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Middle East :: Qatar Print
Page last updated on August 04, 2020
  • Introduction :: Qatar
  • Background field listing

    Ruled by the Al Thani family since the mid-1800s, Qatar within the last 60 years transformed itself from a poor British protectorate noted mainly for pearling into an independent state with significant oil and natural gas revenues. Former Amir HAMAD bin Khalifa Al Thani, who overthrew his father in a bloodless coup in 1995, ushered in wide-sweeping political and media reforms, unprecedented economic investment, and a growing Qatari regional leadership role, in part through the creation of the pan-Arab satellite news network Al-Jazeera and Qatar's mediation of some regional conflicts. In the 2000s, Qatar resolved its longstanding border disputes with both Bahrain and Saudi Arabia and by 2007 had attained the highest per capita income in the world. Qatar did not experience domestic unrest or violence like that seen in other Near Eastern and North African countries in 2011, due in part to its immense wealth and patronage network. In mid-2013, HAMAD peacefully abdicated, transferring power to his son, the current Amir TAMIM bin Hamad. TAMIM is popular with the Qatari public, for his role in shepherding the country through an economic embargo by some other regional countries, for his efforts to improve the country's healthcare and education systems, and for his expansion of the country's infrastructure in anticipation of Doha's hosting of the 2022 World Cup.

