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Africa :: RWANDA
Page last updated on September 05, 2018
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RWANDA
  • Introduction :: RWANDA

  • In 1959, three years before independence from Belgium, the majority ethnic group, the Hutus, overthrew the ruling Tutsi king. Over the next several years, thousands of Tutsis were killed, and some 150,000 driven into exile in neighboring countries. The children of these exiles later formed a rebel group, the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF), and began a civil war in 1990. The war, along with several political and economic upheavals, exacerbated ethnic tensions, culminating in April 1994 in a state-orchestrated genocide, in which Rwandans killed up to a million of their fellow citizens, including approximately three-quarters of the Tutsi population. The genocide ended later that same year when the predominantly Tutsi RPF, operating out of Uganda and northern Rwanda, defeated the national army and Hutu militias, and established an RPF-led government of national unity. Approximately 2 million Hutu refugees - many fearing Tutsi retribution - fled to neighboring Burundi, Tanzania, Uganda, and former Zaire. Since then, most of the refugees have returned to Rwanda, but several thousand remained in the neighboring Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC, the former Zaire) and formed an extremist insurgency bent on retaking Rwanda, much as the RPF did in 1990. Rwanda held its first local elections in 1999 and its first post-genocide presidential and legislative elections in 2003. Rwanda in 2009 staged a joint military operation with the Congolese Army in DRC to rout out the Hutu extremist insurgency there, and Kigali and Kinshasa restored diplomatic relations. Rwanda also joined the Commonwealth in late 2009. President Paul KAGAME won the presidential election in August 2017 after changing the constitution in 2016 to allow him to run for a third term.
  • Geography :: RWANDA

  • Central Africa, east of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, north of Burundi
    2 00 S, 30 00 E
    Africa
    total: 26,338 sq km
    land: 24,668 sq km
    water: 1,670 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 149
    slightly smaller than Maryland
    total: 930 km
    border countries (4): Burundi 315 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 221 km, Tanzania 222 km, Uganda 172 km
    0 km (landlocked)
    none (landlocked)
    temperate; two rainy seasons (February to April, November to January); mild in mountains with frost and snow possible
    mostly grassy uplands and hills; relief is mountainous with altitude declining from west to east
    mean elevation: 1,598 m
    elevation extremes: lowest point: Rusizi River 950 m
    highest point: Volcan Karisimbi 4,519 m
    gold, cassiterite (tin ore), wolframite (tungsten ore), methane, hydropower, arable land
    agricultural land: 74.5%
    arable land 47%; permanent crops 10.1%; permanent pasture 17.4%
    forest: 18%
    other: 7.5% (2011 est.)
    96 sq km (2012)
    one of Africa's most densely populated countries; large concentrations tend to be in the central regions and along the shore of Lake Kivu in the west
    periodic droughts; the volcanic Virunga Mountains are in the northwest along the border with Democratic Republic of the Congo
    volcanism: Visoke (3,711 m), located on the border with the Democratic Republic of the Congo, is the country's only historically active volcano
    deforestation results from uncontrolled cutting of trees for fuel; overgrazing; soil erosion; widespread poaching; land degradation; soil erosion; a decline in soil fertility, soil exhaustion; wetland degradation and loss of biodiversity
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
    landlocked; most of the country is savanna grassland with the population predominantly rural
  • People and Society :: RWANDA

