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Africa :: Senegal Print
Page last updated on October 09, 2020
  • Introduction :: Senegal
  • Background field listing
    A Jolof Empire ruled parts of Senegal from 1350 to 1549. Various European powers, including Portugal, the Netherlands, France, and Great Britain, competed for trade in the area from the 15th century onward. A slave station on the island of Goree, next to modern Dakar, was used as a base to purchase slaves from the warring chiefdoms on the mainland. Having abolished slavery in 1815, the French began to expand onto the Senegalese mainland in the second half of the 19th century and made it a French colony. The French colonies of Senegal and French Sudan were merged in 1959 and granted independence in 1960 as the Mali Federation. The union broke up after only a few months. Senegal joined with The Gambia to form the nominal confederation of Senegambia in 1982. The envisaged integration of the two countries was never implemented, and the union was dissolved in 1989. The Movement of Democratic Forces in the Casamance has led a low-level separatist insurgency in southern Senegal since the 1980s. Several attempts at reaching a comprehensive peace agreement have failed to resolve the conflict but, despite sporadic incidents of violence, an unofficial cease-fire has remained largely in effect since 2012. Senegal remains one of the most stable democracies in Africa and has a long history of participating in international peacekeeping and regional mediation. Senegal was ruled by the Socialist Party of Senegal, first under President Léopold Sédar SENGHOR, and then President Abdou DIOUF, for 40 years until Abdoulaye WADE was elected president in 2000. He was re-elected in 2007 and during his two terms amended Senegal's constitution over a dozen times to increase executive power and weaken the opposition. His decision to run for a third presidential term sparked a large public backlash that led to his defeat in a March 2012 runoff with Macky SALL. A 2016 constitutional referendum reduced the term to five years with a maximum of two consecutive terms for future presidents - the change did not apply to SALL's first term. SALL won his bid for re-election in February 2019; his term will end in 2024. A month after the election, the National Assembly voted to abolish the office of the prime minister. Opposition organizations and civil society have criticized the decision as a further concentration of power in the executive branch at the expense of the legislative and judicial branches.
  • Geography :: Senegal
  • Location field listing
    Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Guinea-Bissau and Mauritania
    Geographic coordinates field listing
    14 00 N, 14 00 W
    Map references field listing
    Area field listing
    total: 196,722 sq km
    land: 192,530 sq km
    water: 4,192 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 89
    Area - comparative field listing
    slightly smaller than South Dakota; slightly larger than twice the size of Indiana
    Area comparison map: Area comparison map
    Land boundaries field listing
    total: 2,684 km
    border countries (5): The Gambia 749 km, Guinea 363 km, Guinea-Bissau 341 km, Mali 489 km, Mauritania 742 km
    Coastline field listing
    531 km
    Maritime claims field listing
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    contiguous zone: 24 nm
    continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
    Climate field listing
    tropical; hot, humid; rainy season (May to November) has strong southeast winds; dry season (December to April) dominated by hot, dry, harmattan wind
    Terrain field listing
    generally low, rolling, plains rising to foothills in southeast
    Elevation field listing
    mean elevation: 69 m
    lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
    highest point: unnamed elevation 2.8 km southeast of Nepen Diaka 648 m
    Natural resources field listing
    fish, phosphates, iron ore
    Land use field listing
    agricultural land: 46.8% (2011 est.)
    arable land: 17.4% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 0.3% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 29.1% (2011 est.)
    forest: 43.8% (2011 est.)
    other: 9.4% (2011 est.)
    Irrigated land field listing
    1,200 sq km (2012)
    Population distribution field listing
    the population is concentrated in the west, with Dakar anchoring a well-defined core area; approximately 70% of the population is rural as shown in this population distribution map
    Natural hazards field listing
    lowlands seasonally flooded; periodic droughts
    Environment - current issues field listing
    deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; periodic droughts; seasonal flooding; overfishing; weak environmental protective laws; wildlife populations threatened by poaching
    Environment - international agreements field listing
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    Geography - note field listing
    westernmost country on the African continent; The Gambia is almost an enclave within Senegal
  • People and Society :: Senegal
  • Population field listing
    15,736,368 (July 2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 72
    Nationality field listing
    noun: Senegalese (singular and plural)
    adjective: Senegalese
    Ethnic groups field listing
    Wolof 37.1%, Pular 26.2%, Serer 17%, Mandinka 5.6%, Jola 4.5%, Soninke 1.4%, other 8.3% (includes Europeans and persons of Lebanese descent) (2017 est.)
    Languages field listing
    French (official), Wolof, Pular, Jola, Mandinka, Serer, Soninke
    Religions field listing
    Muslim 95.9% (most adhere to one of the four main Sufi brotherhoods), Christian 4.1% (mostly Roman Catholic) (2016 est.)
    Demographic profile field listing

