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Europe :: ROMANIA
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ROMANIA
  • Introduction :: ROMANIA

  • The principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia - for centuries under the suzerainty of the Turkish Ottoman Empire - secured their autonomy in 1856; they were de facto linked in 1859 and formally united in 1862 under the new name of Romania. The country gained recognition of its independence in 1878. It joined the Allied Powers in World War I and acquired new territories - most notably Transylvania - following the conflict. In 1940, Romania allied with the Axis powers and participated in the 1941 German invasion of the USSR. Three years later, overrun by the Soviets, Romania signed an armistice. The post-war Soviet occupation led to the formation of a communist "people's republic" in 1947 and the abdication of the king. The decades-long rule of dictator Nicolae CEAUSESCU, who took power in 1965, and his Securitate police state became increasingly oppressive and draconian through the 1980s. CEAUSESCU was overthrown and executed in late 1989. Former communists dominated the government until 1996 when they were swept from power. Romania joined NATO in 2004 and the EU in 2007.
  • Geography :: ROMANIA

  • Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Ukraine
    46 00 N, 25 00 E
    Europe
    total: 238,391 sq km
    land: 229,891 sq km
    water: 8,500 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 83
    slightly smaller than Oregon
    total: 2,844 km
    border countries (5): Bulgaria 605 km, Hungary 424 km, Moldova 683 km, Serbia 531 km, Ukraine 601 km
    225 km
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    contiguous zone: 24 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
    temperate; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow and fog; sunny summers with frequent showers and thunderstorms
    central Transylvanian Basin is separated from the Moldavian Plateau on the east by the Eastern Carpathian Mountains and separated from the Walachian Plain on the south by the Transylvanian Alps
    mean elevation: 414 m
    elevation extremes: lowest point: Black Sea 0 m
    highest point: Moldoveanu 2,544 m
    petroleum (reserves declining), timber, natural gas, coal, iron ore, salt, arable land, hydropower
    agricultural land: 60.7%
    arable land 39.1%; permanent crops 1.9%; permanent pasture 19.7%
    forest: 28.7%
    other: 10.6% (2011 est.)
    31,490 sq km (2012)
    211.9 cu km (2011)
    total: 6.88 cu km/yr (22%/61%/17%)
    per capita: 320.8 cu m/yr (2009)
    earthquakes, most severe in south and southwest; geologic structure and climate promote landslides
    soil erosion and degradation; water pollution; air pollution in south from industrial effluents; contamination of Danube delta wetlands
    party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    controls the most easily traversable land route between the Balkans, Moldova, and Ukraine; the Carpathian Mountains dominate the center of the country, while the Danube River forms much of the southern boundary with Serbia and Bulgaria
  • People and Society :: ROMANIA

  • noun: Romanian(s)
    adjective: Romanian
    Romanian 83.4%, Hungarian 6.1%, Roma 3.1%, Ukrainian 0.3%, German 0.2%, other 0.7%, unspecified 6.1% (2011 est.)
    Romanian (official) 85.4%, Hungarian 6.3%, Romany (Gypsy) 1.2%, other 1%, unspecified 6.1% (2011 est.)
    Eastern Orthodox (including all sub-denominations) 81.9%, Protestant (various denominations including Reformed and Pentecostal) 6.4%, Roman Catholic 4.3%, other (includes Muslim) 0.9%, none or atheist 0.2%, unspecified 6.3% (2011 est.)
    21,666,350 (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 58
    0-14 years: 14.49% (male 1,612,090/female 1,526,432)
    15-24 years: 10.94% (male 1,215,309/female 1,154,618)
    25-54 years: 45.92% (male 5,030,926/female 4,919,140)
    55-64 years: 12.92% (male 1,308,475/female 1,491,858)
    65 years and over: 15.73% (male 1,376,634/female 2,030,868) (2015 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 48.9%
    youth dependency ratio: 23.1%
    elderly dependency ratio: 25.8%
    potential support ratio: 3.9% (2015 est.)
    total: 40.2 years
    male: 38.8 years
    female: 41.7 years (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 44
    -0.3% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 220
    9.14 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 208
    11.9 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 27
    -0.24 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 122
    urban population: 54.6% of total population (2015)
    rate of urbanization: 0.01% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    BUCHAREST (capital) 1.868 million (2015)
    at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.88 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2015 est.)
    26 (2011 est.)
    31 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 127
    total: 9.89 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 11.23 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 8.47 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 139
    total population: 74.92 years
    male: 71.46 years
    female: 78.59 years (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 109
    1.33 children born/woman (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 215
    69.8%
    note: percent of women aged 18-49 (2005)
    5.6% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 138
    2.45 physicians/1,000 population (2012)
    6.1 beds/1,000 population (2011)
    improved:
    urban: 100% of population
    rural: 100% of population
    total: 100% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 0% of population
    rural: 0% of population
    total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
    improved:
    urban: 92.2% of population
    rural: 63.3% of population
    total: 79.1% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 7.8% of population
    rural: 36.7% of population
    total: 20.9% of population (2015 est.)
    0.11% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 111
    16,200 (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 85
    500 (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 84
    23.4% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 101
    2.9% of GDP (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 104
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 98.8%
    male: 99.1%
    female: 98.5% (2015 est.)
    total: 15 years
    male: 14 years
    female: 15 years (2012)
    total: 23.6%
    male: 23.5%
    female: 23.9% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 45
  • Government :: ROMANIA

