Library

 
View Text Low Bandwidth Version
Download Publication
Europe :: Romania
Page last updated on May 18, 2015
 
view 4 photos of
Romania
  • Introduction :: ROMANIA

  • The principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia - for centuries under the suzerainty of the Turkish Ottoman Empire - secured their autonomy in 1856; they were de facto linked in 1859 and formally united in 1862 under the new name of Romania. The country gained recognition of its independence in 1878. It joined the Allied Powers in World War I and acquired new territories - most notably Transylvania - following the conflict. In 1940, Romania allied with the Axis powers and participated in the 1941 German invasion of the USSR. Three years later, overrun by the Soviets, Romania signed an armistice. The post-war Soviet occupation led to the formation of a communist "people's republic" in 1947 and the abdication of the king. The decades-long rule of dictator Nicolae CEAUSESCU, who took power in 1965, and his Securitate police state became increasingly oppressive and draconian through the 1980s. CEAUSESCU was overthrown and executed in late 1989. Former communists dominated the government until 1996 when they were swept from power. Romania joined NATO in 2004 and the EU in 2007.
  • Geography :: ROMANIA

  • Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Ukraine
    46 00 N, 25 00 E
    Europe
    total: 238,391 sq km
    land: 229,891 sq km
    water: 8,500 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 83
    slightly smaller than Oregon
    total: 2,844 km
    border countries (5): Bulgaria 605 km, Hungary 424 km, Moldova 683 km, Serbia 531 km, Ukraine 601 km
    225 km
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    contiguous zone: 24 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation
    temperate; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow and fog; sunny summers with frequent showers and thunderstorms
    central Transylvanian Basin is separated from the Moldavian Plateau on the east by the Eastern Carpathian Mountains and separated from the Walachian Plain on the south by the Transylvanian Alps
    lowest point: Black Sea 0 m
    highest point: Moldoveanu 2,544 m
    petroleum (reserves declining), timber, natural gas, coal, iron ore, salt, arable land, hydropower
    arable land: 38.25%
    permanent crops: 1.94%
    other: 59.81% (2012 est.)
    6,153 sq km (2007)
    211.9 cu km (2011)
    total: 6.88 cu km/yr (22%/61%/17%)
    per capita: 320.8 cu m/yr (2009)
    earthquakes, most severe in south and southwest; geologic structure and climate promote landslides
    soil erosion and degradation; water pollution; air pollution in south from industrial effluents; contamination of Danube delta wetlands
    party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    controls most easily traversable land route between the Balkans, Moldova, and Ukraine
  • People and Society :: ROMANIA

  • noun: Romanian(s)
    adjective: Romanian
    Romanian 83.4%, Hungarian 6.1%, Roma 3.1%, Ukrainian 0.3%, German 0.2%, other 0.7%, unspecified 6.1% (2011 est.)
    Romanian (official) 85.4%, Hungarian 6.3%, Romany (Gypsy) 1.2%, other 1%, unspecified 6.1% (2011 est.)
    Eastern Orthodox (including all sub-denominations) 81.9%, Protestant (various denominations including Reformed and Pentecostal) 6.4%, Roman Catholic 4.3%, other (includes Muslim) 0.9%, none or atheist 0.2%, unspecified 6.3% (2011 est.)
    21,729,871 (July 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 58
    0-14 years: 14.6% (male 1,628,220/female 1,541,914)
    15-24 years: 11.3% (male 1,258,746/female 1,197,681)
    25-54 years: 45.7% (male 5,021,370/female 4,916,576)
    55-64 years: 13% (male 1,320,781/female 1,508,878)
    65 years and over: 15.4% (male 1,346,864/female 1,988,841) (2014 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 43.6%
    youth dependency ratio: 21.7%
    elderly dependency ratio: 21.9%
    potential support ratio: 4.6% (2014 est.)
    total: 39.8 years
    male: 38.4 years
    female: 41.4 years (2014 est.)
    -0.29% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 216
    9.27 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 206
    11.88 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 28
    -0.24 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 123
    urban population: 54.4% of total population (2014)
    rate of urbanization: 0.01% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    BUCHAREST (capital) 1.872 million (2014)
    at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2014 est.)
    26 (2011 est.)
    33 deaths/100,000 live births (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 127
    total: 10.16 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 11.52 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 8.72 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 140
    total population: 74.69 years
    male: 71.23 years
    female: 78.36 years (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 109
    1.32 children born/woman (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 214
    69.8%
    note: percent of women aged 18-49 (2005)
    5.3% of GDP (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 138
    2.45 physicians/1,000 population (2012)
    6.1 beds/1,000 population (2011)
    improved:
    urban: 98.5% of population
    rural: 75.6% of population
    total: 87.7% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 1.5% of population
    rural: 24.4% of population
    total: 12.3% of population (2008 est.)
    improved:
    urban: 87.9% of population
    rural: 54.4% of population
    total: 72.1% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 12.1% of population
    rural: 45.6% of population
    total: 27.9% of population (2008 est.)
    0.11% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 105
    16,200 (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 79
    500 (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 84
    23.4% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 101
    3.1% of GDP (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 104
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 98.8%
    male: 99.1%
    female: 98.5% (2015 est.)
    total: 14 years
    male: 14 years
    female: 15 years (2011)
    total number: 26,658
    percentage: 1% (2000 est.)
    total: 22.7%
    male: 22.3%
    female: 23.2% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 45
  • Government :: ROMANIA