    Senegal has a large and growing youth population but has not been successful in developing its potential human capital. Senegal’s high total fertility rate of almost 4.5 children per woman continues to bolster the country’s large youth cohort – more than 60% of the population is under the age of 25. Fertility remains high because of the continued desire for large families, the low use of family planning, and early childbearing. Because of the country’s high illiteracy rate (more than 40%), high unemployment (even among university graduates), and widespread poverty, Senegalese youths face dim prospects; women are especially disadvantaged.

    Senegal historically was a destination country for economic migrants, but in recent years West African migrants more often use Senegal as a transit point to North Africa – and sometimes illegally onward to Europe. The country also has been host to several thousand black Mauritanian refugees since they were expelled from their homeland during its 1989 border conflict with Senegal. The country’s economic crisis in the 1970s stimulated emigration; departures accelerated in the 1990s. Destinations shifted from neighboring countries, which were experiencing economic decline, civil wars, and increasing xenophobia, to Libya and Mauritania because of their booming oil industries and to developed countries (most notably former colonial ruler France, as well as Italy and Spain). The latter became attractive in the 1990s because of job opportunities and their periodic regularization programs (legalizing the status of illegal migrants).

    Additionally, about 16,000 Senegalese refugees still remain in The Gambia and Guinea-Bissau as a result of more than 30 years of fighting between government forces and rebel separatists in southern Senegal’s Casamance region.

    Age structure field listing
    0-14 years: 40.38% (male 3,194,454/female 3,160,111)
    15-24 years: 20.35% (male 1,596,896/female 1,606,084)
    25-54 years: 31.95% (male 2,327,424/female 2,700,698)
    55-64 years: 4.21% (male 283,480/female 378,932)
    65 years and over: 3.1% (male 212,332/female 275,957) (2020 est.)
    population pyramid: population pyramid
    Dependency ratios field listing
    total dependency ratio: 84.2
    youth dependency ratio: 78.4
    elderly dependency ratio: 5.7
    potential support ratio: 17.5 (2020 est.)
    Median age field listing
    total: 19.4 years
    male: 18.5 years
    female: 20.3 years (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 204
    Population growth rate field listing
    2.31% (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 30
    Birth rate field listing
    31.8 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 29
    Death rate field listing
    7.6 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 102
    Net migration rate field listing
    -1.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 149
    Population distribution field listing
    the population is concentrated in the west, with Dakar anchoring a well-defined core area; approximately 70% of the population is rural as shown in this population distribution map
    Urbanization field listing
    urban population: 48.1% of total population (2020)
    rate of urbanization: 3.73% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    Major urban areas - population field listing
    3.140 million DAKAR (capital) (2020)
    Sex ratio field listing
    at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 0.86 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.75 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
    Mother's mean age at first birth field listing
    21.9 years (2017 est.)