    Recently, Qatar’s relationships with its neighbors have been tense, although since the fall of 2019 there have been signs of improved prospects for a thaw. Following the outbreak of regional unrest in 2011, Doha prided itself on its support for many popular revolutions, particularly in Libya and Syria. This stance was to the detriment of Qatar’s relations with Bahrain, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates (UAE), which temporarily recalled their respective ambassadors from Doha in March 2014. TAMIM later oversaw a warming of Qatar’s relations with Bahrain, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and the UAE in November 2014 following Kuwaiti mediation and signing of the Riyadh Agreement. This reconciliation, however, was short-lived. In June 2017, Bahrain, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and the UAE (the "Quartet") cut diplomatic and economic ties with Qatar in response to alleged violations of the agreement, among other complaints.
  • Geography :: Qatar
  • Location field listing
    Middle East, peninsula bordering the Persian Gulf and Saudi Arabia
    Geographic coordinates field listing
    25 30 N, 51 15 E
    Map references field listing
    Middle East
    Area field listing
    total: 11,586 sq km
    land: 11,586 sq km
    water: 0 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 165
    Area - comparative field listing
    almost twice the size of Delaware; slightly smaller than Connecticut
    Area comparison map: Area comparison map
    Land boundaries field listing
    total: 87 km
    border countries (1): Saudi Arabia 87 km
    Coastline field listing
    563 km
    Maritime claims field listing
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    exclusive economic zone: as determined by bilateral agreements or the median line
    contiguous zone: 24 nm
    Climate field listing
    arid; mild, pleasant winters; very hot, humid summers
    Terrain field listing
    mostly flat and barren desert
    Elevation field listing
    mean elevation: 28 m
    lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m
    highest point: Tuwayyir al Hamir 103 m
    Natural resources field listing
    petroleum, fish, natural gas
    Land use field listing
    agricultural land: 5.6% (2011 est.)
    arable land: 1.1% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 0.2% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 4.3% (2011 est.)
    forest: 0% (2011 est.)
    other: 94.4% (2011 est.)
    Irrigated land field listing
    130 sq km (2012)
    Population distribution field listing
    most of the population is clustered in or around the capital of Doha on the eastern side of the peninsula
    Natural hazards field listing
    haze, dust storms, sandstorms common
    Environment - current issues field listing
    air, land, and water pollution are significant environmental issues; limited natural freshwater resources are increasing dependence on large-scale desalination facilities; other issues include conservation of oil supplies and preservation of the natural wildlife heritage
    Environment - international agreements field listing
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    Geography - note field listing
    the peninsula occupies a strategic location in the central Persian Gulf near major petroleum deposits
  • People and Society :: Qatar
  • Population field listing
    2,444,174 (July 2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 143
    Nationality field listing
    noun: Qatari(s)
    adjective: Qatari
    Ethnic groups field listing
    non-Qatari 88.4%, Qatari 11.6% (2015 est.)
    Languages field listing
    Arabic (official), English commonly used as a second language
    Religions field listing
    Muslim 67.7%, Christian 13.8%, Hindu 13.8%, Buddhist 3.1%, folk religion <.1%, Jewish <.1%, other 0.7%, unaffiliated 0.9% (2010 est.)
    MENA religious affiliation: PDF
    Age structure field listing
    0-14 years: 12.84% (male 158,702/female 155,211)
    15-24 years: 11.78% (male 203,703/female 84,323)
    25-54 years: 70.66% (male 1,439,364/female 287,575)
    55-64 years: 3.53% (male 66,561/female 19,600)
    65 years and over: 1.19% (male 19,067/female 10,068) (2020 est.)
    population pyramid: population pyramid
    Dependency ratios field listing
    total dependency ratio: 18.1
    youth dependency ratio: 16.1
    elderly dependency ratio: 2
    potential support ratio: 50.1 (2020 est.)
    Median age field listing
    total: 33.7 years
    male: 35 years
    female: 28.2 years (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 96
    Population growth rate field listing
    1.55% (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 66
    Birth rate field listing
    9.3 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 201
    Death rate field listing
    1.6 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 229
    Net migration rate field listing
    6.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 18
    Population distribution field listing
    most of the population is clustered in or around the capital of Doha on the eastern side of the peninsula
    Urbanization field listing
    urban population: 99.2% of total population (2020)
    rate of urbanization: 2.41% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    Major urban areas - population field listing
    641,000 DOHA (capital) (2020)
    Sex ratio field listing
    at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 2.42 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 5.01 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 3.4 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 1.89 male(s)/female
    total population: 3.39 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
    Maternal mortality rate field listing
    9 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 149
    Infant mortality rate field listing
    total: 5.7 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 6 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 5.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 167
    Life expectancy at birth field listing
    total population: 79.4 years
    male: 77.2 years
    female: 81.6 years (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 54
    Total fertility rate field listing
    1.88 children born/woman (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 135
    Contraceptive prevalence rate field listing
    37.5% (2012)
    Drinking water source field listing
    improved: total: 100% of population
    unimproved: total: 0% of population (2017 est.)
    Current Health Expenditure field listing
    2.6% (2017)
    Physicians density field listing
    2.69 physicians/1,000 population (2016)
    Hospital bed density field listing
    1.3 beds/1,000 population (2017)
    Sanitation facility access field listing
    improved: urban: 98% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 98% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 98% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 2% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 2% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 2% of population (2015 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate field listing
    0.1% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 133
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS field listing
    <500 (2017 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - deaths field listing
    <100 (2017 est.)
    Obesity - adult prevalence rate field listing
    35.1% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 15
    Education expenditures field listing
    2.9% of GDP (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 143
    Literacy field listing
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 93.5%
    male: 92.4%
    female: 94.7% (2017)
    School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education) field listing
    total: 12 years
    male: 11 years
    female: 14 years (2017)
    Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 field listing
    total: 0.4%
    male: 0.2%
    female: 1.5% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 181
  • Government :: Qatar
  • Country name field listing
    conventional long form: State of Qatar
    conventional short form: Qatar
    local long form: Dawlat Qatar
    local short form: Qatar
    etymology: the origin of the name is uncertain, but it dates back at least 2,000 years since a term "Catharrei" was used to describe the inhabitants of the peninsula by Pliny the Elder (1st century A.D.), and a "Catara" peninsula is depicted on a map by Ptolemy (2nd century A.D.)

