came to be applied to the entire country
    Government type:
    presidential republic
    Capital:
    name: Montevideo
    geographic coordinates: 34 51 S, 56 10 W
    time difference: UTC-3 (2 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    Administrative divisions:
    19 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Artigas, Canelones, Cerro Largo, Colonia, Durazno, Flores, Florida, Lavalleja, Maldonado, Montevideo, Paysandu, Rio Negro, Rivera, Rocha, Salto, San Jose, Soriano, Tacuarembo, Treinta y Tres
    Independence:
    25 August 1825 (from Brazil)
    National holiday:
    Independence Day, 25 August (1825)
    Constitution:
    history: several previous; latest approved by plebiscite 27 November 1966, effective 15 February 1967 (2018)
    amendments: initiated by public petition of at least 10% of qualified voters, proposed by agreement of at least two-fifths of the General Assembly membership, or by existing "constitutional laws" sanctioned by at least two-thirds of the membership in both houses of the Assembly; proposals can also be submitted by senators, representatives, or by the executive power and require the formation of and approval in a national constituent convention; final passage by either method requires approval by absolute majority of votes cast in a referendum; amended many times, last in 2004 (2018)
    International law organization participation:
    accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    Citizenship:
    citizenship by birth: yes
    citizenship by descent only: yes
    dual citizenship recognized: yes
    residency requirement for naturalization: 3-5 years
    Suffrage:
    18 years of age; universal and compulsory
    Executive branch:
    chief of state: President Tabare VAZQUEZ (since 1 March 2015); Vice President Lucia TOPOLANSKY (since 13 September 2017); note - Vice President Raul Fernando SENDIC Rodriguez (since 1 March 2015) stepped down on 9 September amid accusations of misuse of public funds; the president is both chief of state and head of government
    head of government: President Tabare VAZQUEZ (since 1 March 2015); Vice President Lucia TOPOLANSKY (since 13 September 2017)
    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president with approval of the General Assembly
    elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for nonconsecutive terms); election last held on 26 October 2014 with a runoff election on 30 November 2014 (next to be held on 27 October 2019, and a runoff if needed on 24 November 2019)
    election results: Tabare VAZQUEZ elected president in second round; percent of vote - Tabare VAZQUEZ (Socialist Party) 56.5%, Luis Alberto LACALLE Pou (Blanco) 43.4%
    Legislative branch:
    description: bicameral General Assembly or Asamblea General consists of:
    Chamber of Senators or Camara de Senadores (31 seats; members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote; the vice-president serves as the presiding ex-officio member; elected members serve 5-year terms)
    Chamber of Representatives or Camara de Representantes (99 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms)
    elections:
    Chamber of Senators - last held on 26 October 2014 (next to be held in October 2019); Chamber of Representatives - last held on 26 October 2014 (next to be held in October 2019)
    election results:
    Chamber of Senators - percent of vote by coalition/party - Frente Amplio 49.5%, National Party 31.9%, Colorado Party 13.3%, Independent Party 3.2%, other 2.1%; seats by coalition/party - Frente Amplio 15, National Party 10, Colorado Party 4, Independent Party 1
    Chamber of Representatives - percent of vote by coalition/party - Frente Amplio 49.5%, National Party 31.9%, Colorado Party 13.3%, Independent Party 3.2%, AP 1.2%, other 0.9%; seats by coalition/party - Frente Amplio 50, National Party 32, Colorado Party 13, Independent Party 3, AP 1
    Judicial branch:
    highest courts: Supreme Court of Justice (consists of 5 judges)
    judge selection and term of office: judges nominated by the president and appointed in joint conference of the General Assembly; judges appointed for 10-year terms, with reelection after a lapse of 5 years following the previous term
    subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; District Courts (Juzgados Letrados); Peace Courts (Juzgados de Paz); Rural Courts (Juzgados Rurales)
    Political parties and leaders:
    Broad Front or FA (Frente Amplio) - (a broad governing coalition that includes Uruguay Assembly [Danilo ASTORI], Progressive Alliance [Rodolfo NIN NOVOA], New Space [Rafael MICHELINI], Socialist Party [Monica XAVIER], Vertiente Artiguista [Enrique RUBIO], Christian Democratic Party [Juan Andres ROBALLO], For the People’s Victory [Luis PUIG], Popular Participation Movement (MPP) [Jose MUJICA], Broad Front Commitment [Raul SENDIC], Big House [Constanza MOREIRA], Communist Party [Marcos CARAMBULA], The Federal League [Dario PEREZ]
    Colorado Party (including Vamos Uruguay (or Let's Go Uruguay) [Pedro BORDABERRY], Open Space [Tabare VIERA], and Open Batllism [Ope PASQUET])
    Independent Party [Pablo MIERES]
    National Party or Blanco (including All Forward [Luis LACALLE POU] and National Alliance [Jorge LARRANAGA])
    Popular Assembly [Gonzalo ABELLA]
    International organization participation:
    CAN (associate), CD, CELAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur, MIGA, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAM (observer), OAS, OIF (observer), OPANAL, OPCW, Pacific Alliance (observer), PCA, SICA (observer), UN, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMOGIP, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    Diplomatic representation in the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador Carlos Alberto GIANELLI Derois (since 3 August 2015)
    chancery: 1913 I Street NW, Washington, DC 20006
    telephone: [1] (202) 331-1313
    FAX: [1] (202) 331-8142
    consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, Miami, New York
    Diplomatic representation from the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador Kelly Ann KEIDERLING-FRANZ (since 23 June 2016)
    embassy: Lauro Muller 1776, Montevideo 11200
    mailing address: APO AA 34035
    telephone: [598] (2) 1770-2000
    FAX: [598] (2) 1770-2128
    Flag description:
    nine equal horizontal stripes of white (top and bottom) alternating with blue; a white square in the upper hoist-side corner with a yellow sun bearing a human face (delineated in black) known as the Sun of May with 16 rays that alternate between triangular and wavy; the stripes represent the nine original departments of Uruguay; the sun symbol evokes the legend of the sun breaking through the clouds on 25 May 1810 as independence was first declared from Spain (Uruguay subsequently won its independence from Brazil); the sun features are said to represent those of Inti, the Inca god of the sun