    note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

    Maternal mortality rate field listing
    315 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 35
    Infant mortality rate field listing
    total: 45.7 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 51.3 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 40 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 28
    Life expectancy at birth field listing
    total population: 63.2 years
    male: 61.1 years
    female: 65.4 years (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 206
    Total fertility rate field listing
    4.04 children born/woman (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 30
    Contraceptive prevalence rate field listing
    27.8% (2017)
    Drinking water source field listing
    improved: urban: 92.3% of population
    rural: 74.5% of population
    total: 83.3% of population
    unimproved: urban: 6.7% of population
    rural: 25.5% of population
    total: 16.7% of population (2017 est.)
    Current Health Expenditure field listing
    4.1% (2017)
    Physicians density field listing
    0.07 physicians/1,000 population (2017)
    Hospital bed density field listing
    0.3 beds/1,000 population (2008)
    Sanitation facility access field listing
    improved: urban: 91.2% of population
    rural: 48.5% of population
    total: 68.4% of population
    unimproved: urban: 8.8% of population
    rural: 51.5% of population
    total: 31.6% of population (2017 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate field listing
    0.4% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 84
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS field listing
    42,000 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 65
    HIV/AIDS - deaths field listing
    1,300 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 54
    Major infectious diseases field listing
    degree of risk: very high (2020)
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
    vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
    water contact diseases: schistosomiasis
    animal contact diseases: rabies
    respiratory diseases: meningococcal meningitis
    Obesity - adult prevalence rate field listing
    8.8% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 146
    Children under the age of 5 years underweight field listing
    14.4% (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 46
    Education expenditures field listing
    4.8% of GDP (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 74
    Literacy field listing
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 51.9%
    male: 64.8%
    female: 39.8% (2017)
    School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education) field listing
    total: 9 years
    male: 9 years
    female: 9 years (2017)
    Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 field listing
    total: 8.1%
    male: 7.4%
    female: 8.9% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 142
  • Government :: Senegal
  • Country name field listing
    conventional long form: Republic of Senegal
    conventional short form: Senegal
    local long form: Republique du Senegal
    local short form: Senegal
    former: Senegambia (along with The Gambia), Mali Federation
    etymology: named for the Senegal River that forms the northern border of the country; many theories exist for the origin of the river name; perhaps the most widely cited derives the name from "Azenegue," the Portuguese appellation for the Berber Zenaga people who lived north of the river
    Government type field listing
    presidential republic
    Capital field listing
    name: Dakar
    geographic coordinates: 14 44 N, 17 38 W
    time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    etymology: the Atlantic coast trading settlement of Ndakaaru came to be called "Dakar" by French colonialists
    Administrative divisions field listing
    14 regions (regions, singular - region); Dakar, Diourbel, Fatick, Kaffrine, Kaolack, Kedougou, Kolda, Louga, Matam, Saint-Louis, Sedhiou, Tambacounda, Thies, Ziguinchor
    Independence field listing
    4 April 1960 (from France); note - complete independence achieved upon dissolution of federation with Mali on 20 August 1960
    National holiday field listing
    Independence Day, 4 April (1960)
    Constitution field listing
    history: previous 1959 (preindependence), 1963; latest adopted by referendum 7 January 2001, promulgated 22 January 2001
    amendments: proposed by the president of the republic or by the National Assembly; passage requires Assembly approval and approval in a referendum; the president can bypass a referendum and submit an amendment directly to the Assembly, which requires at least three-fifths majority vote; the republican form of government is not amendable; amended several times, last in 2019
    International law organization participation field listing
    accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    Citizenship field listing
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Senegal