  • 11,901,484
    note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 76
    noun: Rwandan(s)
    adjective: Rwandan
    Hutu, Tutsi, Twa (Pygmy)
    Kinyarwanda (official, universal Bantu vernacular) 93.2%, French (official) <.1, English (official) <.1, Swahili/Kiswahili (official, used in commercial centers) <.1, more than one language, other 6.3%, unspecified 0.3%
    (2002 est.)
    Protestant 49.5% (includes Adventist 11.8% and other Protestant 37.7%), Roman Catholic 43.7%, Muslim 2%, other 0.9% (includes Jehovah's Witness), none 2.5%, unspecified 1.3% (2012 est.)
    Rwanda’s fertility rate declined sharply during the last decade, as a result of the government’s commitment to family planning, the increased use of contraceptives, and a downward trend in ideal family size. Increases in educational attainment, particularly among girls, and exposure to social media also contributed to the reduction in the birth rate. The average number of births per woman decreased from a 5.6 in 2005 to 4.5 in 2016. Despite these significant strides in reducing fertility, Rwanda’s birth rate remains very high and will continue to for an extended period of time because of its large population entering reproductive age. Because Rwanda is one of the most densely populated countries in Africa, its persistent high population growth and increasingly small agricultural landholdings will put additional strain on families’ ability to raise foodstuffs and access potable water. These conditions will also hinder the government’s efforts to reduce poverty and prevent environmental degradation.
    The UNHCR recommended that effective 30 June 2013 countries invoke a cessation of refugee status for those Rwandans who fled their homeland between 1959 and 1998, including the 1994 genocide, on the grounds that the conditions that drove them to seek protection abroad no longer exist. The UNHCR’s decision is controversial because many Rwandan refugees still fear persecution if they return home, concerns that are supported by the number of Rwandans granted asylum since 1998 and by the number exempted from the cessation. Rwandan refugees can still seek an exemption or local integration, but host countries are anxious to send the refugees back to Rwanda and are likely to avoid options that enable them to stay. Conversely, Rwanda itself hosts almost 160,000 refugees as of 2017; virtually all of them fleeing conflict in neighboring Burundi and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
    0-14 years: 41.38% (male 2,485,386/female 2,439,101)
    15-24 years: 19.34% (male 1,151,657/female 1,149,928)
    25-54 years: 32.77% (male 1,845,501/female 2,054,410)
    55-64 years: 4.09% (male 216,725/female 269,972)
    65 years and over: 2.43% (male 113,822/female 174,982) (2017 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 77.3
    youth dependency ratio: 72.4
    elderly dependency ratio: 5
    potential support ratio: 20.1 (2015 est.)
    total: 19 years
    male: 18.3 years
    female: 19.8 years (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 202
    2.45% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 21
    30.7 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 35
    6.4 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 149
    0.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 68
    one of Africa's most densely populated countries; large concentrations tend to be in the central regions and along the shore of Lake Kivu in the west
    urban population: 17.2% of total population (2018)
    rate of urbanization: 2.86% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    KIGALI (capital) 1.058 million (2018)
    at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.88 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
    total population: 1 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    23 years
    note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2014/15 est.)
    290 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 43
    total: 29.7 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 32.7 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 26.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 64
    total population: 64.3 years
    male: 62.3 years
    female: 66.3 years (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 187
    3.87 children born/woman (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 38
    53.2% (2014/15)
    7.5% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 65
    0.06 physicians/1,000 population (2015)
    improved:
    urban: 86.6% of population
    rural: 71.9% of population
    total: 76.1% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 13.4% of population
    rural: 28.1% of population
    total: 23.9% of population (2015 est.)
    improved:
    urban: 58.5% of population
    rural: 62.9% of population
    total: 61.6% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 41.5% of population
    rural: 37.1% of population
    total: 38.4% of population (2015 est.)
    2.7% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 18
    220,000 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 27
    3,100 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 39
    degree of risk: very high
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
    vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
    animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
    5.8% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 174
    8.1% (2015)
    country comparison to the world: 63
    3.5% of GDP (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 73
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 70.5%
    male: 73.2%
    female: 68% (2015 est.)
    total: 11 years
    male: 11 years
    female: 11 years (2013)
    total: 1.9%
    male: 1.4%
    female: 2.5% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 151
  • Government :: RWANDA