  • conventional long form: none
    conventional short form: Romania
    local long form: none
    local short form: Romania
    etymology: the name derives from the Latin "Romanus" meaning "citizen of Rome" and was used to stress the common ancient heritage of Romania's three main regions - Moldavia, Transylvania, and Wallachia - during their gradual unification between the mid-19th century and early 20th century
    semi-presidential republic
    name: Bucharest
    geographic coordinates: 44 26 N, 26 06 E
    time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
    41 counties (judete, singular - judet) and 1 municipality* (municipiu); Alba, Arad, Arges, Bacau, Bihor, Bistrita-Nasaud, Botosani, Braila, Brasov, Bucuresti (Bucharest)*, Buzau, Calarasi, Caras-Severin, Cluj, Constanta, Covasna, Dambovita, Dolj, Galati, Gorj, Giurgiu, Harghita, Hunedoara, Ialomita, Iasi, Ilfov, Maramures, Mehedinti, Mures, Neamt, Olt, Prahova, Salaj, Satu Mare, Sibiu, Suceava, Teleorman, Timis, Tulcea, Vaslui, Valcea, Vrancea
    9 May 1877 (independence proclaimed from the Ottoman Empire; independence recognized on 13 July 1878 by the Treaty of Berlin); 26 March 1881 (kingdom proclaimed); 30 December 1947 (republic proclaimed)
    Unification Day (of Romania and Transylvania), 1 December (1918)
    several previous; latest adopted 21 November 1991, approved by referendum and effective 8 December 1991; amended 2003 (2016)
    civil law system
    accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Romania
    dual citizenship recognized: yes
    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: President Klaus Werner IOHANNIS (since 21 December 2014)
    head of government: Prime Minister Dacian CIOLOS (since 17 November 2015); Deputy Prime Ministers Costin Grigore BORC and Vasile DANCU (since 17 November 2015)
    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 2 November 2014 with a runoff on 16 November 2014 (next to be held around 16 November 2019); prime minister appointed by the president with consent of Parliament
    election results: Klaus IOHANNIS elected president; percent of vote in runoff - Klaus IOHANNIS (PNL) 54.4%, Victor PONTA (PSD) 45.6%
    description: bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of the Senate or Senat (176 seats; 137 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote and 39 directly elected in single-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camera Deputatilor (412 seats; 315 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote and 97 directly elected in single-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)
    elections: Senate - last held on 9 December 2012 (next to be held by December 2016); Chamber of Deputies - last held on 9 December 2012 (next to be held by December 2016); note - in the next election the total number of seats will be reduced to 466 (308 members in the Chamber of Deputies [plus 18 reserved seats for non-Hungarian national minorities; ethnic Hungarians compete for regular seats] and 134 in the Senate; the proposed number of members representing the Romanian diaspora has remained unchanged at 6)
    election results: Senate - percent of vote by alliance/party - USL 60.1%, ARD 16.7%, PP-DD 14.7%, UDMR 5.2%, other 3.3%; seats by alliance/party - USL 122, ARD 24, PP-DD 21, UDMR 9; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by alliance/party - USL 58.6%, ARD 16.5%, PP-DD 14%, UDMR 5.1%, ethnic minorities 2.7%, other 3.1%; seats by alliance/party - USL 273, ARD 56, PP-DD 47, UDMR 18, ethnic minorities 18