    dual citizenship recognized: no, but Senegalese citizens do not automatically lose their citizenship if they acquire citizenship in another state
    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
    Suffrage field listing
    18 years of age; universal
    Executive branch field listing
    chief of state: President Macky SALL (since 2 April 2012)
    head of government: President Macky SALL (since 2 April 2012)
    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a single renewable 5-year term; election last held on 24 February 2019 (next to be held in February 2024)
    election results: Macky SALL elected president in first round; percent of vote - Macky SALL (APR) 58.3%, Idrissa SECK (Rewmi) 20.5%, Ousmane SONKO (PASTEF) 15.7%
    Legislative branch field listing
    description: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblée Nationale (165 seats; 105 members including 15 representing Senegalese diaspora directly elected by plurality vote in single- and multi-seat constituencies and 60 members directly elected by proportional representation vote in single- and multi-seat constituencies)
    elections: National Assembly - last held on 2 July 2017 (next to be held in July 2022)
    election results: National Assembly results - percent of vote by party/coalition - BBK 49.5%, CGWS 16.7%, MTS 11.7%, PUR 4.7%, CP-Kaddu Askan Wi 2%, other 15.4%; seats by party/coalition - BBY 125, CGWS 19, MTS 7, PUR 3, CP-Kaddu Askan Wi 2, other 9; composition - men 96, women 69, percent of women 41.8%
    Judicial branch field listing
    highest courts: Supreme Court or Cour Supreme (consists of the court president and 12 judges and organized into civil and commercial, criminal, administrative, and social chambers); Constitutional Council or Conseil Constitutionel (consists of 7 members, including the court president, vice president, and 5 judges)
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the president of the republic upon recommendation of the Superior Council of the Magistrates, a body chaired by the president and minister of justice; judge tenure varies, with mandatory retirement either at 65 or 68 years; Constitutional Council members appointed - 5 by the president and 2 by the National Assembly speaker; judges serve 6-year terms, with renewal of 2 members every 2 years
    subordinate courts: High Court of Justice (for crimes of high treason by the president); Courts of Appeal; Court of Auditors; assize courts; regional and district courts; Labor Court
    Political parties and leaders field listing
    Alliance for the Republic-Yakaar or APR-Yakaar [Macky SALL]
    Alliance of Forces of Progress or AFP [Moustapha NIASSE]
    Alliance for Citizenship and Labor or ACT [Abdoul MBAYE]
    And-Jef/African Party for Democracy and Socialism or AJ/PADS [Mamadou DIOP Decriox]
    Benno Bokk Yakaar or BBY (United in Hope) [Macky SALL] (coalition includes AFP, APR, BGC, LD-MPT, PIT, PS, and UNP)
    Bokk Gis Gis coalition [Pape DIOP]
    Citizen Movement for National Reform or MCRN-Bes Du Nakk [Mansour Sy DJAMIL]
    Democratic League-Labor Party Movement or LD-MPT [Abdoulaye BATHILY]
    Dare the Future movement [Aissata Tall SALL]
    Front for Socialism and Democracy/Benno Jubel or FSD/BJ [Cheikh Abdoulaye Bamba DIEYE]
    Gainde Centrist Bloc or BGC [Jean-Paul DIAS]
    General Alliance for the Interests of the Republic or AGIR [Thierno BOCOUM]
    Grand Party or GP [Malick GAKOU]
    Independence and Labor Party or PIT [Magatte THIAM]
    Madicke 2019 coalition [Madicke NIANG]
    National Union for the People or UNP [Souleymane Ndene NDIAYE]
    Only Senegal movement [Pierre Goudiaby ATEPA]
    Party for Truth and Development or PVD [Cheikh Ahmadou Kara MBAKE]
    Party of Unity and Rally or PUR [El Hadji SALL]
    Patriotic Convergence Kaddu Askan Wi or CP-Kaddu Askan Wi [Abdoulaye BALDE]
    Patriots of Senegal for Ethics, Work and Fraternity or (PASTEF) [Ousmane SONKO]
    Rewmi Party [Idrissa SECK]
    Senegalese Democratic Party or PDS [Abdoulaye WADE]
    Socialist Party or PS [Ousmane Tanor DIENG]
    Tekki Movement [Mamadou Lamine DIALLO]
    International organization participation field listing
    Diplomatic representation in the US field listing
    Ambassador Mansour KANE (since 6 January 2020)
    chancery: 2215 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20007
    telephone: [1] (202) 234-0540
    FAX: [1] (202) 629-2961
    consulate(s) general: Houston, New York
    Diplomatic representation from the US field listing
    chief of mission: Ambassador Tulinabo S. MUSHINGI (since August 2017); note - also accredited to Guinea-Bissau
    telephone: [221] 33-879-4000
    embassy: Route des Almadies, Dakar
    mailing address: B.P. 49, Dakar
    FAX: [221] 33-822-2991
    Flag description field listing
    three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), yellow, and red with a small green five-pointed star centered in the yellow band; green represents Islam, progress, and hope; yellow signifies natural wealth and progress; red symbolizes sacrifice and determination; the star denotes unity and hope