  • conventional long form: Republic of Rwanda
    conventional short form: Rwanda
    local long form: Republika y'u Rwanda
    local short form: Rwanda
    former: Ruanda, German East Africa
    etymology: the name translates as "domain" in the native Kinyarwanda language
    presidential republic
    name: Kigali
    geographic coordinates: 1 57 S, 30 03 E
    time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    4 provinces (in French - provinces, singular - province; in Kinyarwanda - intara for singular and plural) and 1 city* (in French - ville; in Kinyarwanda - umujyi); Est (Eastern), Kigali*, Nord (Northern), Ouest (Western), Sud (Southern)
    1 July 1962 (from Belgium-administered UN trusteeship)
    Independence Day, 1 July (1962)
    history: several previous; latest adopted by referendum 26 May 2003, effective 4 June 2003
    amendments: proposed by the president of the republic (with Council of Ministers approval) or by two-thirds majority support of both houses of Parliament; passage requires at least three-quarters majority vote in both houses; changes to constitutional articles on national sovereignty, the presidential term, the form and system of government, and political pluralism also require approval in a referendum; amended 2008, 2010, 2015 (2017)
    mixed legal system of civil law, based on German and Belgian models, and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Rwanda; if the father is stateless or unknown, the mother must be a citizen
    dual citizenship recognized: no
    residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: President Paul KAGAME (since 22 April 2000)
    head of government: Prime Minister Edouard NGIRENTE (since 30 August 2017)
    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
    elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority vote for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); note - a constitutional amendment approved in December 2016 reduced the presidential term from 7 to 5 years but included an exception that allowed President KAGAME to serve another 7-year term in 2017, potentially followed by two additional 5-year terms; election last held on 4 August 2017 (next to be held in August 2024); prime minister appointed by the president
    election results: Paul KAGAME reelected president; Paul KAGAME (RPF) 98.8%, Philippe MPAYIMANA (independent) 0.7%, Frank HABINEZA (DGPR)0.5%
    description: bicameral Parliament consists of:
    Senate or Senat (26 seats; 12 members indirectly elected by local councils, 8 appointed by the president, 4 appointed by the Political Organizations Forum - a body of registered political parties, and 2 selected by institutions of higher learning; members serve 8-year terms)
    Chamber of Deputies or Chambre des Deputes (80 seats; 53 members directly elected by proportional representation vote, 24 women selected by special interest groups, and 3 selected by youth and disability organizations; members serve 5-year terms)
    elections: Senate - NA; Chamber of Deputies - last held on 16-18 September 2013 (next to be held on 3 September 2018)
    election results: Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - Rwandan Patriotic Front Coalition 76.2%, PSD 13%, PL 9.3%, other 1.5%; seats by party - Rwandan Patriotic Front Coalition 41, PSD 7, PL 5, 27 indirectly elected members
    highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chief and deputy chief justices and 15 judges; normally organized into 3-judge panels); High Court (consists of the court president, vice president, and a minimum of 24 judges and organized into 5 chambers
    note: Supreme Court judges nominated by the president after consultation with the Cabinet and the Superior Council of the Judiciary or SCJ (a 27-member body of judges, other judicial officials, and legal professionals) and approved by the Senate; chief and deputy chief justices appointed for 8-year nonrenewable terms; tenure of judges NA; High Court president and vice president appointed by the president of the republic upon approval by the Senate; judges appointed by the Supreme Court chief justice upon approval of the SCJ; judge tenure NA
    judge selection and term of office: High Court of the Republic; commercial courts including the High Commercial Court; intermediate courts; primary courts; and military specialized courts
    subordinate courts: High Court of the Republic; commercial courts including the High Commercial Court; intermediate courts; primary courts; and military specialized courts
    Liberal Party or PL [Donatille MUKABALISA]
    Party for Progress and Concord or PPC [Dr. Alivera MUKABARAMBA]
    Rwandan Patriotic Front or RPF [Paul KAGAME]
    Rwandan Patriotic Front Coalition (includes RPF, PPC) [Paul KAGAME]
    Social Democratic Party or PSD [Vincent BIRUTA]
    ACP, AfDB, AU, C, CEPGL, COMESA, EAC, EADB, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, NAM, OIF, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMISS, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    chief of mission: Ambassador Mathilde MUKANTABANA (since 18 July 2013)
    chancery: 1875 Connecticut Avenue, NW, Suite 418, Washington, DC, 20009
    telephone: [1] (202) 232-2882
    FAX: [1] (202) 232-4544
    chief of mission: Ambassador Peter H. VROOMAN (since 5 April 2018)
    embassy: 2657 Avenue de la Gendarmerie, Kigali
    mailing address: B.P. 28, Kigali
    telephone: [250] 252 596-400
    FAX: [250] 252 580 325
    three horizontal bands of sky blue (top, double width), yellow, and green, with a golden sun with 24 rays near the fly end of the blue band; blue represents happiness and peace, yellow economic development and mineral wealth, green hope of prosperity and natural resources; the sun symbolizes unity, as well as enlightenment and transparency from ignorance
    traditional woven basket with peaked lid; national colors: blue, yellow, green
    name: "Rwanda nziza" (Rwanda, Our Beautiful Country)
    lyrics/music: Faustin MURIGO/Jean-Bosco HASHAKAIMANA
    note: adopted 2001
  • Economy :: RWANDA

