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Europe :: Serbia
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Serbia
  • Introduction :: SERBIA

  • The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes was formed in 1918; its name was changed to Yugoslavia in 1929. Communist Partisans resisted the Axis occupation and division of Yugoslavia from 1941 to 1945 and fought nationalist opponents and collaborators as well. The military and political movement headed by Josip Broz "TITO" (Partisans) took full control of Yugoslavia when their domestic rivals and the occupiers were defeated in 1945. Although communists, TITO and his successors (Tito died in 1980) managed to steer their own path between the Warsaw Pact nations and the West for the next four and a half decades. In 1989, Slobodan MILOSEVIC became president of the Republic of Serbia and his ultranationalist calls for Serbian domination led to the violent breakup of Yugoslavia along ethnic lines. In 1991, Croatia, Slovenia, and Macedonia declared independence, followed by Bosnia in 1992. The remaining republics of Serbia and Montenegro declared a new Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY) in April 1992 and under MILOSEVIC's leadership, Serbia led various military campaigns to unite ethnic Serbs in neighboring republics into a "Greater Serbia." These actions ultimately failed and, after international intervention, led to the signing of the Dayton Peace Accords in 1995.
    MILOSEVIC retained control over Serbia and eventually became president of the FRY in 1997. In 1998, an ethnic Albanian insurgency in the formerly autonomous Serbian province of Kosovo provoked a Serbian counterinsurgency campaign that resulted in massacres and massive expulsions of ethnic Albanians living in Kosovo. The MILOSEVIC government's rejection of a proposed international settlement led to NATO's bombing of Serbia in the spring of 1999. Serbian military and police forces withdrew from Kosovo in June 1999, and the UN Security Council authorized an interim UN administration and a NATO-led security force in Kosovo. FRY elections in late 2000 led to the ouster of MILOSEVIC and the installation of democratic government. In 2003, the FRY became the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro, a loose federation of the two republics. Widespread violence predominantly targeting ethnic Serbs in Kosovo in March 2004 led to more intense calls to address Kosovo's status, and the UN began facilitating status talks in 2006. In June 2006, Montenegro seceded from the federation and declared itself an independent nation. Serbia subsequently gave notice that it was the successor state to the union of Serbia and Montenegro.
    In February 2008, after nearly two years of inconclusive negotiations, Kosovo declared itself independent of Serbia - an action Serbia refuses to recognize. At Serbia's request, the UN General Assembly (UNGA) in October 2008 sought an advisory opinion from the International Court of Justice (ICJ) on whether Kosovo's unilateral declaration of independence was in accordance with international law. In a ruling considered unfavorable to Serbia, the ICJ issued an advisory opinion in July 2010 stating that international law did not prohibit declarations of independence. In late 2010, Serbia agreed to an EU-drafted UNGA Resolution acknowledging the ICJ's decision and calling for a new round of talks between Serbia and Kosovo, this time on practical issues rather than Kosovo's status. Serbia and Kosovo signed the first agreement of principles governing the normalization of relations between the two countries in April 2013 and are in the process of implementing its provisions. In January 2014, the EU opened formal negotiations on Serbia’s accession to the EU.
  • Geography :: SERBIA

  • Southeastern Europe, between Macedonia and Hungary
    44 00 N, 21 00 E
    Europe
    total: 77,474 sq km
    land: 77,474 sq km
    water: 0 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 117
    slightly smaller than South Carolina
    total: 2,322 km
    border countries (8): Bosnia and Herzegovina 345 km, Bulgaria 344 km, Croatia 314 km, Hungary 164 km, Kosovo 366 km, Macedonia 101 km, Montenegro 157 km, Romania 531 km
    0 km (landlocked)
    none (landlocked)
    in the north, continental climate (cold winters and hot, humid summers with well-distributed rainfall); in other parts, continental and Mediterranean climate (relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall and hot, dry summers and autumns)
    extremely varied; to the north, rich fertile plains; to the east, limestone ranges and basins; to the southeast, ancient mountains and hills
    lowest point: Danube and Timok Rivers 35 m
    highest point: Midzor 2,169 m
    oil, gas, coal, iron ore, copper, zinc, antimony, chromite, gold, silver, magnesium, pyrite, limestone, marble, salt, arable land
    agricultural land: 57.9%
    arable land 37.7%; permanent crops 3.4%; permanent pasture 16.8%
    forest: 31.6%
    other: 10.5% (2011 est.)
