Africa :: Zambia
  • Introduction :: Zambia
  • Background:
    The territory of Northern Rhodesia was administered by the former British South Africa Company from 1891 until it was taken over by the UK in 1923. During the 1920s and 1930s, advances in mining spurred development and immigration. The name was changed to Zambia upon independence in 1964. In the 1980s and 1990s, declining copper prices, economic mismanagement, and a prolonged drought hurt the economy. Elections in 1991 brought an end to one-party rule and propelled the Movement for Multiparty Democracy (MMD) to government. The subsequent vote in 1996, however, saw increasing harassment of opposition parties and abuse of state media and other resources. The election in 2001 was marked by administrative problems, with three parties filing a legal petition challenging the election of ruling party candidate Levy MWANAWASA. MWANAWASA was reelected in 2006 in an election that was deemed free and fair. Upon his death in August 2008, he was succeeded by his vice president, Rupiah BANDA, who won a special presidential byelection later that year. The MMD and BANDA lost to the Patriotic Front (PF) and Michael SATA in the 2011 general elections. SATA, however, presided over a period of haphazard economic management and attempted to silence opposition to PF policies. SATA died in October 2014 and was succeeded by his vice president, Guy SCOTT, who served as interim president until January 2015, when Edgar LUNGU won the presidential byelection and completed SATA's term. LUNGU then won a full term in August 2016 presidential elections.
  • Geography :: Zambia
  • Location:
    Southern Africa, east of Angola, south of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
    Geographic coordinates:
    15 00 S, 30 00 E
    Map references:
    Africa
    Area:
    total: 752,618 sq km
    land: 743,398 sq km
    water: 9,220 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 40
    Area - comparative:
    almost five times the size of Georgia; slightly larger than Texas
    Land boundaries:
    total: 6,043.15 km
    border countries (8): Angola 1065 km, Botswana 0.15 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 2332 km, Malawi 847 km, Mozambique 439 km, Namibia 244 km, Tanzania 353 km, Zimbabwe 763 km
    Coastline:
    0 km (landlocked)
    Maritime claims:
    none (landlocked)
    Climate:
    tropical; modified by altitude; rainy season (October to April)
    Terrain:
    mostly high plateau with some hills and mountains
    Elevation:
    mean elevation: 1,138 m
    elevation extremes: 329 m lowest point: Zambezi river
    2301 highest point: unnamed elevation in Mafinga Hills
    Natural resources:
    copper, cobalt, zinc, lead, coal, emeralds, gold, silver, uranium, hydropower
    Land use:
    agricultural land: 31.7% (2011 est.)
    arable land: 4.8% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 0% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 26.9% (2011 est.)
    forest: 66.3% (2011 est.)
    other: 2% (2011 est.)
    Irrigated land:
    1,560 sq km (2012)
    Population distribution:
    one of the highest levels of urbanization in Africa; high density in the central area, particularly around the cities of Lusaka, Ndola, Kitwe, and Mufulira
    Natural hazards:
    periodic drought; tropical storms (November to April)
    Environment - current issues:
    air pollution and resulting acid rain in the mineral extraction and refining region; chemical runoff into watersheds; loss of biodiversity; poaching seriously threatens rhinoceros, elephant, antelope, and large cat populations; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; lack of adequate water treatment presents human health risks
    Environment - international agreements:
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    Geography - note:
    landlocked; the Zambezi forms a natural riverine boundary with Zimbabwe; Lake Kariba on the Zambia-Zimbabwe border forms the world's largest reservoir by volume (180 cu km; 43 cu mi)
  • People and Society :: Zambia
  • Population:
    16,445,079 (July 2018 est.)