  • conventional long form: none
    conventional short form: Romania
    local long form: none
    local short form: Romania
    republic
    name: Bucharest
    geographic coordinates: 44 26 N, 26 06 E
    time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
    41 counties (judete, singular - judet) and 1 municipality* (municipiu); Alba, Arad, Arges, Bacau, Bihor, Bistrita-Nasaud, Botosani, Braila, Brasov, Bucuresti (Bucharest)*, Buzau, Calarasi, Caras-Severin, Cluj, Constanta, Covasna, Dambovita, Dolj, Galati, Gorj, Giurgiu, Harghita, Hunedoara, Ialomita, Iasi, Ilfov, Maramures, Mehedinti, Mures, Neamt, Olt, Prahova, Salaj, Satu Mare, Sibiu, Suceava, Teleorman, Timis, Tulcea, Vaslui, Valcea, Vrancea
    9 May 1877 (independence proclaimed from the Ottoman Empire; independence recognized on 13 July 1878 by the Treaty of Berlin); 26 March 1881 (kingdom proclaimed); 30 December 1947 (republic proclaimed)
    Unification Day (of Romania and Transylvania), 1 December (1918)
    several previous; latest adopted 21 November 1991, approved by referendum and effective 8 December 1991; amended 2003 (2014)
    civil law system
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: President Klaus IOHANNIS (since 21 December 2014)
    head of government: Prime Minister Victor-Viorel PONTA (since 7 May 2012); Deputy Prime Minister Gabriel OPREA (since 5 March 2014)
    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
    elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 2 November 2014 with runoff on 16 November 2014 (next to be held in November-December 2019); prime minister appointed by the president with the consent of the Parliament
    election results: Klaus IOHANNIS elected president; percent of vote - Klaus IOHANNIS 54.4%, Victor PONTA 45.6%
    description: bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of the Senate or Senat (176 seats; 137 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote and 39 directly elected in single-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camera Deputatilor (412 seats; 315 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote and 97 directly elected in single-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms); note - in the Chamber of Deputies, seats are reserved for minority parties that receive at least 10 percent of total valid votes cast
    elections: Senate - last held on 9 December 2012 (next to be held by December 2016); Chamber of Deputies - last held on 9 December 2012 (next to be held by December 2016)
    election results: Senate - percent of vote by alliance/party - USL 60.1%, ARD 16.7%, PP-DD 14.6%, UDMR 5.3%, other 3.3%; seats by alliance/party - USL 122, ARD 24, PP-DD 21, UDMR 9; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by alliance/party - USL 58.6%, ARD 16.5%, PP-DD 14%, UDMR 5.2%, ethnic minorities 2.6%, other 3.1%; seats by alliance/party - USL 273, ARD 56, PP-DD 47, UDMR 18, ethnic minorities 18