    919.6 sq km (2011)
    162.2 cu km (note - includes Kosovo) (2011)
    destructive earthquakes
    air pollution around Belgrade and other industrial cities; water pollution from industrial wastes dumped into the Sava which flows into the Danube
    party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    controls one of the major land routes from Western Europe to Turkey and the Near East
  • People and Society :: SERBIA

  • noun: Serb(s)
    adjective: Serbian
    Serb 83.3%, Hungarian 3.5%, Romany 2.1%, Bosniak 2%, other 5.7%, undeclared or unknown 3.4% (2011 est.)
    Serbian (official) 88.1%, Hungarian 3.4%, Bosnian 1.9%, Romany 1.4%, other 3.4%, undeclared or unknown 1.8%
    note: Serbian, Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, Croatian, and Rusyn all official in Vojvodina (2011 est.)
    Serbian Orthodox 84.6%, Catholic 5%, Muslim 3.1%, Protestant 1%, atheist 1.1%, other 0.8%, undeclared or unknown 4.5% (2011 est.)
    7,176,794
    note: does not include the population of Kosovo (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 101
    0-14 years: 14.74% (male 545,685/female 512,443)
    15-24 years: 11.46% (male 423,785/female 398,878)
    25-54 years: 41.52% (male 1,503,100/female 1,476,843)
    55-64 years: 14.66% (male 506,796/female 545,165)
    65 years and over: 17.61% (male 519,501/female 744,598) (2015 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 44.3%
    youth dependency ratio: 23.2%
    elderly dependency ratio: 21.1%
    potential support ratio: 4.7% (2014 est.)
    total: 41.9 years
    male: 40.2 years
    female: 43.6 years (2014 est.)
    -0.46% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 221
    9.08 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 208
    13.66 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 12
    0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 83
    urban population: 55.6% of total population (2015)
    rate of urbanization: -0.34% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    BELGRADE (capital) 1.181 million (2014)
    at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2015 est.)
    total: 6.05 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 6.96 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 5.07 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 170
    total population: 75.26 years
    male: 72.39 years
    female: 78.31 years (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 102
    1.43 children born/woman (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 205
    60.8% (2010)
    10.6% of GDP (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 19
    2.11 physicians/1,000 population (2009)
    5.4 beds/1,000 population (2009)
    improved:
    urban: 99.4% of population
    rural: 98.9% of population
    total: 99.2% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 0.6% of population
    rural: 1.1% of population
    total: 0.8% of population (2012 est.)
    improved:
    urban: 98.6% of population
    rural: 95.7% of population
    total: 97.3% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 1.4% of population
    rural: 4.3% of population
    total: 2.7% of population (2012 est.)
    0.05% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 114
    3,000 (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 112
    100 (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 117
    degree of risk: intermediate
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea
    note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2013)
    21.1% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 63
    1.8% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 125
    4.8% of GDP (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 82
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 98.1%
    male: 99.1%
    female: 97.2% (2015 est.)
    total: 14 years
    male: 14 years
    female: 15 years (2013)
    total number: 36,141
    percentage: 4% (2005 est.)