    note: closest approximation of the native pronunciation is gattar or cottar

    Government type field listing
    absolute monarchy
    Capital field listing
    name: Doha
    geographic coordinates: 25 17 N, 51 32 E
    time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    etymology: derives from the Arabic term "dohat," meaning "roundness," and refers to the small rounded bays along the area's coastline
    Administrative divisions field listing
    8 municipalities (baladiyat, singular - baladiyah); Ad Dawhah, Al Khawr wa adh Dhakhirah, Al Wakrah, Ar Rayyan, Ash Shamal, Ash Shihaniyah, Az Za'ayin, Umm Salal
    Independence field listing
    3 September 1971 (from the UK)
    National holiday field listing
    National Day, 18 December (1878), anniversary of Al Thani family accession to the throne; Independence Day, 3 September (1971)
    Constitution field listing
    history: previous 1972 (provisional); latest drafted 2 July 2002, approved by referendum 29 April 2003, endorsed 8 June 2004, effective 9 June 2005
    amendments: proposed by the Amir or by one third of Advisory Council members; passage requires two-thirds majority vote of Advisory Council members and approval and promulgation by the emir; articles pertaining to the rule of state and its inheritance, functions of the emir, and citizen rights and liberties cannot be amended
    International law organization participation field listing
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
    Citizenship field listing
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Qatar
    dual citizenship recognized: no
    residency requirement for naturalization: 20 years; 15 years if an Arab national
    Suffrage field listing
    18 years of age; universal
    Executive branch field listing
    chief of state: Amir TAMIM bin Hamad Al Thani (since 25 June 2013)
    head of government: Prime Minister and Minister of Interior Sheikh KHALID ibn Khalifa ibn Abdul Aziz Al Thani (since 28 January 2020);  Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of State for Defense Affairs KHALID bin Mohamed AL Attiyah (since 14 November 2017); Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs MOHAMED bin Abdulrahman Al Thani (since 14 November 2017)
    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the amir
    elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; prime minister and deputy prime minister appointed by the amir
    Legislative branch field listing
    description: unicameral Advisory Council or Majlis al-Shura (45 seats; 30 members directly elected by popular vote for 4-year re-electable terms; 15 members appointed by the monarch to serve until resignation or until relieved; note - legislative drafting authority rests with the Council of Ministers and is reviewed by the Advisory Council or Majlis al-Shura
    elections: last on 17 June 2016 (next in 2019); note - in late 2019, the amir announced the formation of a committee to oversee preparations for the first elected council, although Doha has not selected a date for elections
    election results: NA; composition - men 41, women 4, percent of women 8.9%
    Judicial branch field listing
    highest courts: Supreme Court or Court of Cassation (consists of the court president and several judges); Supreme Constitutional Court (consists of the chief justice and 6 members)
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges nominated by the Supreme Judiciary Council, a 9-member independent body consisting of judiciary heads appointed by the Amir; judges appointed for 3-year renewable terms; Supreme Constitutional Court members nominated by the Supreme Judiciary Council and appointed by the monarch; term of appointment NA
    subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; Administrative Court; Courts of First Instance; sharia courts; Courts of Justice; Qatar International Court and Dispute Resolution Center, established in 2009, provides dispute resolution services for institutions and bodies in Qatar, as well as internationally
    Political parties and leaders field listing
    political parties are banned
    International organization participation field listing
    ABEDA, AFESD, AMF, CAEU, CD, CICA (observer), EITI (implementing country), FAO, G-77, GCC, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAS, MIGA, NAM, OAPEC, OAS (observer), OIC, OIF, OPCW, OPEC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    Diplomatic representation in the US field listing
    Ambassador MISHAL bin Hamad bin Muhammad Al Thani (since 24 April 2017)
    chancery: 2555 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20037
    telephone: [1] (202) 274-1600
    FAX: [1] (202) 237-0682
    consulate(s) general: Houston, Los Angeles
    Diplomatic representation from the US field listing
    chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Phillip NELSON (since 2 March 2020)
    telephone: [974] 4496-6000
    embassy: 22 February Street, Al Luqta District, P. O. Box 2399, Doha
    mailing address: P. O. Box 2399, Doha
    FAX: [974] 4488-4298
    Flag description field listing
    maroon with a broad white serrated band (nine white points) on the hoist side; maroon represents the blood shed in Qatari wars, white stands for peace; the nine-pointed serrated edge signifies Qatar as the ninth member of the "reconciled emirates" in the wake of the Qatari-British treaty of 1916

    note: the other eight emirates are the seven that compose the UAE and Bahrain; according to some sources, the dominant color was formerly red, but this darkened to maroon upon exposure to the sun and the new shade was eventually adopted

