Africa :: ZAMBIA
  • Introduction :: ZAMBIA

  • The territory of Northern Rhodesia was administered by the former British South Africa Company from 1891 until it was taken over by the UK in 1923. During the 1920s and 1930s, advances in mining spurred development and immigration. The name was changed to Zambia upon independence in 1964. In the 1980s and 1990s, declining copper prices, economic mismanagement, and a prolonged drought hurt the economy. Elections in 1991 brought an end to one-party rule and propelled the Movement for Multiparty Democracy (MMD) to government. The subsequent vote in 1996, however, saw increasing harassment of opposition parties and abuse of state media and other resources. The election in 2001 was marked by administrative problems, with three parties filing a legal petition challenging the election of ruling party candidate Levy MWANAWASA. MWANAWASA was reelected in 2006 in an election that was deemed free and fair. Upon his death in August 2008, he was succeeded by his vice president, Rupiah BANDA, who won a special presidential byelection later that year. The MMD and BANDA lost to the Patriotic Front (PF) and Michael SATA in the 2011 general elections. SATA, however, presided over a period of haphazard economic management and attempted to silence opposition to PF policies. SATA died in October 2014 and was succeeded by his vice president, Guy SCOTT, who served as interim president until January 2015, when Edgar LUNGU won the presidential byelection and completed SATA's term. LUNGU then won a full term in August 2016 presidential elections.
  • Geography :: ZAMBIA

  • Southern Africa, east of Angola, south of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
    15 00 S, 30 00 E
    Africa
    total: 752,618 sq km
    land: 743,398 sq km
    water: 9,220 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 40
    almost five times the size of Georgia; slightly larger than Texas
    total: 6,043.15 km
    border countries (8): Angola 1,065 km, Botswana 0.15 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 2,332 km, Malawi 847 km, Mozambique 439 km, Namibia 244 km, Tanzania 353 km, Zimbabwe 763 km
    0 km (landlocked)
    none (landlocked)
    tropical; modified by altitude; rainy season (October to April)
    mostly high plateau with some hills and mountains
    mean elevation: 1,138 m
    elevation extremes: lowest point: Zambezi river 329 m
    highest point: unnamed elevation in Mafinga Hills 2,301 m
    copper, cobalt, zinc, lead, coal, emeralds, gold, silver, uranium, hydropower
    agricultural land: 31.7%
    arable land 4.8%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 26.9%
    forest: 66.3%
    other: 2% (2011 est.)
    1,560 sq km (2012)
    one of the highest levels of urbanization in Africa; high density in the central area, particularly around the cities of Lusaka, Ndola, Kitwe, and Mufulira
    periodic drought; tropical storms (November to April)
    air pollution and resulting acid rain in the mineral extraction and refining region; chemical runoff into watersheds; poaching seriously threatens rhinoceros, elephant, antelope, and large cat populations; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; lack of adequate water treatment presents human health risks
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    landlocked; the Zambezi forms a natural riverine boundary with Zimbabwe; Lake Kariba on the Zambia-Zimbabwe border forms the world's largest reservoir by volume (180 cu km; 43 cu mi)
  • People and Society :: ZAMBIA