    total: 51.1% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 7
  • Government :: SERBIA

  • conventional long form: Republic of Serbia
    conventional short form: Serbia
    local long form: Republika Srbija
    local short form: Srbija
    former: People's Republic of Serbia, Socialist Republic of Serbia
    republic
    name: Belgrade (Beograd)
    geographic coordinates: 44 50 N, 20 30 E
    time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
    122 municipalities (opstine, singular - opstina) and 23 cities (gradovi, singular - grad)
    municipalities: Ada*, Aleksandrovac, Aleksinac, Alibunar*, Apatin*, Arandelovac, Arilje, Babusnica, Bac*, Backa Palanka*, Backa Topola*, Backi Petrovac*, Bajina Basta, Batocina, Becej*, Bela Crkva*, Bela Palanka, Beocin*, Blace, Bogatic, Bojnik, Boljevac, Bor, Bosilegrad, Brus, Bujanovac, Cajetina, Cicevac, Coka*, Crna Trava, Cuprija, Despotovac, Dimitrov, Doljevac, Gadzin Han, Golubac, Gornji Milanovac, Indija*, Irig*, Ivanjica, Kanjiza*, Kikinda*, Kladovo, Knic, Knjazevac, Koceljeva, Kosjeric, Kovacica*, Kovin*, Krupanj, Kucevo, Kula*, Kursumlija, Lajkovac, Lapovo, Lebane, Ljig, Ljubovija, Lucani, Majdanpek, Mali Idos*, Mali Zvornik, Malo Crnice, Medveda, Merosina, Mionica, Negotin, Nova Crnja*, Nova Varos, Novi Becej*, Novi Knezevac*, Odzaci*, Opovo*, Osecina, Paracin, Pecinci*, Petrovac na Mlavi, Pirot, Plandiste*, Pozega, Presevo, Priboj, Prijepolje, Prokuplje, Raca, Raska, Razanj, Rekovac, Ruma*, Secanj*, Senta*, Sid*, Sjenica, Smederevska Palanka, Sokobanja, Srbobran*, Sremski Karlovci*, Stara Pazova*, Surdulica, Svilajnac, Svrljig, Temerin*, Titel*, Topola, Trgoviste, Trstenik, Tutin, Ub, Varvarin, Velika Plana, Veliko Gradiste, Vladicin Han, Vladimirci, Vlasotince, Vrbas*, Vrnjacka Banja, Vrsac*, Zabalj*, Zabari, Zagubica, Zitiste*, Zitorada
    cities: Beograd, Cacak, Jagodina, Kragujevac, Kraljevo, Krusevac, Leskovac, Loznica, Nis, Novi Pazar, Novi Sad*, Pancevo*, Pozarevac, Sabac, Smederevo, Sombor*, Sremska Mitrovica*, Subotica*, Uzice, Vajevo, Vranje, Zajecar, Zrenjanin*
    note: the northern 39 municipalities and 6 cities - about 28% of Serbia's area - compose the autonomous province of Vojvodina and are indicated with *
    5 June 2006 (from the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro)
    National Day, 15 February (1835), the day the first constitution of the country was adopted
    many previous; latest approved by referendum 28-29 October 2006, adopted 30 September 2006, effective 8 November 2006 (2011)
    civil law system
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    18 years of age, 16 if employed; universal
    chief of state: President Tomislav NIKOLIC (since 31 May 2012)
    head of government: Prime Minister Aleksandar VUCIC (since 22 April 2014)
    cabinet: Republican Ministries act as cabinet
    elections: president elected by direct vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 20 May 2012 (next to be held in 2017); prime minister elected by the National Assembly
    election results: Tomislav NIKOLIC elected president in runoff election; percent of vote - NIKOLIC 51.2%, Boris TADIC 48.8%
    description: unicameral National Assembly or Narodna Skupstina (250 seats; members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms)
    elections: last held on 16 March 2014 (next to be held by March 2018)
    election results: percent of vote by coalition/party - SNS-led Coalition 48.4%, SPS/PUPS/JS 13.5%, DS 6.0%, Boris Tadic Coalition 5.7%, DSS 4.2%, Dveri 3.6%, LDP-led Coalition 3.4%, URS 3.0%, SVM 2.1%, Enough of that 2.1%, SRS 2.0%, SDA 1.0%, PDD .7%, other and invalid 4.3%; seats by coalition/party - SNS-led Coalition 158, SPS/PUPS/JS 44, DS 19, Boris Tadic Coalition 18, SVM 6, SDA 3, PDD 2
    shighest court(s): Supreme Court of Cassation (consists of more than 60 judges organized into 3- and 5-member panels for criminal, civil, and administrative cases); Constitutional Court (consists of 15 judges)
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court justices proposed by the High Judicial Council (HJC), an 11-member body of which 7 are judges, and elected by the National Assembly; Constitutional Court judges appointed - 5 each by the National Assembly, the president, and the Supreme Court of Cassation; judges of both courts appointed to permanent tenure by the HJC
    subordinate courts: appellate courts, higher courts, and municipal and district courts; courts of special jurisdiction include the Administrative Court, Appellate Commercial Court, and 2 levels of misdemeanor courts
    note: in 2003, specialized panels on war crimes were established within the Serbian court system; the panels have jurisdiction over alleged violations of the Basic Criminal Code and crimes against humanity, international law, and criminal acts as defined by the Statute of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia
    Alliance of Vojvodina Hungarians or SVM [Istvan PASZTOR]
