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Africa :: Seychelles
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Seychelles
  • Introduction :: SEYCHELLES

  • A lengthy struggle between France and Great Britain for the islands ended in 1814, when they were ceded to the latter. Independence came in 1976. Single-party rule was brought to a close with a new constitution and free elections in 1993. President France-Albert RENE, who had served since 1977, was reelected in 2001, but stepped down in 2004. Vice President James Alix MICHEL took over the presidency and in July 2006 was elected to a new five-year term; he was reelected in May 2011 and again in December 2015.
  • Geography :: SEYCHELLES

  • archipelago in the Indian Ocean, northeast of Madagascar
    4 35 S, 55 40 E
    Africa
    total: 455 sq km
    land: 455 sq km
    water: 0 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 199
    2.5 times the size of Washington, DC
    0 km
    491 km
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    contiguous zone: 24 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
    tropical marine; humid; cooler season during southeast monsoon (late May to September); warmer season during northwest monsoon (March to May)
    Mahe Group is volcanic with a narrow coastal strip and rocky, hilly interior; others are coral, flat, elevated reefs
    mean elevation: NA
    elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
    highest point: Morne Seychellois 905 m
    fish, coconuts (copra), cinnamon trees
    agricultural land: 6.5%
    arable land 2.2%; permanent crops 4.3%; permanent pasture 0%
    forest: 88.5%
    other: 5% (2011 est.)
    3 sq km (2012)
    lies outside the cyclone belt, so severe storms are rare; occasional short droughts
    water supply depends on catchments to collect rainwater
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    smallest African country; the constitution of the Republic of Seychelles lists 155 islands: 42 granitic and 113 coralline; by far the largest island is Mahe, which is home to about 90% of the population and the site of the capital city of Victoria
  • People and Society :: SEYCHELLES

  • noun: Seychellois (singular and plural)
    adjective: Seychellois
    mixed French, African, Indian, Chinese, and Arab
    Seychellois Creole (official) 89.1%, English (official) 5.1%, French (official) 0.7%, other 3.8%, unspecified 1.4% (2010 est.)
    Roman Catholic 76.2%, Protestant 10.6% (Anglican 6.1%, Pentecoastal Assembly 1.5%, Seventh-Day Adventist 1.2%, other Protestant 1.6), other Christian 2.4%, Hindu 2.4%, Muslim 1.6%, other non-Christian 1.1%, unspecified 4.8%, none 0.9% (2010 est.)
    92,430 (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 199
    0-14 years: 20.53% (male 9,731/female 9,243)
    15-24 years: 13.92% (male 6,740/female 6,125)
    25-54 years: 49.4% (male 24,076/female 21,586)
    55-64 years: 8.74% (male 4,190/female 3,888)
    65 years and over: 7.41% (male 2,670/female 4,181) (2015 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 43.5%
    youth dependency ratio: 33.6%
    elderly dependency ratio: 9.9%
    potential support ratio: 10.1% (2015 est.)
    total: 34.4 years
    male: 33.9 years
    female: 35 years (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 78
    0.83% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 133
    14.19 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 138
    6.89 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 137
    1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 64
    urban population: 53.9% of total population (2015)
    rate of urbanization: 1.14% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    VICTORIA (capital) 26,000 (2014)
    at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.1 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 1.12 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.64 male(s)/female
    total population: 1.05 male(s)/female (2015 est.)
    total: 10.49 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 13.12 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 7.78 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 132
    total population: 74.49 years
    male: 69.92 years
    female: 79.2 years (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 117
    1.87 children born/woman (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 143
    4% of GDP (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 147
    1.07 physicians/1,000 population (2012)
    3.6 beds/1,000 population (2011)
    improved:
    urban: 95.7% of population
    rural: 95.7% of population
    total: 95.7% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 4.3% of population
    rural: 4.3% of population
    total: 4.3% of population (2015 est.)
    improved:
    urban: 98.4% of population
    rural: 98.4% of population
    total: 98.4% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 1.6% of population
    rural: 1.6% of population
    total: 1.6% of population (2015 est.)
    NA
    NA
    NA
    26.9% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 70
    3.6% (2012)
    3.6% of GDP (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 121
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 91.8%
    male: 91.4%
    female: 92.3% (2012 est.)
    total: 13 years
    male: 13 years
    female: 13 years (2012)
    total: 11%
    male: 8.4%
    female: 14.2% (2011 est.)
  • Government :: SEYCHELLES