    highest court(s): High Court of Cassation and Justice (consists of 111 judges organized into civil, penal, commercial, contentious administrative and fiscal business, and joint sections); Supreme Constitutional Court (consists of 9 members)
    judge selection and term of office: High Court of Cassation and Justice judges appointed by the president upon nomination by the Superior Council of Magistracy, a 19-member body of judges, prosecutors, and law specialists; judges appointed for 6-year renewable terms; Constitutional Court members - 6 elected by Parliament and 3 appointed by the president; members serve 9-year, non-renewable terms
    subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; regional tribunals; first instance courts; military and arbitration courts
    Christian-Democratic National Peasants' Party or PNT-CD [Aurelian PAVELESCU]
    Conservative Party or PC [Daniel CONSTANTIN] (formerly Humanist Party or PUR)
    Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania or UDMR [Hunor KELEMEN]
    National Liberal Party or PNL [Alina GORGIU and Vasile BLAGA co-presidents] - combined with former PDL and FC
    National Union for Romania's Progress or UNPR [Gabriel OPREA]
    New Republic Party or NR [Mihail NEAMTU]
    People's Party - Dan Diaconescu or PP-DD [Marin DIACONESCU]
    Popular Movement Party or PMP [Eugen TOMAC]
    Social Democratic Party or PSD [Victor-Viorel PONTA] (formerly Party of Social Democracy in Romania or PDSR)
    other: various human rights and professional associations
    Australia Group, BIS, BSEC, CBSS (observer), CD, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, ESA, EU, FAO, G-9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAIA (observer), MIGA, MONUSCO, NATO, NSG, OAS (observer), OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
    chief of mission: Iulian BUGA (since 3 December 2013)
    chancery: 1607 23rd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 332-4846, 4848, 4851, 4852
    FAX: [1] (202) 232-4748
    consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York
    chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Dean THOMPSON (since July 2014)
    embassy: Bulevardul Dr. Liviu Librescu 4-6, District 1, Bucharest, 015118
    mailing address: American Embassy Bucharest, US Department of State, 5260 Bucharest Place, Washington, DC 20521-5260 (pouch)
    telephone: [40] (21) 200-3300
    FAX: [40] (21) 200-3442
    three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; modeled after the flag of France, the colors are those of the principalities of Walachia (red and yellow) and Moldavia (red and blue), which united in 1862 to form Romania; the national coat of arms that used to be centered in the yellow band has been removed
    note: now similar to the flag of Chad, whose blue band is darker; also resembles the flags of Andorra and Moldova
    golden eagle; national colors: blue, yellow, red
    name: "Desteapta-te romane!" (Wake up, Romanian!)
    lyrics/music: Andrei MURESIANU/Anton PANN
    note: adopted 1990; the anthem was written during the 1848 Revolution
  • Economy :: ROMANIA