    Boris Tadic Coalition [Boris TADIC] (includes New Democratic Party-Greens or NDS-Z [Boris TADIC], League of Social Democrats of Vojvodina or LSV [Nenad CANAK], Together for Serbia or ZZS [Dusan PETROVIC], Democratic Alliance of Vojvodina Hungarians or VMDK [Aron CSONKA], Together for Vojvodina [Olena PAPUGA], Democratic Left of Roma or DLR [Jovan DAMJANOVIC])
    Democratic Party of Serbia or DSS [Sanda Razkovic IVIC]
    Dveri [Bosko OBRADOVIC]
    Enough of That [Sasa RADULOVIC]
    Party for Democratic Action or PDD [Riza HALIMI]
    Party of Democratic Action of the Sandzak or SDA [Sulejman UGLJANIN]
    Serbian Radical Party or SRS [Vojislav SESELJ]
    SNS-led Coalition/A Future We Believe In [Aleksandar VUCIC] (includes Serbian Progressive Party or SNS [Aleksandar VUCIC], Social Democratic Party of Serbia or SDPS [Rasim LJAJIC], New Serbia or NS [Velimir ILIC], Movement of Socialists or PS [Aleksandar VULIN], and Serbian Renewal Movement or SPO [Vuk DRASKOVIC])
    United Regions of Serbia or URS [Mladan DINKIC]
    With Democratic Party for Democratic Serbia/Democratic Party or DS [Dragan DJILAS]
    SPS/PUPS/JS [Ivica DACIC] (includes Socialist Party of Serbia or SPS [Ivica DACIC], Party of United Pensioners of Serbia or PUPS [Jovan KRKOBABIC], United Serbia or JS [Dragan "Palma" MARKOVIC])
    LDP-led Coalition [Cedomir JOVANOVIC] (includes Liberal Democratic Party of LDP [Cedomir JOVANOVIC], Bosniak Democratic Union of Sandzak or BDZS [Esad DZUDZEVIC], Social Democratic Union of SDU [Zarko KORAC])
    1389 (Serbian nationalist movement)
    Obraz (Orthodox clero-fascist organization)
    SNP NASI (Serbian National Movement NASI)
    BIS, BSEC, CD, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, EU (candidate country), FAO, G-9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIL, UNOCI, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
    chief of mission: Ambassador Djerdj MATKOVIC (since 23 February 2015)
    chancery: 2134 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 332-0333
    FAX: [1] (202) 332-3933
    consulate(s) general: Chicago, New York
    chief of mission: Ambassador Michael KIRBY (since 11 September 2012)
    embassy: 92 Bulevar kneza Aleksandra Karadjordjevica, 11040 Belgrade, Serbia
    mailing address: 5070 Belgrade Place, Washington, DC 20521-5070
    telephone: [381] (11) 706-4000
    FAX: [381] (11) 706-4005
    three equal horizontal stripes of red (top), blue, and white - the Pan-Slav colors representing freedom and revolutionary ideals; charged with the coat of arms of Serbia shifted slightly to the hoist side; the principal field of the coat of arms represents the Serbian state and displays a white two-headed eagle on a red shield; a smaller red shield on the eagle represents the Serbian nation, and is divided into four quarters by a white cross; interpretations vary as to the meaning and origin of the white, curved symbols resembling firesteels or Cyrillic "C's" in each quarter; a royal crown surmounts the coat of arms
    note: the Pan-Slav colors were inspired by the 19th-century flag of Russia
    double-headed eagle; national colors: red, blue, white
    name: "Boze pravde" (God of Justice)
    lyrics/music: Jovan DORDEVIC/Davorin JENKO
    note: adopted 1904; song originally written as part of a play in 1872 and has been used as an anthem by the Serbian people throughout the 20th and 21st centuries
  • Economy :: SERBIA

  • Serbia has a transitional economy largely dominated by market forces, but the state sector remains significant in certain areas and many institutional reforms are needed. The economy relies on manufacturing and exports, driven largely by foreign investment. MILOSEVIC-era mismanagement of the economy, an extended period of international economic sanctions, civil war, and the damage to Yugoslavia's infrastructure and industry during the NATO airstrikes in 1999 left the economy only half the size it was in 1990. After the ousting of former Federal Yugoslav President MILOSEVIC in September 2000, the Democratic Opposition of Serbia (DOS) coalition government implemented stabilization measures and embarked on a market reform program. After renewing its membership in the IMF in December 2000, Serbia continued to reintegrate into the international community by rejoining the World Bank (IBRD) and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD). Serbia has made progress in trade liberalization and enterprise restructuring and privatization, but many large enterprises - including the power utilities, telecommunications company, natural gas company, and others - remain in state hands. Serbia has made some progress towards EU membership, signing a Stabilization and Association Agreement with Brussels in May 2008, and with full implementation of the Interim Trade Agreement with the EU in February 2010, gained candidate status in March 2012. In January 2014, Serbia's EU accession talks officially opened. Serbia's negotiations with the World Trade Organization are advanced, with the country's complete ban on the trade and cultivation of agricultural biotechnology products representing the primary remaining obstacle to accession. Serbia's program with the IMF was frozen in early 2012 because the 2012 budget approved by parliament deviated from the program