  • conventional long form: Republic of Seychelles
    conventional short form: Seychelles
    local long form: Republic of Seychelles
    local short form: Seychelles
    etymology: named by French Captain Corneille Nicholas MORPHEY after Jean Moreau de SECHELLES, the finance minister of France, in 1756
    presidential republic
    name: Victoria
    geographic coordinates: 4 37 S, 55 27 E
    time difference: UTC+4 (9 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    25 administrative districts; Anse aux Pins, Anse Boileau, Anse Etoile, Anse Royale, Au Cap, Baie Lazare, Baie Sainte Anne, Beau Vallon, Bel Air, Bel Ombre, Cascade, Glacis, Grand Anse Mahe, Grand Anse Praslin, Inner Islands, La Riviere Anglaise, Les Mamalles, Mont Buxton, Mont Fleuri, Plaisance, Pointe Larue, Port Glaud, Roche Caiman, Saint Louis, Takamaka
    29 June 1976 (from the UK)
    Constitution Day (National Day), 18 June (1993); Independence Day, 29 June (1976)
    previous 1970, 1979; latest drafted May 1993, approved by referendum 18 June 1993, effective 23 June 1993; amended several times, last in 2011 (2016)
    mixed legal system of English common law, French civil law, and customary law
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of the Seychelles
    dual citizenship recognized: no
    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: President James Alix MICHEL (since 14 April 2004); Vice President Danny FAURE (since 1 July 2010); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
    head of government: President James Alix MICHEL (since 14 April 2004); Vice President Danny FAURE (since 1 July 2010)
    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in two rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for 2 more terms); election last held on 3-5 December with runoff on 16-18 December 2015 (next to be held NA)
    election results: President James MICHEL reelected president; percent of vote in second round - James MICHEL (PP) 50.2%, Wavel RAMKALAWAN (SNP) 49.8%
    description: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (34 seats; 25 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 9 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)
    elections: last held on 29 September - 1 October 2011 (next to be held in 2016); note - the National Assembly was dissolved in July 2011 resulting in early elections
    election results: percent of vote by party - PL 88.6%, PDM 10.9%, independent 0.6%; seats by party - PL 33, PDM 1; note - the SNP and NDP boycotted the 2011 elections
    highest court(s): Seychelles Court of Appeal (consists of the court president and 4 justices; Supreme Court of Seychelles (consists of the chief justice and 9 puisine judges); Constitutional Court (consists of 3 Supreme Court judges)
    judge selection and term of office: all judges appointed by the president of the republic upon the recommendation of the Constitutional Appointments Committee, a 3-member body, with 1 member appointed by the president of the republic, 1 by the opposition leader in the National Assembly, and 1 by the other 2 appointees; judges appointed until retirement at age 70
    subordinate courts: Magistrates' Courts of Seychelles; Family Tribunal for issues such as domestic violence, and child custody and maintenance; Employment Tribunal for labor related disputes
    People's Party (Parti Lepep) or PL [James Alix MICHEL] (formerly SPPF)
    Popular Democratic Movement or PDM [David PIERRE]
    Seychelles National Party or SNP [Wavel RAMKALAWAN] (formerly the United Opposition or UO)
    Seselwa (Seychelles) United Party or SUP [Robert ERNESTA] (formerly the New Democratic Party or NDP)
    ACP, AfDB, AOSIS, AU, C, CD, COMESA, EITI (candidate country), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, InOC, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, MIGA, NAM, OIF, OPCW, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
    chief of mission: Ambassador Marie-Louise Cecile POTTER (since 6 September 2012)
    chancery: 800 Second Avenue, Suite 400C, New York, NY 10017
    telephone: [1] (212) 972-1785
    FAX: [1] (212) 972-1786
    consulate(s) general: New York
    the US does not have an embassy in Seychelles; the US Ambassador to Mauritius is accredited to Seychelles
    five oblique bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, red, white, and green (bottom) radiating from the bottom of the hoist side; the oblique bands are meant to symbolize a dynamic new country moving into the future; blue represents sky and sea, yellow the sun giving light and life, red the peoples' determination to work for the future in unity and love, white social justice and harmony, green the land and natural environment
    coco de mer (sea coconut); national colors: blue, yellow, red, white, green
    name: "Koste Seselwa" (Seychellois Unite)
    lyrics/music: David Francois Marc ANDRE and George Charles Robert PAYET
    note: adopted 1996
  • Economy :: SEYCHELLES