    highest court(s): High Court of Cassation and Justice (consists of 111 judges organized into civil, penal, commercial, contentious administrative and fiscal business, and joint sections); Supreme Constitutional Court (consists of 9 members)
    judge selection and term of office: High Court of Cassation and Justice judges appointed by the president upon nomination by the Superior Council of Magistracy, a 19-member body of judges, prosecutors, and law specialists; judges appointed for 6-year renewable terms; Constitutional Court members - 6 elected by Parliament and 3 appointed by the president; members serve 9-year, non-renewable terms
    subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; regional tribunals; first instance courts; military and arbitration courts
    Christian-Democratic National Peasants' Party or PNT-CD [Aurelian PAVELESCU] (formerly part of the ARD coalition)
    Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania or UDMR [Hunor KELEMEN]
    Green Party [Remus CERNEA]
    M10 Party [Monica MACOVEI]
    National Liberal Party or PNL [Alina GORGHIU and Vasile BLAGA] - merged with former PDL and FC
    National Union for Romania's Progress or UNPR [interim chairman Neculai ONTANU]- merged with former PP-DD
    New Republic Party or NR [Alin Ioan BOTA]
    Popular Movement Party [Traian BASESCU]
    Party of the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats or ALDE [Calin POPESCU TARICEANU, Daniel CONSTANTIN]
    Romanian Social Party or PSRo [Mircea GEOANA]
    Save Bucharest Union Party or Partidul USB [Nicusor DAN]
    Social Democratic Party or PSD [Liviu DRAGNEA]
    Social Liberal Union or USL (coalition of PSD, PC, and UNPR)
    United Romania Party or PRU [Bogdan DIACONU]
    other: various human rights and professional associations
    Australia Group, BIS, BSEC, CBSS (observer), CD, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, ESA, EU, FAO, G-9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAIA (observer), MIGA, MONUSCO, NATO, NSG, OAS (observer), OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
    chief of mission: Ambassador George Cristian MAIOR (since 17 September 2015)
    chancery: 1607 23rd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 332-4846, 4848, 4851, 4852
    FAX: [1] (202) 232-4748
    consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York
    chief of mission: Ambassador Hans G. KLEMM (since 21 September 2015)
    embassy: Bulevardul Dr. Liviu Librescu 4-6, District 1, Bucharest, 015118
    mailing address: American Embassy Bucharest, US Department of State, 5260 Bucharest Place, Washington, DC 20521-5260 (pouch)
    telephone: [40] (21) 200-3300
    FAX: [40] (21) 200-3442
    three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; modeled after the flag of France, the colors are those of the principalities of Walachia (red and yellow) and Moldavia (red and blue), which united in 1862 to form Romania; the national coat of arms that used to be centered in the yellow band has been removed
    note: now similar to the flag of Chad, whose blue band is darker; also resembles the flags of Andorra and Moldova
    golden eagle; national colors: blue, yellow, red
    name: "Desteapta-te romane!" (Wake up, Romanian!)
    lyrics/music: Andrei MURESIANU/Anton PANN
    note: adopted 1990; the anthem was written during the 1848 Revolution
  • Economy :: ROMANIA