  • 15.972 million
    note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 69
    noun: Zambian(s)
    adjective: Zambian
    Bemba 21%, Tonga 13.6%, Chewa 7.4%, Lozi 5.7%, Nsenga 5.3%, Tumbuka 4.4%, Ngoni 4%, Lala 3.1%, Kaonde 2.9%, Namwanga 2.8%, Lunda (north Western) 2.6%, Mambwe 2.5%, Luvale 2.2%, Lamba 2.1%, Ushi 1.9%, Lenje 1.6%, Bisa 1.6%, Mbunda 1.2%, other 13.8%, unspecified 0.4% (2010 est.)
    Bembe 33.4%, Nyanja 14.7%, Tonga 11.4%, Lozi 5.5%, Chewa 4.5%, Nsenga 2.9%, Tumbuka 2.5%, Lunda (North Western) 1.9%, Kaonde 1.8%, Lala 1.8%, Lamba 1.8%, English (official) 1.7%, Luvale 1.5%, Mambwe 1.3%, Namwanga 1.2%, Lenje 1.1%, Bisa 1%, other 9.7%, unspecified 0.2%
    note: Zambia is said to have over 70 languages, although many of these may be considered dialects; all of Zambia's major languages are members of the Bantu family (2010 est.)
    Protestant 75.3%, Roman Catholic 20.2%, other 2.7% (includes Muslim Buddhist, Hindu, and Baha'i), none 1.8% (2010 est.)
    Zambia’s poor, youthful population consists primarily of Bantu-speaking people representing nearly 70 different ethnicities. Zambia’s high fertility rate continues to drive rapid population growth, averaging almost 3 percent annually between 2000 and 2010. The country’s total fertility rate has fallen by less than 1.5 children per woman during the last 30 years and still averages among the world’s highest, almost 6 children per woman, largely because of the country’s lack of access to family planning services, education for girls, and employment for women. Zambia also exhibits wide fertility disparities based on rural or urban location, education, and income. Poor, uneducated women from rural areas are more likely to marry young, to give birth early, and to have more children, viewing children as a sign of prestige and recognizing that not all of their children will live to adulthood. HIV/AIDS is prevalent in Zambia and contributes to its low life expectancy.
    Zambian emigration is low compared to many other African countries and is comprised predominantly of the well-educated. The small amount of brain drain, however, has a major impact in Zambia because of its limited human capital and lack of educational infrastructure for developing skilled professionals in key fields. For example, Zambia has few schools for training doctors, nurses, and other health care workers. Its spending on education is low compared to other sub-Saharan countries.
    0-14 years: 46.03% (male 3,693,255/female 3,657,890)
    15-24 years: 20% (male 1,595,628/female 1,598,065)
    25-54 years: 28.72% (male 2,310,961/female 2,276,018)
    55-64 years: 2.93% (male 217,954/female 250,134)
    65 years and over: 2.33% (male 162,605/female 209,490) (2017 est.)
    total dependency ratio: 91.9
    youth dependency ratio: 87.1
    elderly dependency ratio: 4.8
    potential support ratio: 20.8 (2015 est.)
    total: 16.7 years
    male: 16.6 years
    female: 16.9 years (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 225
    2.9% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 10
    41.5 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 5
    12.2 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 20
    0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 72
    one of the highest levels of urbanization in Africa; high density in the central area, particularly around the cities of Lusaka, Ndola, Kitwe, and Mufulira
    urban population: 41.8% of total population (2017)
    rate of urbanization: 4.35% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    LUSAKA (capital) 2.179 million (2015)
    at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.88 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
    total population: 1 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
    19.2 years
    note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2013/14 est.)
    224 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 26
    total: 62.9 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 68.3 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 57.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 17
    total population: 52.5 years
    male: 50.8 years
    female: 54.1 years (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 217
    5.63 children born/woman (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 7
    49% (2013/14)
    5% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 141
    0.16 physicians/1,000 population (2012)
    2 beds/1,000 population (2010)
    improved:
    urban: 85.6% of population
    rural: 51.3% of population
    total: 65.4% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 14.4% of population
    rural: 48.7% of population
    total: 34.6% of population (2015 est.)
    improved:
    urban: 55.6% of population
    rural: 35.7% of population
    total: 43.9% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 44.4% of population
    rural: 64.3% of population
    total: 56.1% of population (2015 est.)
    12.4% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 7
    1.2 million (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 9
    21,000 (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 13
    degree of risk: very high
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
    vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
    water contact disease: schistosomiasis
    animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
    7.2% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 174
    14.8% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 49
    1.1% of GDP (2008)
    country comparison to the world: 170
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write English
    total population: 63.4%
    male: 70.9%
    female: 56% (2015 est.)
    total number: 1,000,850
    percentage: 41%
    note: data represent children ages 7-14 (2005 est.)
    total: 15.2%
    male: 14.6%
    female: 15.8% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 42
  • Government :: ZAMBIA