    note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected

    country comparison to the world: 70
    Nationality:
    noun: Zambian(s)
    adjective: Zambian
    Ethnic groups:
    Bemba 21%, Tonga 13.6%, Chewa 7.4%, Lozi 5.7%, Nsenga 5.3%, Tumbuka 4.4%, Ngoni 4%, Lala 3.1%, Kaonde 2.9%, Namwanga 2.8%, Lunda (north Western) 2.6%, Mambwe 2.5%, Luvale 2.2%, Lamba 2.1%, Ushi 1.9%, Lenje 1.6%, Bisa 1.6%, Mbunda 1.2%, other 13.8%, unspecified 0.4% (2010 est.)
    Languages:
    Bemba 33.4%, Nyanja 14.7%, Tonga 11.4%, Lozi 5.5%, Chewa 4.5%, Nsenga 2.9%, Tumbuka 2.5%, Lunda (North Western) 1.9%, Kaonde 1.8%, Lala 1.8%, Lamba 1.8%, English (official) 1.7%, Luvale 1.5%, Mambwe 1.3%, Namwanga 1.2%, Lenje 1.1%, Bisa 1%, other 9.7%, unspecified 0.2% (2010 est.)

    note: Zambia is said to have over 70 languages, although many of these may be considered dialects; all of Zambia's major languages are members of the Bantu family

    Religions:
    Protestant 75.3%, Roman Catholic 20.2%, other 2.7% (includes Muslim Buddhist, Hindu, and Baha'i), none 1.8% (2010 est.)
    Demographic profile:

    Zambia’s poor, youthful population consists primarily of Bantu-speaking people representing nearly 70 different ethnicities. Zambia’s high fertility rate continues to drive rapid population growth, averaging almost 3 percent annually between 2000 and 2010. The country’s total fertility rate has fallen by less than 1.5 children per woman during the last 30 years and still averages among the world’s highest, almost 6 children per woman, largely because of the country’s lack of access to family planning services, education for girls, and employment for women. Zambia also exhibits wide fertility disparities based on rural or urban location, education, and income. Poor, uneducated women from rural areas are more likely to marry young, to give birth early, and to have more children, viewing children as a sign of prestige and recognizing that not all of their children will live to adulthood. HIV/AIDS is prevalent in Zambia and contributes to its low life expectancy.

    Zambian emigration is low compared to many other African countries and is comprised predominantly of the well-educated. The small amount of brain drain, however, has a major impact in Zambia because of its limited human capital and lack of educational infrastructure for developing skilled professionals in key fields. For example, Zambia has few schools for training doctors, nurses, and other health care workers. Its spending on education is low compared to other sub-Saharan countries.

    Age structure:
    0-14 years: 45.95% (male 3,796,548 /female 3,759,624)
    15-24 years: 20% (male 1,643,364 /female 1,645,713)
    25-54 years: 28.79% (male 2,384,765 /female 2,349,877)
    55-64 years: 2.95% (male 225,586 /female 260,252)
    65 years and over: 2.31% (male 166,224 /female 213,126) (2018 est.)
    population pyramid: population pyramid
    Dependency ratios:
    total dependency ratio: 91.9 (2015 est.)
    youth dependency ratio: 87.1 (2015 est.)
    elderly dependency ratio: 4.8 (2015 est.)
    potential support ratio: 20.8 (2015 est.)
    Median age:
    total: 16.8 years
    male: 16.7 years
    female: 16.9 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 222
    Population growth rate:
    2.91% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 10
    Birth rate:
    41.1 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 6
    Death rate:
    12 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 18
    Net migration rate:
    0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 101
    Population distribution:
    one of the highest levels of urbanization in Africa; high density in the central area, particularly around the cities of Lusaka, Ndola, Kitwe, and Mufulira
    Urbanization:
    urban population: 43.5% of total population (2018)
    rate of urbanization: 4.23% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    Major urban areas - population:
    2.524 million LUSAKA (capital) (2018)
    Sex ratio:
    at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    55-64 years: 0.88 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    total population: 1 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    Mother's mean age at first birth:
    19.2 years (2013/14 est.)