  • Romania, which joined the EU on 1 January 2007, began the transition from communism in 1989 with a largely obsolete industrial base and a pattern of output unsuited to the country's needs. Romania's macroeconomic gains have only recently started to spur creation of a middle class and to address Romania's widespread poverty. Corruption and red tape continue to permeate the business environment.
    In the aftermath of the global financial crisis, Romania signed a $26 billion emergency assistance package from the IMF, the EU, and other international lenders, but GDP contracted until 2011. In March 2011, Romania and the IMF/EU/World Bank signed a 24-month precautionary standby agreement, worth $6.6 billion, to promote fiscal discipline, encourage progress on structural reforms, and strengthen financial sector stability; no funds were drawn. In September 2013, Romanian authorities and the IMF/EU agreed to a follow-on standby agreement, worth $5.4 billion, to continue with reforms. This agreement expired in September 2015, and no funds were drawn. Progress on structural reforms has been uneven, and the economy still is vulnerable to external shocks.
    Economic growth rebounded in 2013-15, driven by strong industrial exports and excellent agricultural harvests, and the fiscal deficit was reduced substantially. Industry outperformed other sectors of the economy in 2015. Exports remained an engine of economic growth, led by trade with the EU, which accounts for roughly 70% of Romania trade. Domestic demand was a second driver, due to the mid-2015 cut, from 24% to 9%, of the VAT levied upon foodstuffs. In 2015, the government of Romania succeeded in meeting its annual target for the budget deficit, the external deficit remained low, even if it rose due to increasing imports. For the first time since 1989, inflation turned into deflation, allowing for a gradual loosening of monetary policy throughout the period.
    An aging population, significant tax evasion, insufficient health care, and an aggressive loosening of the fiscal package jeopardize the low fiscal deficit and public debt and are the economy's top vulnerabilities.
    $413.8 billion (2015 est.)
    $398.9 billion (2014 est.)
    $387.5 billion (2013 est.)
    note: data are in 2015 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 46
    $177.3 billion (2015 est.)
    3.7% (2015 est.)
    3% (2014 est.)
    3.5% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 73
    $20,800 (2015 est.)
    $20,000 (2014 est.)
    $19,400 (2013 est.)
    note: data are in 2015 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 85
    24.4% of GDP (2015 est.)
    24.8% of GDP (2014 est.)
    24.5% of GDP (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 51
    household consumption: 68%
    government consumption: 7.1%
    investment in fixed capital: 24.5%
    investment in inventories: 1%
    exports of goods and services: 40.9%
    imports of goods and services: -41.5% (2015 est.)
    agriculture: 4.8%
    industry: 41.3%
    services: 53.9% (2015 est.)
    wheat, corn, barley, sugar beets, sunflower seed, potatoes, grapes; eggs, sheep
    electric machinery and equipment, auto assembly, textiles and footwear, light machinery, metallurgy, chemicals, food processing, petroleum refining, mining, timber, construction materials
    4% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 54
    9.266 million (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 54
    agriculture: 28.3%
    industry: 28.9%
    services: 42.8% (2014)
    6.7% (2015 est.)
    6.8% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 78
    22.4% (2012 est.)
    lowest 10%: 15.3%
    highest 10%: 7.6% (2014 est.)
    27.3 (2012)
    28.2 (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 132
    revenues: $58.39 billion
    expenditures: $60.98 billion (2015 est.)
    32.9% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 72
    -1.5% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 62
    39.9% of GDP (2015 est.)
    39.8% of GDP (2014 est.)
    note: defined by the EU's Maastricht Treaty as consolidated general government gross debt at nominal value, outstanding at the end of the year in the following categories of government liabilities: currency and deposits, securities other than shares excluding financial derivatives, and loans; general government sector comprises the subsectors: central government, state government, local government, and social security funds
    country comparison to the world: 115
    calendar year
    -0.6% (2015 est.)
    1.1% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 24
    1.75% (31 December 2015)
    2.75% (31 December 2014)
    country comparison to the world: 118
    6.21% (31 December 2015 est.)
    7.65% (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 126
    $37.4 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $35.5 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 57
    $71.58 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $78.18 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 61
    $76.79 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $88.59 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 56
    $36.5 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $41.04 billion (31 December 2014)
    $42.59 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 57
    -$1.95 billion (2015 est.)
    -$910 million (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 143
    $54.51 billion (2015 est.)
    $61.79 billion (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 51
    machinery and equipment, other manufactured goods, agricultural products and foodstuffs, metals and metal products, chemicals, minerals and fuels, raw materials
    Germany 19.8%, Italy 12.5%, France 6.8%, Hungary 5.4%, UK 4.4% (2015)
    $63.12 billion (2015 est.)
    $70.15 billion (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 42
    machinery and equipment, other manufactured goods, chemicals, agricultural products and foodstuffs, fuels and minerals, metals and metal products, raw materials
    Germany 19.8%, Italy 10.9%, Hungary 8%, France 5.6%, Poland 4.9%, China 4.6%, Netherlands 4% (2015)
    $37.33 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $42.96 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 48
    $98.17 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $114.6 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 51
    $76.12 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $72.84 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 51
    $3.538 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $3.125 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 73
    lei (RON) per US dollar -
    4.0057 (2015 est.)
    3.3492 (2014 est.)
    3.3492 (2013 est.)
    3.47 (2012 est.)
    3.0486 (2011 est.)
  • Energy :: ROMANIA