    note: uses the popular Pan-African colors of Ethiopia; the colors from left to right are the same as those of neighboring Mali and the reverse of those on the flag of neighboring Guinea

    National symbol(s) field listing
    lion; national colors: green, yellow, red
    National anthem field listing
    name: "Pincez Tous vos Koras, Frappez les Balafons" (Pluck Your Koras, Strike the Balafons)
    lyrics/music: Leopold Sedar SENGHOR/Herbert PEPPER

    note: adopted 1960; lyrics written by Leopold Sedar SENGHOR, Senegal's first president; the anthem sometimes played incorporating the Koras (harp-like stringed instruments) and Balafons (types of xylophones) mentioned in the title

  • Economy :: Senegal
  • Economy - overview field listing

    Senegal’s economy is driven by mining, construction, tourism, fisheries and agriculture, which are the primary sources of employment in rural areas. The country's key export industries include phosphate mining, fertilizer production, agricultural products and commercial fishing and Senegal is also working on oil exploration projects. It relies heavily on donor assistance, remittances and foreign direct investment. Senegal reached a growth rate of 7% in 2017, due in part to strong performance in agriculture despite erratic rainfall.

    President Macky SALL, who was elected in March 2012 under a reformist policy agenda, inherited an economy with high energy costs, a challenging business environment, and a culture of overspending. President SALL unveiled an ambitious economic plan, the Emerging Senegal Plan (ESP), which aims to implement priority economic reforms and investment projects to increase economic growth while preserving macroeconomic stability and debt sustainability. Bureaucratic bottlenecks and a challenging business climate are among the perennial challenges that may slow the implementation of this plan.

    Senegal receives technical support from the IMF under a Policy Support Instrument (PSI) to assist with implementation of the ESP. The PSI implementation continues to be satisfactory as concluded by the IMF’s fifth review in December 2017. Financial markets have signaled confidence in Senegal through successful Eurobond issuances in 2014, 2017, and 2018.

    The government is focusing on 19 projects under the ESP to continue The government’s goal under the ESP is structural transformation of the economy. Key projects include the Thiès-Touba Highway, the new international airport opened in December 2017, and upgrades to energy infrastructure. The cost of electricity is a chief constraint for Senegal’s development. Electricity prices in Senegal are among the highest in the world. Power Africa, a US presidential initiative led by USAID, supports Senegal’s plans to improve reliability and increase generating capacity.