    note: the banner was inspired by the national colors of Argentina and by the design of the US flag

    National symbol(s):
    Sun of May (a sun-with-face symbol); national colors: blue, white, yellow
    National anthem:
    name: "Himno Nacional" (National Anthem of Uruguay)
    lyrics/music: Francisco Esteban ACUNA de Figueroa/Francisco Jose DEBALI

    note: adopted 1848; the anthem is also known as "Orientales, la Patria o la tumba!" ("Uruguayans, the Fatherland or Death!"); it is the world's longest national anthem in terms of music (105 bars; almost five minutes); generally only the first verse and chorus are sung

  • Economy :: Uruguay
  • Economy - overview:

    Uruguay has a free market economy characterized by an export-oriented agricultural sector, a well-educated workforce, and high levels of social spending. Uruguay has sought to expand trade within the Common Market of the South (Mercosur) and with non-Mercosur members, and President VAZQUEZ has maintained his predecessor's mix of pro-market policies and a strong social safety net. 

    Following financial difficulties in the late 1990s and early 2000s, Uruguay's economic growth averaged 8% annually during the 2004-08 period. The 2008-09 global financial crisis put a brake on Uruguay's vigorous growth, which decelerated to 2.6% in 2009. Nevertheless, the country avoided a recession and kept growth rates positive, mainly through higher public expenditure and investment; GDP growth reached 8.9% in 2010 but slowed markedly in the 2012-16 period as a result of a renewed slowdown in the global economy and in Uruguay's main trade partners and Mercosur counterparts, Argentina and Brazil. Reforms in those countries should give Uruguay an economic boost. Growth picked up in 2017.
    GDP (purchasing power parity):
    $78.16 billion (2017 est.)
    $76.14 billion (2016 est.)
    $74.87 billion (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 96
    GDP (official exchange rate):
    $59.18 billion (2017 est.) (2017 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate:
    2.7% (2017 est.)
    1.7% (2016 est.)
    0.4% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 127
    GDP - per capita (PPP):
    $22,400 (2017 est.)
    $21,900 (2016 est.)
    $21,600 (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 85
    Gross national saving:
    17.2% of GDP (2017 est.)
    18.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
    18.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 119
    GDP - composition, by end use:
    household consumption: 66.8% (2017 est.)
    government consumption: 14.3% (2017 est.)
    investment in fixed capital: 16.7% (2017 est.)
    investment in inventories: -1% (2017 est.)
    exports of goods and services: 21.6% (2017 est.)
    imports of goods and services: -18.4% (2017 est.)
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
    agriculture: 6.2% (2017 est.)
    industry: 24.1% (2017 est.)
    services: 69.7% (2017 est.)
    Agriculture - products:
    Cellulose, beef, soybeans, rice, wheat; dairy products; fish; lumber, tobacco, wine
    Industries:
    food processing, electrical machinery, transportation equipment, petroleum products, textiles, chemicals, beverages
    Industrial production growth rate:
    -3.6% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 190
    Labor force:
    1.748 million (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 127
    Labor force - by occupation:
    agriculture: 13%
    industry: 14%
    services: 73% (2010 est.)
    Unemployment rate:
    7.6% (2017 est.)
    7.9% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 112
    Population below poverty line:
    9.7% (2015 est.)
    Household income or consumption by percentage share:
    lowest 10%: 30.8% (2014 est.)
    highest 10%: 30.8% (2014 est.)
    Distribution of family income - Gini index:
    41.6 (2014)
    41.9 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 55
    Budget:
    revenues: 17.66 billion (2017 est.)
    expenditures: 19.72 billion (2017 est.)
    Taxes and other revenues:
    29.8% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 79
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
    -3.5% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 149
    Public debt:
    65.7% of GDP (2017 est.)
    61.6% of GDP (2016 est.)