  • Romania, which joined the EU on 1 January 2007, began the transition from Communism in 1989 with a largely obsolete industrial base and a pattern of output unsuited to the country's needs. Romania's macroeconomic gains have only recently started to spur creation of a middle class and to address Romania's widespread poverty. Corruption and red tape continue to permeate the business environment. In the aftermath of the global financial crisis, Romania signed on to a $26 billion emergency assistance package from the IMF, the EU, and other international lenders, but GDP contracted until 2011. In March 2011, Romania and the IMF/EU/World Bank signed a 24-month precautionary stand-by agreement, worth $6.6 billion, to promote fiscal discipline, encourage progress on structural reforms, and strengthen financial sector stability. In September 2013, Romanian authorities and the IMF/EU agreed to a follow-on precautionary two-year stand-by agreement, worth $5.4 billion, to continue with reforms, although Bucharest has announced that it does not intend to draw funds under the agreement. Economic growth rebounded in 2013, driven by strong industrial exports and an excellent agricultural harvest, and the current account deficit was reduced substantially. The economy closed out 2014 with 2.8% growth, down from the 3.5% posted in 2013. Industry outperformed other sectors of the economy. Exports remained the engine of economic growth, led by trade with the EU, which accounts for roughly 70% of Romania trade. In 2014, the Government of Romania succeeded in meeting its annual target for the budget deficit, the external deficit remained low, and inflation was the lowest since 1989, allowing a gradual loosening of the monetary policy throughout the year. However, progress on structural reforms has been uneven and the economy still is vulnerable to external shocks. An ageing population, weak domestic demand, tax evasion, and insufficient health-care represent top vulnerabilities.
    $386.5 billion (2014 est.)
    $377.5 billion (2013 est.)
    $364.6 billion (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2014 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 47
    $202.5 billion (2014 est.)
    2.4% (2014 est.)
    3.5% (2013 est.)
    0.6% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 133
    $19,400 (2014 est.)
    $17,700 (2013 est.)
    $17,100 (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2013 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 85
    21.3% of GDP (2014 est.)
    21.9% of GDP (2013 est.)
    21.6% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 70
    household consumption: 72.5%
    government consumption: 6.1%
    investment in fixed capital: 22.1%
    investment in inventories: 0.6%
    exports of goods and services: 44.8%
    imports of goods and services: -46.1%
    (2014 est.)
    agriculture: 12.4%
    industry: 35.6%
    services: 52% (2014 est.)
    wheat, corn, barley, sugar beets, sunflower seed, potatoes, grapes; eggs, sheep
    electric machinery and equipment, textiles and footwear, light machinery, auto assembly, mining, timber, construction materials, metallurgy, chemicals, food processing, petroleum refining
    3% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 98
    9.945 million (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 52
    agriculture: 29%
    industry: 28.6%
    services: 42.4% (2012)
    7% (2014 est.)
    7.1% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 75
    22.2% (2011 est.)
    lowest 10%: 14.1%
    highest 10%: 7.5% (2012 est.)
    27.4 (2011)
    24.2 (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 127
    revenues: $62.51 billion
    expenditures: $66.27 billion (2014 est.)
    30.9% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 87
    -1.9% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 82
    39.4% of GDP (2014 est.)
    38.5% of GDP (2013 est.)
    note: defined by the EU's Maastricht Treaty as consolidated general government gross debt at nominal value, outstanding at the end of the year in the following categories of government liabilities: currency and deposits, securities other than shares excluding financial derivatives, and loans; general government sector comprises the subsectors: central government, state government, local government, and social security funds
    country comparison to the world: 97
    calendar year
    1.2% (2014 est.)
    4% (2013 est.)
    4% (31 December 2013)
    5.25% (31 December 2012)
    country comparison to the world: 99
    8.5% (31 December 2014 est.)
    10.52% (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 109
    $30.09 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $30.82 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 63
    $68.63 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $74.11 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 61
    $69.41 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $81.58 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 60
    $43.67 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    $31.71 billion (31 December 2012)
    $24.26 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 55
    -$4.31 billion (2014 est.)
    -$2.059 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 165
    $63.12 billion (2014 est.)
    $58.29 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 54
    machinery and equipment, metals and metal products, textiles and footwear, chemicals, agricultural products, minerals and fuels
    Germany 18.9%, Italy 11.7%, France 6.9%, Turkey 5.2%, Hungary 5%, UK 4.2% (2013)
    $72.57 billion (2014 est.)
    $65.58 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 42
    machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels and minerals, metals, textile and products, agricultural products
    Germany 18.7%, Italy 11%, Hungary 8.3%, France 5.8%, Poland 4.5%, Russia 4.3%, Austria 4% (2013)
    $47.67 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $48.82 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 42
    $127.2 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $129.3 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 43
    $89.62 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $85.61 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 46
    $2.766 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $2.566 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 70
    lei (RON) per US dollar -
    3.35 (2014 est.)
    3.3279 (2013 est.)
    3.47 (2012 est.)
    3.0486 (2011 est.)
    3.1779 (2010 est.)
  • Energy :: ROMANIA