    GDP (purchasing power parity) field listing
    $54.8 billion (2017 est.)
    $51.15 billion (2016 est.)
    $48.15 billion (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 107
    GDP (official exchange rate) field listing
    $21.11 billion (2017 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate field listing
    7.2% (2017 est.)
    6.2% (2016 est.)
    6.4% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 18
    GDP - per capita (PPP) field listing
    $3,500 (2017 est.)
    $3,300 (2016 est.)
    $3,200 (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 188
    Gross national saving field listing
    21.2% of GDP (2017 est.)
    21.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
    20.4% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 86
    GDP - composition, by end use field listing
    household consumption: 71.9% (2017 est.)
    government consumption: 15.2% (2017 est.)
    investment in fixed capital: 25.1% (2017 est.)
    investment in inventories: 3.4% (2017 est.)
    exports of goods and services: 27% (2017 est.)
    imports of goods and services: -42.8% (2017 est.)
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin field listing
    agriculture: 16.9% (2017 est.)
    industry: 24.3% (2017 est.)
    services: 58.8% (2017 est.)
    Agriculture - products field listing
    peanuts, millet, corn, sorghum, rice, cotton, tomatoes, green vegetables; cattle, poultry, pigs; fish
    Industries field listing
    agricultural and fish processing, phosphate mining, fertilizer production, petroleum refining, zircon, and gold mining, construction materials, ship construction and repair
    Industrial production growth rate field listing
    7.7% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 26
    Labor force field listing
    6.966 million (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 67
    Labor force - by occupation field listing
    agriculture: 77.5%
    industry: 22.5%
    industry and services: 22.5% (2007 est.)
    Unemployment rate field listing
    48% (2007 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 216
    Population below poverty line field listing
    46.7% (2011 est.)
    Household income or consumption by percentage share field listing
    lowest 10%: 2.5%
    highest 10%: 31.1% (2011)
    Budget field listing
    revenues: 4.139 billion (2017 est.)
    expenditures: 4.9 billion (2017 est.)
    Taxes and other revenues field listing
    19.6% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 155
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) field listing
    -3.6% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 151
    Public debt field listing
    48.3% of GDP (2017 est.)
    47.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 108
    Fiscal year field listing
    calendar year
    Inflation rate (consumer prices) field listing
    1.3% (2017 est.)
    0.8% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 73
    Current account balance field listing
    -$1.547 billion (2017 est.)
    -$769 million (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 157
    Exports field listing
    $2.362 billion (2017 est.)
    $2.498 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 133
    Exports - partners field listing
    Mali 14.8%, Switzerland 11.4%, India 6%, Cote dIvoire 5.3%, UAE 5.1%, Gambia, The 4.2%, Spain 4.1% (2017)
    Exports - commodities field listing
    fish, groundnuts (peanuts), petroleum products, phosphates, cotton
    Imports field listing
    $5.217 billion (2017 est.)
    $4.966 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 125
    Imports - commodities field listing
    food and beverages, capital goods, fuels
    Imports - partners field listing
    France 16.3%, China 10.4%, Nigeria 8%, India 7.2%, Netherlands 4.8%, Spain 4.2% (2017)
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold field listing
    $1.827 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $116.9 million (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 122
    Debt - external field listing
    $8.571 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $6.327 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 119
    Exchange rates field listing
    Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar -
    617.4 (2017 est.)
    593.01 (2016 est.)
    593.01 (2015 est.)
    591.45 (2014 est.)
    494.42 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: Senegal
  • Electricity access field listing
    population without electricity: 6 million (2017)
    electrification - total population: 65% (2017)
    electrification - urban areas: 90% (2017)
    electrification - rural areas: 43% (2017)
    Electricity - production field listing
    4.167 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 126
    Electricity - consumption field listing
    3.497 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 133
    Electricity - exports field listing
    0 kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 195
    Electricity - imports field listing
    0 kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 197
    Electricity - installed generating capacity field listing
    977,000 kW (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 129
    Electricity - from fossil fuels field listing
    82% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 79
    Electricity - from nuclear fuels field listing
    0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 179
    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants field listing
    7% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 127
    Electricity - from other renewable sources field listing
    11% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 80
    Crude oil - production field listing
    0 bbl/day (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 197
    Crude oil - exports field listing
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 190
    Crude oil - imports field listing
    17,880 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 65
    Crude oil - proved reserves field listing
    0 bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 192
    Refined petroleum products - production field listing
    17,590 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 90
    Refined petroleum products - consumption field listing
    48,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 107
    Refined petroleum products - exports field listing
    4,063 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 94
    Refined petroleum products - imports field listing
    32,050 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 98
    Natural gas - production field listing