parameters; the arrangement is now void. High unemployment and stagnant household incomes are ongoing political and economic problems. Structural economic reforms needed to ensure the country's long-term prosperity have largely stalled since the onset of the global financial crisis. Growing budget deficits constrain the use of stimulus efforts to revive the economy and contribute to growing concern of a public debt crisis, given that Serbia's total public debt as a share of GDP more than doubled between 2008 and 2014. Serbia's concerns about inflation and exchange-rate stability may preclude the use of expansionary monetary policy. During 2014 the SNS party addressed issues with the fiscal deficit, state-owned enterprises, the labor market, construction permits, bankruptcy and privatization, and other areas. Major challenges ahead include: high unemployment rates and the need for job creation; high government expenditures for salaries, pensions, healthcare, and unemployment benefits; a growing need for new government borrowing; rising public and private foreign debt; attracting new foreign direct investment; and getting the IMF program back on track. Other serious longer-term challenges include an inefficient judicial system, high levels of corruption, and an aging population. Factors favorable to Serbia's economic growth include its strategic location, a relatively inexpensive and skilled labor force, and free trade agreements with the EU, Russia, Turkey, and countries that are members of the Central European Free Trade Agreement (CEFTA). In late 2014, Serbia and the IMF announced a tentative plan for a precautionary loan worth approximately $1 billion. In 2015, the government will be challenged to implement IMF-mandated reforms—which will target social spending, the large public sector, and social spending.
    $95.49 billion (2014 est.)
    $97.26 billion (2013 est.)
    $94.82 billion (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2014 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 85
    $43.87 billion (2014 est.)
    -1.8% (2014 est.)
    2.6% (2013 est.)
    -1% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 206
    $13,300 (2014 est.)
    $13,600 (2013 est.)
    $13,200 (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2013 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 116
    9.5% of GDP (2014 est.)
    11.5% of GDP (2013 est.)
    9.5% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 117
    household consumption: 73.7%
    government consumption: 19.3%
    investment in fixed capital: 20.2%
    investment in inventories: -1.9%
    exports of goods and services: 45.8%
    imports of goods and services: -57.1%
    (2014 est.)
    agriculture: 8.2%
    industry: 36.9%
    services: 54.9% (2014 est.)
    wheat, maize, sunflower, sugar beets, grapes/wine, fruits (raspberries, apples, sour cherries), vegetables (tomatoes, peppers, potatoes), beef, pork, and meat products, milk and dairy products
    automobiles, base metals, furniture, food processing, machinery, chemicals, sugar, tires, clothes, pharmaceuticals
    -6.5% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 188
    2.818 million (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 103
    agriculture: 21.9%
    industry: 15.6%
    services: 62.5% (2014 est.)
    19.7% (2014 est.)
    20.1% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 174
    9.2% (2013 est.)
    38.7 (2014 est.)
    28.2 (2008 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 71
    revenues: $16.38 billion
    expenditures: $19.32 billion
    note: this is the consolidated budget, including both central government and local goverment budgets (2014 est.)
    38.4% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 47
    -6.9% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 189
    71% of GDP (2014 est.)
    63.8% of GDP (2013 est.)
    note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued or owned by government entities other than the treasury (for which the Government of Singapore issued guarantees); the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities (for which the GOS also issued guarantees), as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment, debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions
    country comparison to the world: 47
    1.7% (2014 est.)
    2.2% (2013 est.)
    9.5% (18 March 2014)
    11.75% (6 February 2013)
    country comparison to the world: 22
    13.04% (31 December 2014 est.)
    12.35% (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 46
    $3.919 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $4.678 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 106
    $18.65 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $20.69 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 87
    $21.23 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $25.78 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 83
    $7.696 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $8.1 billion (31 December 2013)
    $7.451 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 77
    -$2.648 billion (2014 est.)