  • 62.04 billion kWh (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 46
    50.73 billion kWh (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 47
    8.2 billion kWh (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 24
    1.07 billion kWh (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 62
    24 million kW (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 36
    44.3% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 158
    6.1% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 24
    30% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 77
    19.6% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 16
    83,350 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 47
    2,077 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 78
    104,900 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 45
    600 million bbl (1 January 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 47
    197,300 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 54
    188,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 60
    72,960 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 53
    53,810 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 77
    11.26 billion cu m (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 41
    11.54 billion cu m (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 45
    1.078 million cu m (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 49
    277.1 million cu m (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 68
    105.5 billion cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 52
    86.06 million Mt (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 44
  • Communications :: ROMANIA

  • total subscriptions: 4.27 million
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 20 (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 33
    total: 23.12 million
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 107 (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 53
    general assessment: the telecommunications sector is being expanded and modernized; domestic and international service improving rapidly, especially mobile-cellular services
    domestic: more than 90% of telephone network is automatic; fixed-line teledensity is about 20 telephones per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity over 100 telephones per 100 persons
    international: country code - 40; the Black Sea Fiber-Optic Cable System provides connectivity to Bulgaria and Turkey; satellite earth stations - 10; digital, international, direct-dial exchanges operate in Bucharest (2014)
    a mixture of public and private TV stations; there are 7 public TV stations (2 national, 5 regional) using terrestrial broadcasting and 187 private TV stations (out of which 171 offer local coverage) using terrestrial broadcasting, plus 11 public TV stations using satellite broadcasting and 86 private TV stations using satellite broadcasting; state-owned public radio broadcaster operates 4 national networks and regional and local stations, having in total 20 public radio stations by terrestrial broadcasting plus 4 public radio stations by satellite broadcasting; there are 502 operational private radio stations using terrestrial broadcasting and 26 private radio stations using satellite broadcasting (2014)
    698 (station frequency type NA) (2006)
    623 (plus 200 repeaters) (2006)
    .ro
    2.667 million (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 35
    total: 12.082 million
    percent of population: 55.8% (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 44
  • Transportation :: ROMANIA

  • 45 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 96
    total: 26
    over 3,047 m: 4
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 10
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 11
    under 914 m: 1 (2013)
    total: 19
    914 to 1,523 m: 5
    under 914 m: 14 (2013)
    2 (2013)
    gas 3,726 km; oil 2,451 km (2013)
    total: 11,268 km
    broad gauge: 60 km 1.524-m gauge
    standard gauge: 10,781 km 1.435-m gauge (3,292 km electrified)
    narrow gauge: 427 km 0.760-m gauge (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 22
    total: 84,185 km
    paved: 49,873 km (includes 337 km of expressways)
    unpaved: 34,312 km (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 55
    1,731 km (includes 1,075 km on the Danube River, 524 km on secondary branches, and 132 km on canals) (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 45
    total: 5
    by type: cargo 1, passenger/cargo 2, petroleum tanker 1, roll on/roll off 1
    foreign-owned: 1 (Russia 1)
    registered in other countries: 31 (Georgia 7, Liberia 3, Malta 7, Marshall Islands 2, Moldova 2, Panama 3, Russia 1, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1, Sierra Leone 2, Tanzania 1, Togo 1, unknown 1) (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 127
    major seaport(s): Constanta, Midia
    river port(s): Braila, Galati (Galatz), Mancanului (Giurgiu), Tulcea (Danube River)
  • Military and Security :: ROMANIA

  • Land Forces, Naval Forces (Fortele Naval, FN), Romanian Air Force (Fortele Aeriene Romane, FAR) (2013)
    conscription ended 2006; 18 years of age for male and female voluntary service; all military inductees (including women) contract for an initial 5-year term of service, with subsequent successive 3-year terms until age 36 (2015)
    1.4% of GDP (2015)
    1.42% of GDP (2014 est.)
    1.3% of GDP (2013)
    1.29% of GDP (2012)
    1.3% of GDP (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 69
  • Transnational Issues :: ROMANIA

  • the ICJ ruled largely in favor of Romania in its dispute submitted in 2004 over Ukrainian-administered Zmiyinyy/Serpilor (Snake) Island and Black Sea maritime boundary delimitation; Romania opposes Ukraine's reopening of a navigation canal from the Danube border through Ukraine to the Black Sea
    stateless persons: 240 (2015)
    major transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin transiting the Balkan route and small amounts of Latin American cocaine bound for Western Europe; although not a significant financial center, role as a narcotics conduit leaves it vulnerable to laundering, which occurs via the banking system, currency exchange houses, and casinos