    note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

    Maternal mortality rate:
    224 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 48
    Infant mortality rate:
    total: 59.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    male: 64.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    female: 53.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 15
    Life expectancy at birth:
    total population: 53 years (2018 est.)
    male: 51.4 years (2018 est.)
    female: 54.7 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 222
    Total fertility rate:
    5.58 children born/woman (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 8
    Contraceptive prevalence rate:
    49% (2013/14)
    Health expenditures:
    5% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 143
    Physicians density:
    0.09 physicians/1,000 population (2016)
    Hospital bed density:
    2 beds/1,000 population (2010)
    Drinking water source:
    improved: urban: 85.6% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 51.3% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 65.4% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 14.4% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 48.7% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 34.6% of population (2015 est.)
    Sanitation facility access:
    improved: urban: 55.6% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 35.7% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 43.9% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 44.4% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 64.3% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 56.1% of population (2015 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
    11.5% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 8
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
    1.1 million (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 9
    HIV/AIDS - deaths:
    16,000 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 15
    Major infectious diseases:
    degree of risk: very high (2016)
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever (2016)
    vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever (2016)
    water contact diseases: schistosomiasis (2016)
    animal contact diseases: rabies (2016)
    Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
    8.1% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 155
    Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
    14.8% (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 45
    Education expenditures:
    1.1% of GDP (2008)
    country comparison to the world: 178
    Literacy:
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write English (2015 est.)
    total population: 63.4% (2015 est.)
    male: 70.9% (2015 est.)
    female: 56% (2015 est.)
    Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
    total: 15.2% (2012 est.)
    male: 14.6% (2012 est.)
    female: 15.8% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 90
  • Government :: Zambia
  • Country name:
    conventional long form: Republic of Zambia
    conventional short form: Zambia
    former: Northern Rhodesia
    etymology: name derived from the Zambezi River, which flows through the western part of the country and forms its southern border with neighboring Zimbabwe
    Government type:
    presidential republic
    Capital:
    name: Lusaka; note - a proposal to build a new capital city in Ngabwe was announced in May 2017
    geographic coordinates: 15 25 S, 28 17 E
    time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    Administrative divisions:
    10 provinces; Central, Copperbelt, Eastern, Luapula, Lusaka, Muchinga, Northern, North-Western, Southern, Western
    Independence:
    24 October 1964 (from the UK)
    National holiday:
    Independence Day, 24 October (1964)
    Constitution:
    history: several previous; latest adopted 24 August 1991, promulgated 30 August 1991 (2017)
    amendments: proposed by the National Assembly; passage requires two-thirds majority vote by the Assembly in two separate readings at least 30 days apart; passage of amendments affecting fundamental rights and freedoms requires approval by at least one-half of votes cast in a referendum prior to consideration and voting by the Assembly; amended 1996, 2015, last in 2016 (2017)
    International law organization participation:
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    Citizenship:
    citizenship by birth: only if at least one parent is a citizen of Zambia
    citizenship by descent only: yes, if at least one parent was a citizen of Zambia
    dual citizenship recognized: yes
    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years for those with an ancestor who was a citizen of Zambia, otherwise 10 years residency is required
    Suffrage:
    18 years of age; universal
    Executive branch:
    chief of state: President Edgar LUNGU (since 25 January 2015); Vice President Inonge WINA (since 26 January 2015); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
    head of government: President Edgar LUNGU (since 25 January 2015); Vice President Inonge WINA (since 26 January 2015)
    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by president from among members of the National Assembly
    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); last held on 11 August 2016 (next to be held in 2021)
    election results: Edgar LUNGU reelected president in the first round; percent of vote - Edgar LUNGU (PF) 50.4%, Hakainde HICHILEMA (UPND) 47.6%, other 2.0%
    Legislative branch:
    description: unicameral National Assembly (164 seats; 156 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote in 2 rounds if needed, and 8 appointed by the president; members serve 5-year terms); note - 6 additional electoral seats were added for the 11 August 2016 election, up from 150 electoral seats in the 2011 election
    elections: last held on 11 August 2016 (next to be held in 2021)
    election results: percent of vote by party - PF 42%, UPND 41.7%, MMD 2.7%, FDD 2.2%, other 1.9%,independent 9.5%; seats by party - PF 80, UPND 58, MMD 3, FDD 1, independent 14
    Judicial branch:
    highest courts: Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice and deputy chief justice, and at least 11 judges); Constitutional Court (consists of the court president, vice-president, and 11 judges); note - the Constitutional Court began operation in June 2016
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court and Constitutional Court judges appointed by the president upon the advice of the 9-member Judicial Service Commission headed by the chief justice, and ratified by the National Assembly; judges normally serve until age 65
    subordinate courts: Court of Appeal; High Court; Industrial Relations Court; subordinate courts 3 levels, based on upper limit of money involved); Small Claims Court; local courts (2 grades, based on upper limit of money involved)
    Political parties and leaders:
    Alliance for Democracy and Development or ADD [Charles MILUPI]
    Forum for Democracy and Development or FDD [Edith NAWAKWI]
    Movement for Multiparty Democracy or MMD [Felix MUTATI]
    Patriotic Front or PF [Edgar LUNGU]
    United Party for National Development or UPND [Hakainde HICHILEMA]
    International organization participation:
    ACP, AfDB, AU, C, COMESA, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM, OPCW, PCA, SADC, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    Diplomatic representation in the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador Ngosa SIMBYAKULA (since 29 November 2017)
    chancery: 2200 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 265-9717 through 9719
    FAX: [1] (202) 332-0826
    Diplomatic representation from the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador Daniel L. FOOTE (since December 2017)
    embassy: Eastern end of Kabulonga Road, Ibex Hill, Lusaka
    mailing address: P. O. Box 320065, Lusaka
    telephone: [260]  211-357-000
    FAX: [260]  211-357-224
    Flag description:
    green field with a panel of three vertical bands of red (hoist side), black, and orange below a soaring orange eagle, on the outer edge of the flag; green stands for the country's natural resources and vegetation, red symbolizes the struggle for freedom, black the people of Zambia, and orange the country's mineral wealth; the eagle represents the people's ability to rise above the nation's problems
    National symbol(s):
    African fish eagle; national colors: green, red, black, orange
    National anthem:
    name: "Lumbanyeni Zambia" (Stand and Sing of Zambia, Proud and Free)
    lyrics/music: multiple/Enoch Mankayi SONTONGA