  • Rwanda is a rural, agrarian country with agriculture accounting for about 63% of export earnings, and with some mineral and agro-processing. Population density is high but, with the exception of the capital Kigali, is not concentrated in large cities – its 12 million people are spread out on a small amount of land (smaller than the state of Maryland). Tourism, minerals, coffee, and tea are Rwanda's main sources of foreign exchange. Despite Rwanda's fertile ecosystem, food production often does not keep pace with demand, requiring food imports. Energy shortages, instability in neighboring states, and lack of adequate transportation linkages to other countries continue to handicap private sector growth.
    The 1994 genocide decimated Rwanda's fragile economic base, severely impoverished the population, particularly women, and temporarily stalled the country's ability to attract private and external investment. However, Rwanda has made substantial progress in stabilizing and rehabilitating its economy well beyond pre-1994 levels. GDP has rebounded with an average annual growth of 6%-8% since 2003 and inflation has been reduced to single digits. In 2015, 39% of the population lived below the poverty line, according to government statistics, compared to 57% in 2006.
    The government has embraced an expansionary fiscal policy to reduce poverty by improving education, infrastructure, and foreign and domestic investment. Rwanda consistently ranks well for ease of doing business and transparency.
    The Rwandan Government is seeking to become a regional leader in information and communication technologies and aims to reach middle-income status by 2020 by leveraging the service industry. In 2012, Rwanda completed the first modern Special Economic Zone (SEZ) in Kigali. The SEZ seeks to attract investment in all sectors, but specifically in agribusiness, information and communications, trade and logistics, mining, and construction. In 2016, the government launched an online system to give investors information about public land and its suitability for agricultural development.
    $24.63 billion (2017 est.)
    $23.24 billion (2016 est.)
    $21.34 billion (2015 est.)
    note: data are in 2017 dollars
    country comparison to the world: 143
    $9.137 billion (2017 est.)
    6.1% (2017 est.)
    6% (2016 est.)
    8.9% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 32
    $2,100 (2017 est.)
    $2,000 (2016 est.)
    $1,900 (2015 est.)
    note: data are in 2017 dollars
    country comparison to the world: 206
    12.5% of GDP (2017 est.)
    6.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
    7.5% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 142
    household consumption: 78%
    government consumption: 14.7%
    investment in fixed capital: 26.5%
    investment in inventories: 0.6%
    exports of goods and services: 15.4%
    imports of goods and services: -35.3% (2017 est.)
    agriculture: 30.9%
    industry: 17.6%
    services: 51.5% (2017 est.)
    coffee, tea, pyrethrum (insecticide made from chrysanthemums), bananas, beans, sorghum, potatoes; livestock
    cement, agricultural products, small-scale beverages, soap, furniture, shoes, plastic goods, textiles, cigarettes
    4.8% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 56
    6.227 million (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 73
    agriculture: 75.3%
    industry: 6.7%
    services: 18% (2012 est.)
    2.7% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 29
    39.1% (2015 est.)
    lowest 10%: 2.1%
    highest 10%: 43.2% (2011 est.)
    50.4 (2013 est.)
    51.3 (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 16
    revenues: $1.874 billion
    expenditures: $2.255 billion (2017 est.)
    21% of GDP (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 146
    -4.3% of GDP (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 150
    40.6% of GDP (2017 est.)
    37.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 133
    calendar year
    4.8% (2017 est.)
    5.7% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 172
    7.75% (31 December 2010)
    11.25% (31 December 2008)
    country comparison to the world: 40
    16.9% (31 December 2017 est.)
    17.3% (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 30
    $941 million (31 December 2017 est.)
    $940.6 million (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 158
    $1.937 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $1.903 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 159
    $2.054 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $1.959 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 147
    $NA
    -$622 million (2017 est.)
    -$1.211 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 123
    $908.9 million (2017 est.)
    $745 million (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 166
    coffee, tea, hides, tin ore
    UAE 38.3%, Kenya 15.1%, Switzerland 9.9%, Democratic Republic of the Congo 9.5%, US 4.9%, Singapore 4.5% (2017)
    $2.007 billion (2017 est.)
    $2.045 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 163
    foodstuffs, machinery and equipment, steel, petroleum products, cement and construction material
    China 20.4%, Uganda 11%, India 7.2%, Kenya 7.1%, Tanzania 5.3%, UAE 5.1% (2017)
    $1.026 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $1.104 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 124
    $2.966 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $2.611 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 142
    $2.473 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $2.072 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 116
    $26.8 million (31 December 2017 est.)
    $26.8 million (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 113
    Rwandan francs (RWF) per US dollar -
    839.1 (2017 est.)
    787.25 (2016 est.)
    787.25 (2015 est.)
    720.54 (2014 est.)
    680.95 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: RWANDA