    National symbol(s) field listing
    a maroon field surmounted by a white serrated band with nine white points; national colors: maroon, white
    National anthem field listing
    name: "Al-Salam Al-Amiri" (The Amiri Salute)
    lyrics/music: Sheikh MUBARAK bin Saif al-Thani/Abdul Aziz Nasser OBAIDAN

    note: adopted 1996; anthem first performed that year at a meeting of the Gulf Cooperative Council hosted by Qatar

  • Economy :: Qatar
  • Economy - overview field listing

    Qatar’s oil and natural gas resources are the country’s main economic engine and government revenue source, driving Qatar’s high economic growth and per capita income levels, robust state spending on public entitlements, and booming construction spending, particularly as Qatar prepares to host the World Cup in 2022. Although the government has maintained high capital spending levels for ongoing infrastructure projects, low oil and natural gas prices in recent years have led the Qatari Government to tighten some spending to help stem its budget deficit.

    Qatar’s reliance on oil and natural gas is likely to persist for the foreseeable future. Proved natural gas reserves exceed 25 trillion cubic meters - 13% of the world total and, among countries, third largest in the world. Proved oil reserves exceed 25 billion barrels, allowing production to continue at current levels for about 56 years. Despite the dominance of oil and natural gas, Qatar has made significant gains in strengthening non-oil sectors, such as manufacturing, construction, and financial services, leading non-oil GDP to steadily rise in recent years to just over half the total.

    Following trade restriction imposed by Saudi Arabia, the UAE, Bahrain, and Egypt in 2017, Qatar established new trade routes with other countries to maintain access to imports.