  • conventional long form: Republic of Zambia
    conventional short form: Zambia
    former: Northern Rhodesia
    etymology: name derived from the Zambezi River, which flows through the western part of the country and forms its southern border with neighboring Zimbabwe
    presidential republic
    name: Lusaka; note - a proposal to build a new capital city in Ngabwe was announced in May 2017
    geographic coordinates: 15 25 S, 28 17 E
    time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    10 provinces; Central, Copperbelt, Eastern, Luapula, Lusaka, Muchinga, Northern, North-Western, Southern, Western
    24 October 1964 (from the UK)
    Independence Day, 24 October (1964)
    history: several previous; latest adopted 24 August 1991, promulgated 30 August 1991
    amendments: proposed by the National Assembly; passage requires two-thirds majority vote by the Assembly in two separate readings at least 30 days apart; passage of amendments affecting fundamental rights and freedoms requires approval by at least one-half of votes cast in a referendum prior to consideration and voting by the Assembly; amended 1996, 2015, last in 2016 (2017)
    mixed legal system of English common law and customary law
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    citizenship by birth: only if at least one parent is a citizen of Zambia
    citizenship by descent: yes, if at least one parent was a citizen of Zambia
    dual citizenship recognized: yes
    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years for those with an ancestor who was a citizen of Zambia, otherwise 10 years residency is required
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: President Edgar LUNGU (since 25 January 2015); Vice President Inonge WINA (since 26 January 2015); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
    head of government: President Edgar LUNGU (since 25 January 2015); Vice President Inonge WINA (since 26 January 2015)
    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by president from among members of the National Assembly
    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); last held on 11 August 2016 (next to be held in 2021)
    election results: Edgar LUNGU reelected president; percent of vote - Edgar LUNGU (PF) 50.4%, Hakainde HICHILEMA (UPND) 47.6%, other 2.0%
    description: unicameral National Assembly (164 seats; 156 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, and 8 appointed by the president; members serve 5-year terms); note - 6 additional electoral seats were added for the 11 August 2016 election, up from 150 electoral seats in the 2011 election
    elections: last held on 11 August 2016 (next to be held in 2021)
    election results: percent of vote by party - PF 42%, UPND 41.7%, MMD 2.7%, FDD 2.2%, other 1.9%,independent 9.5%; seats by party - PF 80, UPND 58, MMD 3, FDD 1, independent 14
    highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice and deputy chief justices, and at least 11 judges); Constitutional Court (consists of the court president, vice-president, and 11 judges); note - the Constitutional Court began operation in June 2016
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court and Constitutional Court judges appointed by the president upon the advice of the 9-member Judicial Service Commission headed by the chief justice, and ratified by the National Assembly; judges normally serve until age 65
    subordinate courts: Court of Appeal; High Court; Industrial Relations Court; subordinate courts 3 levels, based on upper limit of money involved); Small Claims Court; local courts (2 grades, based on upper limit of money involved)
    Alliance for Democracy and Development or ADD [Charles MILUPI]
    Forum for Democracy and Development or FDD [Edith NAWAKWI]
    Movement for Multiparty Democracy or MMD [Nevers MUMBA]
    Patriotic Front or PF [Edgar LUNGU]
    United Party for National Development or UPND [Hakainde HICHILEMA]
    ACP, AfDB, AU, C, COMESA, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM, OPCW, PCA, SADC, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Joseph CHILAIZYA (since 19 September 2016
    chancery: 2419 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 265-9717 through 9719
    FAX: [1] (202) 332-0826
    chief of mission: Ambassador Eric T. SCHULTZ (since 12 December 2014)
    embassy: Eastern end of Kabulonga Road, Ibex Hill, Lusaka
    mailing address: P. O. Box 320065, Lusaka
    telephone: [260] (211) 357-000
    FAX: [260] ) (211) 357-224
    green field with a panel of three vertical bands of red (hoist side), black, and orange below a soaring orange eagle, on the outer edge of the flag; green stands for the country's natural resources and vegetation, red symbolizes the struggle for freedom, black the people of Zambia, and orange the country's mineral wealth; the eagle represents the people's ability to rise above the nation's problems
    African fish eagle; national colors: green, red, black, orange
    name: "Lumbanyeni Zambia" (Stand and Sing of Zambia, Proud and Free)
    lyrics/music: multiple/Enoch Mankayi SONTONGA
    note: adopted 1964; the melody, from the popular song "God Bless Africa," is the same as that of Tanzania but with different lyrics; the melody is also incorporated into South Africa's anthem
  • Economy :: ZAMBIA