  • population without electricity: 9,300,000
    electrification - total population: 21%
    electrification - urban areas: 67%
    electrification - rural areas: 5% (2013)
    600 million kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 164
    644 million kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 164
    4 million kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 92
    90 million kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 97
    152,000 kW (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 170
    27.6% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 185
    0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 174
    65.8% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 24
    6.6% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 86
    0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 186
    0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 182
    0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 183
    0 bbl (1 January 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 184
    0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 191
    6,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 172
    0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 192
    5,979 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 159
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 123
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 188
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 172
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 180
    56.63 billion cu m (1 January 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 63
    800,000 Mt (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 172
  • Communications :: RWANDA

  • total subscriptions: 13,403
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (December 2017 est.) (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 189
    total: 9,075,741
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 77 (May 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 91
    general assessment: small, inadequate telephone system primarily serves business, education, and government
    domestic: the capital, Kigali, is connected to provincial centers by microwave radio relay and, recently, by cellular telephone service; much of the network depends on wire and HF radiotelephone; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular telephone density has increased and now exceeds 70 telephones per 100 persons
    international: country code - 250; international connections employ microwave radio relay to neighboring countries and satellite communications to more distant countries; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) in Kigali (includes telex and telefax service) (2017)
    13 TV stations; 35 radio stations registered, including international broadcasters, government owns most popular TV and radio stations; regional satellite-based TV services available (2016)
    .rw
    total: 3,724,678
    percent of population: 29.8% (Dec 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 105
  • Transportation :: RWANDA

  • number of registered air carriers: 1
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 9
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 645,815
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 21,382,897 mt-km (2015)
    9XR (2016)
    7 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 167
    total: 4
    over 3,047 m: 1
    914 to 1,523 m: 2
    under 914 m: 1 (2017)
    total: 3
    914 to 1,523 m: 2
    under 914 m: 1 (2013)
    total: 4,700 km
    paved: 1,207 km
    unpaved: 3,493 km (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 152
    (Lac Kivu navigable by shallow-draft barges and native craft) (2011)
    lake port(s): Cyangugu, Gisenyi, Kibuye (Lake Kivu)
  • Military and Security :: RWANDA

  • 1.21% of GDP (2016)
    1.25% of GDP (2015)
    1.13% of GDP (2014)
    1.08% of GDP (2013)
    1.09% of GDP (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 95
    Rwanda Defense Force (RDF): Rwanda Army (Rwanda Land Force), Rwanda Air Force (Force Aerienne Rwandaise, FAR) (2013)
    18 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription; Rwandan citizenship is required, as is a 9th-grade education for enlisted recruits and an A-level certificate for officer candidates; enlistment is either as contract (5-years, renewable twice) or career; retirement (for officers and senior NCOs) after 20 years of service or at 40-60 years of age (2012)
  • Transnational Issues :: RWANDA

  • Burundi and Rwanda dispute two sq km (0.8 sq mi) of Sabanerwa, a farmed area in the Rukurazi Valley where the Akanyaru/Kanyaru River shifted its course southward after heavy rains in 1965; fighting among ethnic groups - loosely associated political rebels, armed gangs, and various government forces in Great Lakes region transcending the boundaries of Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DROC), Rwanda, and Uganda - abated substantially from a decade ago due largely to UN peacekeeping, international mediation, and efforts by local governments to create civil societies; nonetheless, 57,000 Rwandan refugees still reside in 21 African states, including Zambia, Gabon, and 20,000 who fled to Burundi in 2005 and 2006 to escape drought and recriminations from traditional courts investigating the 1994 massacres; the 2005 DROC and Rwanda border verification mechanism to stem rebel actions on both sides of the border remains in place
    refugees (country of origin): 81,226 (Democratic Republic of the Congo); 68,319 (Burundi) (2018)