  • 56.71 billion kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 48
    52.36 billion kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 46
    2.466 billion kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 41
    450 million kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 80
    21.77 million kW (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 37
    55.1% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 144
    6.5% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 23
    30.1% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 77
    8.6% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 39
    92,390 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 50
    600 million bbl (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 47
    218,700 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 52
    215,300 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 56
    75,480 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 52
    44,070 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 75
    10.63 billion cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 43
    13.48 billion cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 43
    0 cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 167
    2.85 billion cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 43
    105.5 billion cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 51
    86.06 million Mt (2012 est.)
  • Communications :: ROMANIA

  • 4.68 million (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 32
    22.7 million (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 45
    general assessment: the telecommunications sector is being expanded and modernized; domestic and international service improving rapidly, especially mobile-cellular services
    domestic: more than 90 percent of telephone network is automatic; fixed-line teledensity exceeds 20 telephones per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 110 telephones per 100 persons
    international: country code - 40; the Black Sea Fiber Optic System provides connectivity to Bulgaria and Turkey; satellite earth stations - 10; digital, international, direct-dial exchanges operate in Bucharest (2011)
    a mixture of public and private TV stations; the public broadcaster operates multiple stations; roughly 100 private national, regional, and local stations; more than 75% of households are connected to multi-channel cable or satellite TV systems that provide access to Romanian, European, and international stations; state-owned public radio broadcaster operates 4 national networks and regional and local stations; more than 100 private radio stations (2008)
    698 (station frequency type NA) (2006)
    623 (plus 200 repeaters) (2006)
    .ro
    2.667 million (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 35
    7.787 million (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 36
  • Transportation :: ROMANIA

  • 45 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 96
    total: 26
    over 3,047 m: 4
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 10
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 11
    under 914 m: 1 (2013)
    total: 19
    914 to 1,523 m: 5
    under 914 m:
    14 (2013)
    2 (2013)
    gas 3,726 km; oil 2,451 km (2013)
    total: 10,777 km
    broad gauge: 134 km 1.524-m gauge
    standard gauge: 10,639 km 1.435-m gauge (4,020 km electrified)
    narrow gauge: 4 km 1.000-m gauge (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 22
    total: 84,185 km
    paved: 49,873 km (includes 337 km of expressways)
    unpaved: 34,312 km (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 55
    1,731 km (includes 1,075 km on the Danube River, 524 km on secondary branches, and 132 km on canals) (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 45
    total: 5
    by type: cargo 1, passenger/cargo 2, petroleum tanker 1, roll on/roll off 1
    foreign-owned: 1 (Russia 1)
    registered in other countries: 31 (Georgia 7, Liberia 3, Malta 7, Marshall Islands 2, Moldova 2, Panama 3, Russia 1, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1, Sierra Leone 2, Tanzania 1, Togo 1, unknown 1) (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 127
    major seaport(s): Constanta, Midia
    river port(s): Braila, Galati (Galatz), Mancanului (Giurgiu), Tulcea (Danube River)
  • Military :: ROMANIA

  • Land Forces, Naval Forces (Fortele Naval, FN), Romanian Air Force (Fortele Aeriene Romane, FAR) (2013)
    conscription ended 2006; 18 years of age for male and female voluntary service; all military inductees (including women) contract for an initial 5-year term of service, with subsequent successive 3-year terms until age 36 (2015)
    males age 16-49: 5,601,234
    females age 16-49: 5,428,939 (2010 est.)
    males age 16-49: 4,550,409
    females age 16-49: 4,507,880 (2010 est.)
    male: 117,798
    female: 111,607 (2010 est.)
    1.423% of GDP (2014 est.)
    1.297% of GDP (2013)
    1.29% of GDP (2012)
    1.3% of GDP (2011)
    1.29% of GDP (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 69
  • Transnational Issues :: ROMANIA

  • the ICJ ruled largely in favor of Romania in its dispute submitted in 2004 over Ukrainian-administered Zmiyinyy/Serpilor (Snake) Island and Black Sea maritime boundary delimitation; Romania opposes Ukraine's reopening of a navigation canal from the Danube border through Ukraine to the Black Sea
    stateless persons: 297 (2013)
    major transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin transiting the Balkan route and small amounts of Latin American cocaine bound for Western Europe; although not a significant financial center, role as a narcotics conduit leaves it vulnerable to laundering, which occurs via the banking system, currency exchange houses, and casinos
GO TOP