    note: adopted 1964; the melody, from the popular song "God Bless Africa," is the same as that of Tanzania but with different lyrics; the melody is also incorporated into South Africa's anthem

  • Economy :: Zambia
  • Economy - overview:

    Zambia had one of the world’s fastest growing economies for the ten years up to 2014, with real GDP growth averaging roughly 6.7% per annum, though growth slowed during the period 2015 to 2017, due to falling copper prices, reduced power generation, and depreciation of the kwacha. Zambia’s lack of economic diversification and dependency on copper as its sole major export makes it vulnerable to fluctuations in the world commodities market and prices turned downward in 2015 due to declining demand from China; Zambia was overtaken by the Democratic Republic of Congo as Africa’s largest copper producer. GDP growth picked up in 2017 as mineral prices rose.

    Despite recent strong economic growth and its status as a lower middle-income country, widespread and extreme rural poverty and high unemployment levels remain significant problems, made worse by a high birth rate, a relatively high HIV/AIDS burden, by market-distorting agricultural and energy policies, and growing government debt. Zambia raised $7 billion from international investors by issuing separate sovereign bonds in 2012, 2014, and 2015. Concurrently, it issued over $4 billion in domestic debt and agreed to Chinese-financed infrastructure projects, significantly increasing the country’s public debt burden to more than 60% of GDP. The government has considered refinancing $3 billion worth of Eurobonds and significant Chinese loans to cut debt servicing costs.