    GDP (purchasing power parity) field listing
    $339.5 billion (2017 est.)
    $334.2 billion (2016 est.)
    $327.3 billion (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 52
    GDP (official exchange rate) field listing
    $166.9 billion (2017 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate field listing
    1.6% (2017 est.)
    2.1% (2016 est.)
    3.7% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 169
    GDP - per capita (PPP) field listing
    $124,100 (2017 est.)
    $127,700 (2016 est.)
    $134,200 (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 2
    Gross national saving field listing
    50.2% of GDP (2017 est.)
    42.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
    47.4% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 1
    GDP - composition, by end use field listing
    household consumption: 24.6% (2017 est.)
    government consumption: 17% (2017 est.)
    investment in fixed capital: 43.1% (2017 est.)
    investment in inventories: 1.5% (2017 est.)
    exports of goods and services: 51% (2017 est.)
    imports of goods and services: -37.3% (2017 est.)
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin field listing
    agriculture: 0.2% (2017 est.)
    industry: 50.3% (2017 est.)
    services: 49.5% (2017 est.)
    Agriculture - products field listing
    fruits, vegetables; poultry, dairy products, beef; fish
    Industries field listing
    liquefied natural gas, crude oil production and refining, ammonia, fertilizer, petrochemicals, steel reinforcing bars, cement, commercial ship repair
    Industrial production growth rate field listing
    3% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 105
    Labor force field listing
    1.953 million (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 126
    Unemployment rate field listing
    8.9% (2017 est.)
    11.1% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 128
    Population below poverty line field listing
    Household income or consumption by percentage share field listing
    lowest 10%: 1.3%
    highest 10%: 35.9% (2007)
    Budget field listing
    revenues: 44.1 billion (2017 est.)
    expenditures: 53.82 billion (2017 est.)
    Taxes and other revenues field listing
    26.4% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 112
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) field listing
    -5.8% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 179
    Public debt field listing
    53.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
    46.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 88
    Fiscal year field listing
    1 April - 31 March
    Inflation rate (consumer prices) field listing
    0.4% (2017 est.)
    2.7% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 25
    Current account balance field listing
    $6.426 billion (2017 est.)
    -$8.27 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 27
    Exports field listing
    $67.5 billion (2017 est.)
    $57.25 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 44
    Exports - partners field listing
    Japan 17.3%, South Korea 16%, India 12.6%, China 11.2%, Singapore 8.2%, UAE 6.4% (2017)
    Exports - commodities field listing
    liquefied natural gas (LNG), petroleum products, fertilizers, steel
    Imports field listing
    $30.77 billion (2017 est.)
    $31.93 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 67
    Imports - commodities field listing
    machinery and transport equipment, food, chemicals
    Imports - partners field listing
    China 10.9%, US 8.9%, UAE 8.5%, Germany 8.1%, UK 5.5%, India 5.4%, Japan 5.3%, Italy 4.3% (2017)
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold field listing
    $15.01 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $31.89 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 68
    Debt - external field listing
    $167.8 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $157.9 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 39
    Exchange rates field listing
    Qatari rials (QAR) per US dollar -
    3.64 (2017 est.)
    3.64 (2016 est.)
    3.64 (2015 est.)
    3.64 (2014 est.)
    3.64 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: Qatar
  • Electricity access field listing
    electrification - total population: 100% (2016)
    Electricity - production field listing
    39.78 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 58
    Electricity - consumption field listing
    37.24 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 58
    Electricity - exports field listing
    0 kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 186
    Electricity - imports field listing
    0 kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 188
    Electricity - installed generating capacity field listing
    8.796 million kW (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 66
    Electricity - from fossil fuels field listing
    100% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 15
    Electricity - from nuclear fuels field listing
    0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 169
    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants field listing
    0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 193
    Electricity - from other renewable sources field listing
    1% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 163
    Crude oil - production field listing
    1.464 million bbl/day (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 17
    Crude oil - exports field listing
    1.15 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 13
    Crude oil - imports field listing
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 183
    Crude oil - proved reserves field listing
    25.24 billion bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 13
    Refined petroleum products - production field listing
    273,800 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 46
    Refined petroleum products - consumption field listing
    277,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 45
    Refined petroleum products - exports field listing
    485,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 18
    Refined petroleum products - imports field listing
    12,300 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 143
    Natural gas - production field listing
    166.4 billion cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 4
    Natural gas - consumption field listing
    39.9 billion cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 26
    Natural gas - exports field listing
    126.5 billion cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 2
    Natural gas - imports field listing
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 176
    Natural gas - proved reserves field listing
    24.07 trillion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 3
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy field listing
    114.2 million Mt (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 40
  • Communications :: Qatar
  • Telephones - fixed lines field listing
    total subscriptions: 452,088
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 19 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 100
    Telephones - mobile cellular field listing
    total subscriptions: 3,945,978
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 167 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 130
    Telecommunication systems field listing
    general assessment: regional leaders in telecom; highest fixed-line and mobile penetrations in Middle East; deployed over 90 5G base stations for 5G launch, claiming 1st commercial launch of 5G in the world May 2018; telecom system centered in Doha; steady LTE networks; good broadband penetration, ADSL, Fiber-to-the-Home (FttP), wireless and mobile services; largest users of the Internet and use of OTT services and bundled services (2020)
    domestic: fixed-line 19 per 100 and mobile-cellular telephone subscribership 167 telephones per 100 persons (2018)
    international: country code - 974; landing points for the Qatar-UAE Submarine Cable System, AAE-1, FOG, GBICS/East North Africa MENA and the FALCON submarine cable network that provides links to Asia, Africa, the Middle East, Europe and Southeast Asia; tropospheric scatter to Bahrain; microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia and the UAE; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) and 1 Arabsat; retains full ownership of two commercial satellites, Es'hailSat 1 and 2 (2019)
    the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
    Broadcast media field listing
    TV and radio broadcast licensing and access to local media markets are state controlled; home of the satellite TV channel Al-Jazeera, which was originally owned and financed by the Qatari government but has evolved to independent corporate status; Al-Jazeera claims editorial independence in broadcasting; local radio transmissions include state, private, and international broadcasters on FM frequencies in Doha; in August 2013, Qatar's satellite company Es'hailSat launched its first communications satellite Es'hail 1 (manufactured in the US), which entered commercial service in December 2013 to provide improved television broadcasting capability and expand availability of voice and Internet; Es'hailSat launched its second commercial satellite in 2018 with aid of SpaceX (2019)
    Internet country code field listing
    Internet users field listing
    total: 2,129,360
    percent of population: 94.3% (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 109
    Broadband - fixed subscriptions field listing
    total: 267,906
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 11 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 105
  • Military and Security :: Qatar
  • Military and security forces field listing