  • Zambia had one of the world’s fastest growing economies for the ten years up to 2014, with real GDP growth averaging roughly 6.7% per annum, though growth slowed in 2015 and 2016 to just under 3%, due to falling copper prices, reduced power generation, and depreciation of the kwacha. Zambia’s lack of economic diversification and dependency on copper as its sole major export makes it vulnerable to fluctuations in the world commodities market and prices turned downward in 2015 due to declining demand from China; Zambia was overtaken by the Democratic Republic of Congo as Africa’s largest copper producer.
    Despite recent strong economic growth and its status as a lower middle-income country, widespread and extreme rural poverty and high unemployment levels remain significant problems, made worse by a high birth rate, a relatively high HIV/AIDS burden, and by market-distorting agricultural and energy policies. Zambia has raised $7 billion from international investors by issuing separate sovereign bonds in 2012, 2014, and 2015, significantly increasing the country’s public debt burden to 56% of GDP; the government plans to refinance $2.8 billion worth of Eurobonds in 2017 to cut debt servicing costs.
    Poor management of water resources has also contributed to a power generation shortage, which has hampered industrial productivity and contributed to an increase in year-on-year inflation to more than 20% in 2016. Zambia’s currency, the kwacha, also depreciated sharply against the dollar through 2015 and 2016, leading the central bank to restrict lending. Rampant spending in recent years has increased the fiscal deficit—over 8% in 2015—and may encourage the government to seek external financing from the IMF to fund the shortfall.
    $64.87 billion (2016 est.)
    $63 billion (2015 est.)
    $61.21 billion (2014 est.)
    note: data are in 2016 dollars
    country comparison to the world: 101
    $21.31 billion (2016 est.)
    3% (2016 est.)
    2.9% (2015 est.)
    4.7% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 96
    $3,900 (2016 est.)
    $3,900 (2015 est.)
    $3,900 (2014 est.)
    note: data are in 2016 dollars
    country comparison to the world: 178
    32.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
    39.2% of GDP (2015 est.)
    36.2% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 20
    household consumption: 53%
    government consumption: 21.7%
    investment in fixed capital: 26%
    investment in inventories: 1.2%
    exports of goods and services: 43.8%
    imports of goods and services: -45.7% (2016 est.)
    agriculture: 9.2%
    industry: 29.2%
    services: 61.7% (2016 est.)
    corn, sorghum, rice, peanuts, sunflower seeds, vegetables, flowers, tobacco, cotton, sugarcane, cassava (manioc, tapioca), coffee; cattle, goats, pigs, poultry, milk, eggs, hides
    copper mining and processing, emerald mining, construction, foodstuffs, beverages, chemicals, textiles, fertilizer, horticulture
    0.2% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 164
    7.116 million (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 65
    agriculture: 85%
    industry: 6%
    services: 9% (2004)
    15% (2008 est.)
    50% (2000 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 167
    60.5% (2010 est.)
    lowest 10%: 1.5%
    highest 10%: 47.4% (2010)
    57.5 (2013)
    50.8 (2004)
    country comparison to the world: 8
    revenues: $3.418 billion
    expenditures: $5.079 billion (2016 est.)
    16.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 175
    -8.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 192
    57.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
    58.6% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 75
    calendar year
    17.9% (2016 est.)
    10.1% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 217
    9.1% (31 December 2012)
    19% (31 December 2011)
    country comparison to the world: 28
    15.7% (31 December 2016 est.)
    13.25% (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 33
    $1.328 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    $1.288 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 142
    $5.682 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $5.437 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 127
    $3.672 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    $3.682 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 130
    $3.004 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    $4.009 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $2.817 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 95
    -$1.164 billion (2016 est.)
    -$768 million (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 130
    $6.609 billion (2016 est.)
    $6.998 billion (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 99
    copper/cobalt, cobalt, electricity; tobacco, flowers, cotton
    Switzerland 39.4%, China 18%, Democratic Republic of the Congo 6.7%, South Africa 6.4%, UAE 6%, Singapore 5.6% (2016)
    $6.752 billion (2016 est.)
    $7.711 billion (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 113
    machinery, transportation equipment, petroleum products, electricity, fertilizer, foodstuffs, clothing
    South Africa 31.2%, Democratic Republic of the Congo 12.3%, Kuwait 8.1%, China 7.6%, Mauritius 4.4%, UAE 4.2%, India 4% (2016)
    $2.046 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    $2.968 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 115
    $9.27 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    $8.88 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 111
    $NA
    $NA
    Zambian kwacha (ZMK) per US dollar -
    10.8 (2016 est.)
    8.6 (2015 est.)
    8.6 (2014 est.)
    6.2 (2013 est.)
    5.1 (2012 est.)
  • Energy :: ZAMBIA