    GDP (purchasing power parity):
    $68.93 billion (2017 est.)
    $66.66 billion (2016 est.)
    $64.25 billion (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 102
    GDP (official exchange rate):
    $25.71 billion (2017 est.) (2017 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate:
    3.4% (2017 est.)
    3.8% (2016 est.)
    2.9% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 103
    GDP - per capita (PPP):
    $4,000 (2017 est.)
    $4,000 (2016 est.)
    $4,000 (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 178
    Gross national saving:
    38.3% of GDP (2017 est.)
    37.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
    38.9% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 11
    GDP - composition, by end use:
    household consumption: 52.6% (2017 est.)
    government consumption: 21% (2017 est.)
    investment in fixed capital: 27.1% (2017 est.)
    investment in inventories: 1.2% (2017 est.)
    exports of goods and services: 43% (2017 est.)
    imports of goods and services: -44.9% (2017 est.)
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
    agriculture: 7.5% (2017 est.)
    industry: 35.3% (2017 est.)
    services: 57% (2017 est.)
    Agriculture - products:
    corn, sorghum, rice, peanuts, sunflower seeds, vegetables, flowers, tobacco, cotton, sugarcane, cassava (manioc, tapioca), coffee; cattle, goats, pigs, poultry, milk, eggs, hides
    Industries:
    copper mining and processing, emerald mining, construction, foodstuffs, beverages, chemicals, textiles, fertilizer, horticulture
    Industrial production growth rate:
    4.7% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 62
    Labor force:
    6.898 million (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 68
    Labor force - by occupation:
    agriculture: 54.8%
    industry: 9.9%
    services: 35.3% (2017 est.)
    Unemployment rate:
    15% (2008 est.)
    50% (2000 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 173
    Population below poverty line:
    54.4% (2015 est.)
    Household income or consumption by percentage share:
    lowest 10%: 47.4% (2010)
    highest 10%: 47.4% (2010)
    Distribution of family income - Gini index:
    57.5 (2013)
    50.8 (2004)
    country comparison to the world: 7
    Budget:
    revenues: 4.473 billion (2017 est.)
    expenditures: 6.357 billion (2017 est.)
    Taxes and other revenues:
    17.4% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 169
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
    -7.3% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 195
    Public debt:
    63.1% of GDP (2017 est.)
    60.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 66
    Fiscal year:
    calendar year
    Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    6.6% (2017 est.)
    17.9% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 192
    Central bank discount rate:
    9.1% (31 December 2012)
    19% (31 December 2011)
    country comparison to the world: 29
    Commercial bank prime lending rate:
    12.5% (31 December 2017 est.)
    15.5% (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 66
    Stock of narrow money:
    $1.764 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $1.582 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 137
    Stock of broad money:
    $1.764 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $1.582 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 146
    Stock of domestic credit:
    $5.401 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $4.167 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 129
    Market value of publicly traded shares:
    $3.004 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    $4.009 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $2.817 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 93
    Current account balance:
    -$1.006 billion (2017 est.)
    -$934 million (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 142
    Exports:
    $8.216 billion (2017 est.)
    $6.514 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 98
    Exports - partners:
    Switzerland 44.8%, China 16.1%, Democratic Republic of the Congo 6.2%, Singapore 6%, South Africa 5.9% (2017)
    Exports - commodities:
    copper/cobalt, cobalt, electricity; tobacco, flowers, cotton
    Imports:
    $7.852 billion (2017 est.)
    $6.539 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 113
    Imports - commodities:
    machinery, transportation equipment, petroleum products, electricity, fertilizer, foodstuffs, clothing
    Imports - partners:
    South Africa 28.2%, Democratic Republic of the Congo 20.8%, China 12.9%, Kuwait 5.4%, UAE 4.6% (2017)
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
    $2.082 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $2.353 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 121
    Debt - external:
    $11.66 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $9.562 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 108
    Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:

    NA

    Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:

    NA

    Exchange rates:
    Zambian kwacha (ZMK) per US dollar -
    9.2 (2017 est.)
    10.3 (2016 est.)
    10.3 (2015 est.)
    8.6 (2014 est.)
    6.2 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: Zambia
  • Electricity access:
    population without electricity: 10.7 million (2013)
    electrification - total population: 26% (2013)
    electrification - urban areas: 45% (2013)
    electrification - rural areas: 14% (2013)
    Electricity - production:
    11.55 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 98
    Electricity - consumption:
    11.04 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 91
    Electricity - exports:
    1.176 billion kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 56
    Electricity - imports:
    2.185 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 56
    Electricity - installed generating capacity:
    2.573 million kW (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 107
    Electricity - from fossil fuels:
    5% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 205
    Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
    0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 214
    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
    93% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 9
    Electricity - from other renewable sources:
    2% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 147
    Crude oil - production:
    0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 216
    Crude oil - exports:
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 217
    Crude oil - imports:
    12,860 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 70
    Crude oil - proved reserves:
    0 bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 214
    Refined petroleum products - production:
    13,120 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 98
    Refined petroleum products - consumption:
    23,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 133
    Refined petroleum products - exports:
    371 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 113
    Refined petroleum products - imports:
    10,150 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 149
    Natural gas - production:
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 216
    Natural gas - consumption:
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 215
    Natural gas - exports:
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 215
    Natural gas - imports:
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 215
    Natural gas - proved reserves:
    0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 209
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
    3.777 million Mt (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 140
  • Communications :: Zambia
  • Telephones - fixed lines:
    total subscriptions: 101,444 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 141
    Telephones - mobile cellular:
    total subscriptions: 13,438,539 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 84 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 70
    Telephone system:
    general assessment: among the best in sub-Saharan Africa (2015)
    domestic: high-capacity microwave radio relay connects most larger towns and cities; several cellular telephone services in operation and network coverage is improving; domestic satellite system being installed to improve telephone service in rural areas; Internet service is widely available; very small aperture terminal (VSAT) networks are operated by private firms (2015)
    international: country code - 260; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Atlantic Ocean), 3 owned by Zamtel (2015)
    Broadcast media:
    state-owned Zambia National Broadcasting Corporation (ZNBC) operates 3 TV stations, is the principal local-content provider, and owns about 45% of multi-channel Zambia shares; several private TV stations and multi-channel subscription TV services are available; ZNBC operates 4 radio networks; 64 private radio stations are available (most regionally) and relays of at least 2 international broadcasters — including BBC and Radio France International – are accessible in Lusaka and Kitwe (2015)
    Internet country code:
    .zm
    Internet users:
    total: 3,956,252 (July 2016 est.)
    percent of population: 25.5% (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 89
    Broadband - fixed subscriptions:
    total: 35,912 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 136
  • Transportation :: Zambia
  • National air transport system:
    number of registered air carriers: 1 (2015)
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 1 (2015)
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 11,796 (2015)
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 79,092,826 mt-km (2015)
    Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
    9J (2016)
    Airports:
    88 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 63
    Airports - with paved runways:
    total: 8 (2013)
    over 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 (2013)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 (2013)
    914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)
    Airports - with unpaved runways:
    total: 80 (2013)
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 5 (2013)
    914 to 1,523 m: 53 (2013)
    under 914 m: 21 (2013)
    Pipelines:
    771 km oil (2013)
    Railways:
    total: 3,126 km (2014)
    narrow gauge: 3,126 km 1.067-m gauge (2014)

    note: includes 1,860 km of the Tanzania-Zambia Railway Authority (TAZARA)

    country comparison to the world: 59
    Roadways:
    total: 40,454 km (2005)
    paved: 9,403 km (2005)
    unpaved: 31,051 km (2005)
    country comparison to the world: 87
    Waterways:
    2,250 km (includes Lake Tanganyika and the Zambezi and Luapula Rivers) (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 38
    Merchant marine:
    total: 1 (2017)
    by type: other 1 (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 176
    Ports and terminals:
    river port(s): Mpulungu (Zambezi)
  • Military and Security :: Zambia
  • Military expenditures:
    1.53% of GDP (2016)
    1.75% of GDP (2015)
    1.63% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 74
    Military branches:
    Zambian Defense Force (ZDF): Zambia Army, Zambia Air Force, Zambia National Service (support organization) (2015)
    Military service age and obligation:
    national registration required at age 16; 18-25 years of age for male and female voluntary military service (16 years of age with parental consent); no conscription; Zambian citizenship required; grade 12 certification required; mandatory HIV testing on enlistment; mandatory retirement for officers at age 65 (Army, Air Force) (2012)
  • Transnational Issues :: Zambia
  • Disputes - international:
    in 2004, Zimbabwe dropped objections to plans between Botswana and Zambia to build a bridge over the Zambezi River, thereby de facto recognizing a short, but not clearly delimited, Botswana-Zambia boundary in the river
    Refugees and internally displaced persons:
    refugees (country of origin): 41,918 (Democratic Republic of the Congo) (refugees and asylum seekers), 5,000 (Burundi) (refugees and asylum seekers) (2018)
    Illicit drugs:
    transshipment point for moderate amounts of methaqualone, small amounts of heroin, and cocaine bound for southern Africa and possibly Europe; a poorly developed financial infrastructure coupled with a government commitment to combating money laundering make it an unattractive venue for money launderers; major consumer of cannabis