    Qatari Amiri Land Force (QALF, includes Emiri Guard), Qatari Amiri Navy (QAN, includes Coast Guard), Qatari Amiri Air Force (QAAF); Internal Security Forces: Mobile Gendarmerie

    Military service age and obligation field listing
    conscription for males aged 18-35; compulsory service times range from 4 months to up to a year, depending on the cadets educational and professional circumstances; women are permitted to serve in the armed forces, including as uniformed officers and pilots (2019)
    Military and security service personnel strengths field listing

    size assessments for the Qatari Amiri military vary; approximately 14,000 active personnel (10,000 Land Force, including Emiri Guard; 2,000 Navy, including Coast Guard; 2,000 Air Force); est. 5,000 Internal Security Forces

    (2019 est.)
    Military equipment inventories and acquisitions field listing
    the Qatari military's inventory includes a mix of older and modern weapons systems, mostly from the US and Europe, particularly France, Germany, and the UK; the leading providers of armaments to Qatar since 2010 are France, Germany, and the US; Qatar is scheduled to receive a large shipment of fighter aircraft from the UK in 2022 (2019 est.)
  • Transportation :: Qatar
  • National air transport system field listing
    number of registered air carriers: 2 (2015)
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 199 (2015)
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 25,263,224 (2015)
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 7,563,307,390 mt-km (2015)
    Civil aircraft registration country code prefix field listing
    A7 (2016)
    Airports field listing
    6 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 175
    Airports - with paved runways field listing
    total: 4 (2017)
    over 3,047 m: 3 (2017)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2017)
    Airports - with unpaved runways field listing
    total: 2 (2013)
    914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)
    under 914 m: 1 (2013)
    Heliports field listing
    1 (2013)
    Pipelines field listing
    288 km condensate, 221 km condensate/gas, 2383 km gas, 90 km liquid petroleum gas, 745 km oil, 103 km refined products (2013)
    Roadways field listing
    total: 7,039 km (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 137
    Merchant marine field listing
    total: 136
    by type: bulk carrier 9, container ship 6, general cargo 5, oil tanker 7, other 109 (2019)
    country comparison to the world: 77
    Ports and terminals field listing
    major seaport(s): Doha, Musay'id, Ra's Laffan
    LNG terminal(s) (export): Ras Laffan
  • Terrorism :: Qatar
  • Terrorist groups - foreign based field listing
    HAMAS: aim(s): continue engagement with the Qatari Government
    area(s) of operation:
    maintains a limited office in Doha (2018)
  • Transnational Issues :: Qatar
  • Disputes - international field listing


    Refugees and internally displaced persons field listing
    stateless persons: 1,200 (2018)
    Trafficking in persons field listing
    current situation: Qatar is a destination country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor, and, to a much lesser extent, forced prostitution; the predominantly foreign workforce migrates to Qatar legally for low- and semi-skilled work but often experiences situations of forced labor, including debt bondage, delayed or nonpayment of salaries, confiscation of passports, abuse, hazardous working conditions, and squalid living arrangements; foreign female domestic workers are particularly vulnerable to trafficking because of their isolation in private homes and lack of protection under Qatari labor laws; some women who migrate for work are also forced into prostitution
    tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List – Qatar does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; the government investigated 11 trafficking cases but did not prosecute or convict any offenders, including exploitative employers and recruitment agencies; the primary solution for resolving labor violations was to transfer a worker’s sponsorship to a new employer with minimal effort to investigate whether a forced labor violation had occurred; authorities increased their efforts to protect some trafficking victims, although many victims of forced labor, particularly domestic workers, remained unidentified and unprotected and were sometimes punished for immigration violations or running away from an employer or sponsor; authorities visited worksites throughout the country to meet and educate workers and employers on trafficking regulations, but the government failed to abolish or reform the sponsorship system, perpetuating Qatar’s forced labor problem (2015)