  • population without electricity: 10,700,000
    electrification - total population: 26%
    electrification - urban areas: 45%
    electrification - rural areas: 14% (2013)
    14 billion kWh (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 89
    11 billion kWh (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 88
    1.3 billion kWh (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 50
    13 million kWh (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 113
    2.3 million kW (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 107
    0.4% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 211
    0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 213
    99.6% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 4
    0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 147
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 216
    0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 215
    12,120 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 72
    0 bbl (1 January 2016 es)
    country comparison to the world: 216
    12,760 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 98
    19,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 135
    966 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 109
    8,490 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 148
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 216
    0 cu m (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 151
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 214
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 214
    0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
    country comparison to the world: 147
    3.5 million Mt (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 140
  • Communications :: ZAMBIA

  • total subscriptions: 101,407
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1 (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 144
    total: 12,017,034
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 77 (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 86
    general assessment: among the best in sub-Saharan Africa
    domestic: high-capacity microwave radio relay connects most larger towns and cities; several cellular telephone services in operation and network coverage is improving; domestic satellite system being installed to improve telephone service in rural areas; Internet service is widely available; very small aperture terminal (VSAT) networks are operated by private firms
    international: country code - 260; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Atlantic Ocean), 3 owned by Zamtel (2015)
    state-owned Zambia National Broadcasting Corporation (ZNBC) operates 3 TV stations, is the principal local-content provider, and owns about 45% of multi-channel Zambia shares; several private TV stations and multi-channel subscription TV services are available; ZNBC operates 4 radio networks; 64 private radio stations are available (most regionally) and relays of at least 2 international broadcasters — including BBC and Radio France International – are accessible in Lusaka and Kitwe (2015)
    .zm
    total: 3,956,252
    percent of population: 25.5% (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 94
  • Transportation :: ZAMBIA

  • number of registered air carriers: 1
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 1
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 11,796
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 79,092,826 mt-km (2015)
    9J (2016)
    88 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 63
    total: 8
    over 3,047 m: 1
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
    914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)
    total: 80
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
    914 to 1,523 m: 53
    under 914 m: 21 (2013)
    oil 771 km (2013)
    total: 3,126 km
    narrow gauge: 3,126 km 1.067-m gauge
    note: includes 1,860 km of the Tanzania-Zambia Railway Authority (TAZARA) (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 57
    total: 40,454 km
    paved: 9,403 km
    unpaved: 31,051 km (2005)
    country comparison to the world: 87
    2,250 km (includes Lake Tanganyika and the Zambezi and Luapula Rivers) (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 37
    river port(s): Mpulungu (Zambezi)
  • Military and Security :: ZAMBIA

  • 1.53% of GDP (2016)
    1.75% of GDP (2015)
    1.63% of GDP (2014)
    1.36% of GDP (2013)
    1.36% of GDP (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 59
    Zambian Defense Force (ZDF): Zambia Army, Zambia Air Force, Zambia National Service (support organization) (2015)
    national registration required at age 16; 18-25 years of age for male and female voluntary military service (16 years of age with parental consent); no conscription; Zambian citizenship required; grade 12 certification required; mandatory HIV testing on enlistment; mandatory retirement for officers at age 65 (Army, Air Force) (2012)
  • Transnational Issues :: ZAMBIA

  • in 2004, Zimbabwe dropped objections to plans between Botswana and Zambia to build a bridge over the Zambezi River, thereby de facto recognizing a short, but not clearly delimited, Botswana-Zambia boundary in the river
    refugees (country of origin): 25,063 (Democratic Republic of the Congo) (2017)
    transshipment point for moderate amounts of methaqualone, small amounts of heroin, and cocaine bound for southern Africa and possibly Europe; a poorly developed financial infrastructure coupled with a government commitment to combating money laundering make it an unattractive venue for money launderers; major consumer of cannabis