    -$2.832 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 149
    $14.84 billion (2014 est.)
    $14.61 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 80
    iron and steel, rubber, clothes, wheat, fruit and vegetables, nonferrous metals, electric appliances, metal products, weapons and ammunition, automobiles
    Italy 16.2%, Germany 11.9%, Bosnia and Herzegovina 8.1%, Russia 7.2%, Romania 5.7%
    $20.65 billion (2014 est.)
    $20.55 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 77
    $13.7 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $16.34 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 73
    $28.63 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $34.75 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 68
    $26.89 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
    $11.95 billion (2006 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 70
    $NA
    Serbian dinars (RSD) per US dollar -
    87.71 (2014 est.)
    84.919 (2013 est.)
    87.99 (2012 est.)
    72.455 (2011 est.)
    77.729 (2010 est.)
  • Energy :: SERBIA

  • 34.4 billion kWh (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 61
    26.91 billion kWh (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 64
    4.806 billion kWh (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 29
    6.864 billion kWh (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 37
    7.368 million kW (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 68
    59.2% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 140
    0% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 168
    40.6% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 60
    0.2% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 62
    24,420 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 74
    0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 172
    31,730 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 62
    102.6 million bbl (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 75
    61,590 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 78
    67,980 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 86
    12,050 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 75
    20,080 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 90
    562.2 million cu m (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 71
    2.43 billion cu m (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 76
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 166
    1.629 billion cu m (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 47
    48.14 billion cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 64
    46 million Mt (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 64
  • Communications :: SERBIA

  • 2.977 million (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 50
    9.138 million (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 85
    general assessment: replacements of, and upgrades to, telecommunications equipment damaged during the 1999 war resulted in a modern digitalized telecommunications system
    domestic: wireless service, available through multiple providers with national coverage, is growing very rapidly; best telecommunications services are centered in urban centers; 3G mobile network launched in 2007
    international: country code - 381 (2011)
    308 (station frequency types NA) (2009)
    138 (2009)
    .rs
    1.102 million (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 44
    4.107 million (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 55
  • Transportation :: SERBIA

  • 26 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 127
    total: 10
    over 3,047 m: 2
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
    914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2013)
    total: 16
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
    914 to 1,523 m: 10
    under 914 m:
    5 (2013)
    2 (2012)
    total: 3,809 km
    standard gauge: 3,809 km 1.435-m gauge (1,279 km electrified) (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 46
    total: 44,248 km
    paved: 28,000 km
    unpaved: 16,248 km (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 80
    587 km (primarily on the Danube and Sava rivers) (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 80
    river port(s): Belgrade (Danube)
  • Military :: SERBIA

  • Serbian Armed Forces (Vojska Srbije, VS): Land Forces Command (includes Riverine Component, consisting of a river flotilla on the Danube), Air and Air Defense Forces Command (2012)
    18 years of age for voluntary military service; conscription abolished December 2010; reserve obligation to age 60 for men and age 50 for women (2013)
    males age 16-49: 1,395,426
    females age 16-49: 1,356,415 (2010 est.)
    male: 43,945
    female: 41,080 (2010 est.)
    1.44% of GDP (2015 est.)
    1.49% of GDP (2014)
    1.48% of GDP (2013)
    1.77% of GDP (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 36
  • Transnational Issues :: SERBIA

  • Serbia with several other states protest the US and other states' recognition of Kosovo's declaration of its status as a sovereign and independent state in February 2008; ethnic Serbian municipalities along Kosovo's northern border challenge final status of Kosovo-Serbia boundary; several thousand NATO-led Kosovo Force peacekeepers under United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo authority continue to keep the peace within Kosovo between the ethnic Albanian majority and the Serb minority in Kosovo; Serbia delimited about half of the boundary with Bosnia and Herzegovina, but sections along the Drina River remain in dispute
    refugees (country of origin): 32,408 (Croatia); 11,325 (Bosnia and Herzegovina) (2014)
    IDPs: 97,000 (most are Kosovar Serbs, some are Roma, Ashkalis, and Egyptian (RAE); some RAE IDPs are unregistered) (2015)
    stateless persons: 3,578 (includes stateless persons in Kosovo) (2014)
    transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin moving to Western Europe on the Balkan route; economy vulnerable to money laundering
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