    note: data cover general government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions.

    country comparison to the world: 57
    Fiscal year:
    calendar year
    Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    6.2% (2017 est.)
    9.6% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 189
    Central bank discount rate:
    9% (31 December 2012)
    8.75% (31 December 2011)

    note: Uruguay's central bank uses the benchmark interest rate, rather than the discount rate, to conduct monetary policy; the rates shown here are the benchmark rates

    country comparison to the world: 35
    Commercial bank prime lending rate:
    13.83% (31 December 2017 est.)
    16.17% (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 51
    Stock of narrow money:
    $5.068 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $4.516 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 104
    Stock of broad money:
    $5.068 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $4.516 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 107
    Stock of domestic credit:
    $20.84 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $19.03 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 91
    Market value of publicly traded shares:
    $175.4 million (31 December 2012 est.)
    $174.6 million (31 December 2011 est.)
    $156.9 million (31 December 2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 119
    Current account balance:
    $879 million (2017 est.)
    $410 million (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 51
    Exports:
    $11.41 billion (2017 est.)
    $8.387 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 88
    Exports - partners:
    China 19%, Brazil 16.1%, US 5.7%, Argentina 5.4% (2017)
    Exports - commodities:
    beef, soybeans, cellulose, rice, wheat, wood, dairy products, wool
    Imports:
    $8.607 billion (2017 est.)
    $8.463 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 107
    Imports - commodities:
    refined oil, crude oil, passenger and other transportation vehicles, vehicle parts, cellular phones
    Imports - partners:
    China 20%, Brazil 19.5%, Argentina 12.6%, US 10.9% (2017)
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
    $15.96 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $13.47 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 66
    Debt - external:
    $28.37 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $27.9 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 84
    Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
    $44.84 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $22.81 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 60
    Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
    $19.97 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $136.1 million (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 54
    Exchange rates:
    Uruguayan pesos (UYU) per US dollar -
    28.77 (2017 est.)
    30.16 (2016 est.)
    30.16 (2015 est.)
    27.52 (2014 est.)
    23.25 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: Uruguay
  • Electricity access:
    population without electricity: 20,106 (2012)
    electrification - total population: 99.4% (2012)
    electrification - urban areas: 99.7% (2012)
    electrification - rural areas: 93.8% (2012)
    Electricity - production:
    13.13 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 92
    Electricity - consumption:
    10.77 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 93
    Electricity - exports:
    1.321 billion kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 53
    Electricity - imports:
    24 million kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 111
    Electricity - installed generating capacity:
    4.808 million kW (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 81
    Electricity - from fossil fuels:
    29% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 185
    Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
    0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 205
    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
    29% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 72
    Electricity - from other renewable sources:
    42% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 5
    Crude oil - production:
    0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 211
    Crude oil - exports:
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 212
    Crude oil - imports:
    40,200 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 57
    Crude oil - proved reserves:
    0 bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 209
    Refined petroleum products - production:
    42,220 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 81
    Refined petroleum products - consumption:
    53,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 101
    Refined petroleum products - exports:
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 214
    Refined petroleum products - imports:
    9,591 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 150
    Natural gas - production:
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 211
    Natural gas - consumption:
    70.79 million cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 110
    Natural gas - exports:
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 207
    Natural gas - imports:
    70.79 million cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 75
    Natural gas - proved reserves:
    0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 204
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
    7.554 million Mt (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 122
  • Communications :: Uruguay
  • Telephones - fixed lines:
    total subscriptions: 1,136,977 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 34 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 74
    Telephones - mobile cellular:
    total subscriptions: 5,097,569 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 152 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 119
    Telephone system:
    general assessment: fully digitalized (2016)
    domestic: most modern facilities concentrated in Montevideo; nationwide microwave radio relay network; overall fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity over 185 telephones per 100 persons (2016)
    international: country code - 598; the UNISOR submarine cable system provides direct connectivity to Brazil and Argentina; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2016)
    Broadcast media:
    mixture of privately owned and state-run broadcast media; more than 100 commercial radio stations and about 20 TV channels; cable TV is available; many community radio and TV stations; adopted the hybrid Japanese/Brazilian HDTV standard (ISDB-T) in December 2010 (2010)
    Internet country code:
    .uy
    Internet users:
    total: 2,225,075 (July 2016 est.)
    percent of population: 66.4% (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 108
    Broadband - fixed subscriptions:
    total: 949,974 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 28 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 70
  • Transportation :: Uruguay
  • National air transport system:
    number of registered air carriers: 2 (2015)
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 3 (2015)
    Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
    CX (2016)
    Airports:
    133 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 43
    Airports - with paved runways:
    total: 11 (2013)
    over 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 (2013)
    914 to 1,523 m: 4 (2013)
    under 914 m: 2 (2013)
    Airports - with unpaved runways:
    total: 122 (2013)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 (2013)
    914 to 1,523 m: 40 (2013)
    under 914 m: 79 (2013)
    Pipelines:
    257 km gas, 160 km oil (2013)
    Railways:
    total: 1,673 km (operational; government claims overall length is 2,961 km) (2016)
    standard gauge: 1,673 km 1.435-m gauge (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 80
    Roadways:
    total: 77,732 km (2010)
    paved: 7,743 km (2010)
    unpaved: 69,989 km (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 63
    Waterways:
    1,600 km (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 50
    Merchant marine:
    total: 56 (2017)
    by type: container ship 1, general cargo 6, oil tanker 4, other 45 (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 109
    Ports and terminals:
    major seaport(s): Montevideo
  • Military and Security :: Uruguay
  • Military expenditures:
    1.85% of GDP (2016)
    1.82% of GDP (2015)
    1.81% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 59
    Military branches:
    Uruguayan Armed Forces: Uruguayan National Army (Ejercito Nacional Uruguaya, ENU), Uruguayan National Navy (Armada Nacional del Uruguay, includes naval air arm, Naval Rifle Corps (Cuerpo de Fusileros Navales, Fusna), Maritime Prefecture in wartime), Uruguayan Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Uruguaya, FAU) (2012)
    Military service age and obligation:
    18-30 years of age (18-22 years of age for navy) for male or female voluntary military service; up to 40 years of age for specialists; enlistment is voluntary in peacetime, but the government has the authority to conscript in emergencies; minimum 6-year education (2013)
  • Transnational Issues :: Uruguay
  • Disputes - international:
    in 2010, the ICJ ruled in favor of Uruguay's operation of two paper mills on the Uruguay River, which forms the border with Argentina; the two countries formed a joint pollution monitoring regimeuncontested boundary dispute between Brazil and Uruguay over Braziliera/Brasiliera Island in the Quarai/Cuareim River leaves the tripoint with Argentina in questionsmuggling of firearms and narcotics continues to be an issue along the Uruguay-Brazil border
    Refugees and internally displaced persons:
    refugees (country of origin): 9,186 (Venezuela) (economic and political crisis; includes Venezuelans who have claimed asylum or have received alternative legal stay) (2018)
    Illicit drugs:
    small-scale transit country for drugs mainly bound for Europe, often through sea-borne containers; law enforcement corruption; money laundering because of strict banking secrecy laws; weak border control along Brazilian frontier; increasing consumption of cocaine base and synthetic drugs