    59.46 million cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 85
    Natural gas - consumption field listing
    59.46 million cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 111
    Natural gas - exports field listing
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 180
    Natural gas - imports field listing
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 186
    Natural gas - proved reserves field listing
    0 cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 191
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy field listing
    8.644 million Mt (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 113
  • Communications :: Senegal
  • Telephones - fixed lines field listing
    total subscriptions: 302,243
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 2 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 115
    Telephones - mobile cellular field listing
    total subscriptions: 16,559,942
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 110 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 64
    Telecommunication systems field listing
    general assessment: mobile penetration reached 108% in March 2019; mobile broadband accounts for close to 100% (97.2%) Internet accesses; 3G and LTE services for 50% of population; growth in the intel market along with economic growth for the country; regulator awards more MVNO licenses, deactivated some 5 million unregistered SIM cards (2020)
    domestic: generally reliable urban system with a fiber-optic network; about two-thirds of all fixed-line connections are in Dakar; mobile-cellular service is steadily displacing fixed-line service, even in urban areas; fixed-line 2 per 100 and mobile-cellular 110 per 100 persons (2018)
    international: country code - 221; landing points for the ACE, Atlantis-2, MainOne and SAT-3/WASC submarine cables providing connectivity from South Africa, numerous western African countries, Europe and South America; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2019)
    note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
    Broadcast media field listing
    state-run Radiodiffusion Television Senegalaise (RTS) broadcasts TV programs from five cities in Senegal; in most regions of the country, viewers can receive TV programming from at least 7 private broadcasters; a wide range of independent TV programming is available via satellite; RTS operates a national radio network and a number of regional FM stations; at least 7 community radio stations and 18 private-broadcast radio stations are available; transmissions of at least 5 international broadcasters are accessible on FM in Dakar (2019)
    Internet country code field listing
    Internet users field listing
    total: 6,909,635
    percent of population: 46% (July 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 72
    Broadband - fixed subscriptions field listing
    total: 129,820
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 117
  • Military and Security :: Senegal
  • Military and security forces field listing
    Senegalese Armed Forces: Army, Senegalese National Navy (Marine Senegalaise, MNS), Senegalese Air Force (Armee de l'Air du Senegal), National Gendarmerie (includes Territorial and Mobile components) (2020)
    Military expenditures field listing
    1.5% of GDP (2019 est.)
    1.6% of GDP (2018)
    1.5% of GDP (2017)
    1.6% of GDP (2016)
    1.2% of GDP (2015)
    country comparison to the world: 84
    Military and security service personnel strengths field listing
    the Senegalese Armed Forces (SAF) consist of approximately 19,000 active personnel (12,000 Army; 1,000 Navy/Coast Guard; 800 Air Force; 5,000 National Gendarmerie) (2019 est.)
    Military equipment inventories and acquisitions field listing
    the SAF inventory includes mostly older or second-hand equipment from a variety of countries, including France, South Africa, and Russia/former Soviet Union; in recent years, the SAF has attempted to modernize, particularly its air force; China and France are the leading suppliers of newer military hardware to the SAF since 2010 (2019 est.)
    Military deployments field listing
    1,050 Mali (MINUSMA) (March 2020)
    Military service age and obligation field listing
    18 years of age for voluntary military service; 20 years of age for selective conscript service; 2-year service obligation; women have been accepted into military service since 2008 (2016)
  • Transportation :: Senegal
  • National air transport system field listing
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 115,355 (2015)
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 3,095,523 mt-km (2015)
    Civil aircraft registration country code prefix field listing
    6V (2016)
    Airports field listing
    20 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 135
    Airports - with paved runways field listing
    total: 9 (2017)
    over 3,047 m: 2 (2017)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 6 (2017)
    914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2017)
    Airports - with unpaved runways field listing
    total: 11 (2013)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 7 (2013)
    914 to 1,523 m: 3 (2013)
    under 914 m: 1 (2013)
    Pipelines field listing
    43 km gas, 8 km refined products (2017)
    Railways field listing
    total: 906 km (713 km operational in 2017) (2017)
    narrow gauge: 906 km 1.000-m gauge (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 94
    Roadways field listing
    total: 16,665 km (2017)
    paved: 6,126 km (includes 241 km of expressways) (2017)
    unpaved: 10,539 km (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 120
    Waterways field listing
    1,000 km (primarily on the Senegal, Saloum, and Casamance Rivers) (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 63
    Merchant marine field listing
    total: 32
    by type: general cargo 4, oil tanker 1, other 27 (2019)
    country comparison to the world: 130
    Ports and terminals field listing
    major seaport(s): Dakar
  • Transnational Issues :: Senegal
  • Disputes - international field listing

    cross-border trafficking in persons, timber, wildlife, and cannabis; rebels from the Movement of Democratic Forces in the Casamance find refuge in Guinea-Bissau

    Refugees and internally displaced persons field listing
    refugees (country of origin): 14,155 (Mauritania) (2019)
    IDPs: 8,400 (clashes between government troops and separatists in Casamance region in the 1990s and early 2000s) (2019)
    Illicit drugs field listing
    transshipment point for Southwest and Southeast Asian heroin and South American cocaine moving to Europe and North America; illicit cultivator of cannabis