  • Since independence in 1976, per capita output in this Indian Ocean archipelago has expanded to roughly seven times the pre-independence, near-subsistence level, moving the island into the upper-middle-income group of countries. Growth has been led by the tourist sector, which employs about 30% of the labor force and provides more than 70% of hard currency earnings, and by tuna fishing.
    In recent years, the government has encouraged foreign investment to upgrade hotels and other services. At the same time, the government has moved to reduce the dependence on tourism by promoting the development of farming, fishing, and small-scale manufacturing.
    In 2008, having depleted its foreign exchange reserves, Seychelles defaulted on interest payments due on a $230 million Eurobond, requested assistance from the IMF, and immediately enacted a number of significant structural reforms, including liberalization of the exchange rate, reform of the public sector to include layoffs, and the sale of some state assets. In December 2013, the IMF declared that Seychelles had successfully transitioned to a market-based economy with full employment and a fiscal surplus. Seychelles grew at 4.3% in 2015 because of a strong tourist sector and expanding private sector credits; its fiscal surplus reached 4% of GDP.
    $2.417 billion (2015 est.)
    $2.316 billion (2014 est.)
    $2.181 billion (2013 est.)
    note: data are in 2015 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 192
    $1.375 billion (2015 est.)
    4.4% (2015 est.)
    6.2% (2014 est.)
    5% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 52
    $26,300 (2015 est.)
    $25,400 (2014 est.)
    $24,200 (2013 est.)
    note: data are in 2015 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 70
    17.6% of GDP (2015 est.)
    15.4% of GDP (2014 est.)
    26.3% of GDP (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 95
    household consumption: 53.4%
    government consumption: 21.7%
    investment in fixed capital: 38.8%
    investment in inventories: 0.2%
    exports of goods and services: 70.8%
    imports of goods and services: -84.9% (2015 est.)
    agriculture: 3%
    industry: 14.6%
    services: 82.4% (2015 est.)
    coconuts, cinnamon, vanilla, sweet potatoes, cassava (manioc, tapioca), copra, bananas; tuna
    fishing, tourism, beverages
    3.5% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 71
    39,560 (2006 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 196
    agriculture: 3%
    industry: 23%
    services: 74% (2006)
    3% (2014 est.)
    3.3% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 25
    NA%
    lowest 10%: 4.7%
    highest 10%: 15.4% (2007)
    revenues: $478.7 million
    expenditures: $423.7 million (2015 est.)
    34.8% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 59
    4% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 11
    54.8% of GDP (2015 est.)
    65.3% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 70
    calendar year
    4% (2015 est.)
    1.4% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 154
    11.17% (31 December 2010)
    country comparison to the world: 18
    12.2% (31 December 2015 est.)
    11.65% (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 65
    $467.8 million (31 December 2015 est.)
    $407.2 million (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 165
    $567.8 million (31 December 2014 est.)
    $529.3 million (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 178
    $476.2 million (31 December 2015 est.)
    $427.3 million (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 171
    $NA
    -$195 million (2015 est.)
    -$300 million (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 80
    $450.6 million (2015 est.)
    $538.9 million (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 176
    canned tuna, frozen fish, petroleum products (reexports)
    France 24.8%, UK 18.6%, Italy 11.9%, Japan 9.2%, Mauritius 6.2%, Spain 4.2% (2014)
    $1.05 billion (2015 est.)
    $1.081 billion (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 178
    machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, petroleum products, chemicals, other manufactured goods
    Saudi Arabia 23.6%, Spain 9.8%, France 5.2%, South Africa 4.6% (2014)
    $549.8 million (31 December 2015 est.)
    $465 million (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 148
    $2.823 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $2.714 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 145
    Seychelles rupees (SCR) per US dollar -
    13.37 (2015 est.)
    12.747 (2014 est.)
    12.747 (2013 est.)
    13.7 (2012 est.)
    12.381 (2011 est.)
  • Energy :: SEYCHELLES

  • 316 million kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 172
    293.9 million kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 176
    0 kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 192
    0 kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 198
    89,000 kW (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 176
    100% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 26
    0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 177
    0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 199
    0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 125
    0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 187
    0 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 184
    0 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 122
    0 bbl (1 January 2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 186
    0 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 128
    6,800 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 162
    0 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 130
    6,805 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 148
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 125
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 191
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 175
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 130
    0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 190
    1.304 million Mt (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 164
  • Communications :: SEYCHELLES

  • total subscriptions: 21,200
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 23 (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 184
    total: 151,300
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 165 (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 184
    general assessment: effective system
    domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity exceeds 170 telephones per 100 persons; radiotelephone communications between islands in the archipelago
    international: country code - 248; direct radiotelephone communications with adjacent island countries and African coastal countries; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) (2011)
    the government operates the only terrestrial TV station, which provides local programming and airs broadcasts from international services; multi-channel cable and satellite TV are available; the government operates 1 AM and 1 FM radio station; transmissions of 2 international broadcasters are accessible in Victoria (2007)
    AM 1, FM 1, shortwave 2 (2001)
    2 (plus 9 repeaters) (1997)
    .sc
    247 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 195
    total: 49,300
    percent of population: 53.8% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 184
  • Transportation :: SEYCHELLES

  • 14 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 150
    total: 7
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
    914 to 1,523 m: 5
    under 914 m: 1 (2013)
    total: 7
    914 to 1,523 m: 2
    under 914 m: 5 (2013)
    1 (2013)
    total: 508 km
    paved: 490 km
    unpaved: 18 km (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 195
    total: 9
    by type: cargo 1, carrier 1, chemical tanker 6, petroleum tanker 1
    foreign-owned: 3 (Hong Kong 1, Nigeria 1, South Africa 1) (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 117
    major seaport(s): Victoria
  • Military and Security :: SEYCHELLES

  • Seychelles People's Defense Forces (SPDF): Army, Coast Guard (includes Naval Wing, Air Wing), National Guard (2015)
    18 years of age for voluntary military service (younger with parental consent); no conscription (2012)
    0.89% of GDP (2012)
    0.82% of GDP (2011)
    0.89% of GDP (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 109
  • Transnational Issues :: SEYCHELLES

  • Mauritius and Seychelles claim the Chagos Islands (UK-administered British Indian Ocean Territory)
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