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Africa :: Senegal
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  • Introduction :: SENEGAL

  • The French colonies of Senegal and the French Sudan were merged in 1959 and granted their independence as the Mali Federation in 1960. The union broke up after only a few months. Senegal joined with The Gambia to form the nominal confederation of Senegambia in 1982. The envisaged integration of the two countries was never carried out, and the union was dissolved in 1989. The Movement of Democratic Forces in the Casamance (MFDC) has led a low-level separatist insurgency in southern Senegal since the 1980s, and several peace deals have failed to resolve the conflict. Nevertheless, Senegal remains one of the most stable democracies in Africa and has a long history of participating in international peacekeeping and regional mediation. Senegal was ruled by a Socialist Party for 40 years until Abdoulaye WADE was elected president in 2000. He was reelected in 2007 and during his two terms amended Senegal's constitution over a dozen times to increase executive power and to weaken the opposition. His abortive attempts to establish his son as his successor, then his decision to run for a third presidential term sparked a large public backlash that led to his defeat in a March 2012 runoff election with Macky SALL, a former ally and prime minister. Since taking office, SALL has launched an economic reform program aimed at boosting economic growth, and his administration has conducted corruption investigations against senior figures in WADE's government.
  • Geography :: SENEGAL

  • Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Guinea-Bissau and Mauritania
    14 00 N, 14 00 W
    total: 196,722 sq km
    land: 192,530 sq km
    water: 4,192 sq km
    slightly smaller than South Dakota
    total: 2,684 km
    border countries (5): The Gambia 749 km, Guinea 363 km, Guinea-Bissau 341 km, Mali 489 km, Mauritania 742 km
    531 km
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    contiguous zone: 24 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
    tropical; hot, humid; rainy season (May to November) has strong southeast winds; dry season (December to April) dominated by hot, dry, harmattan wind
    generally low, rolling, plains rising to foothills in southeast
    lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
    highest point: unnamed elevation southwest of Kedougou 581 m
    fish, phosphates, iron ore
    agricultural land: 46.8%
    arable land 17.4%; permanent crops 0.3%; permanent pasture 29.1%
    forest: 43.8%
    other: 9.4% (2011 est.)
    1,197 sq km (2003)
    38.8 cu km (2011)
    total: 2.22 cu km/yr (4%/3%/93%)
    per capita: 221.6 cu m/yr (2002)
    lowlands seasonally flooded; periodic droughts
    wildlife populations threatened by poaching; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; overfishing
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    westernmost country on the African continent; The Gambia is almost an enclave within Senegal
  • People and Society :: SENEGAL

  • noun: Senegalese (singular and plural)
    adjective: Senegalese
    Wolof 43.3%, Pular 23.8%, Serer 14.7%, Jola 3.7%, Mandinka 3%, Soninke 1.1%, European and Lebanese 1%, other 9.4%
    French (official), Wolof, Pulaar, Jola, Mandinka
    Muslim 94% (most adhere to one of the four main Sufi brotherhoods), Christian 5% (mostly Roman Catholic), indigenous beliefs 1%
    13,635,927 (July 2014 est.)
    0-14 years: 42.5% (male 2,908,431/female 2,880,258)
    15-24 years: 20.5% (male 1,388,530/female 1,401,109)
    25-54 years: 30.4% (male 1,892,403/female 2,253,576)
    55-64 years: 3.8% (male 225,942/female 289,920)
    65 years and over: 2.9% (male 179,444/female 216,314) (2014 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 86.5%
    youth dependency ratio: 81%
    elderly dependency ratio: 5.5%
    potential support ratio: 18.2% (2014 est.)
    total: 18.4 years
    male: 17.5 years
    female: 19.3 years (2014 est.)
    2.48% (2014 est.)
    35.09 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    8.65 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    -1.66 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    urban population: 43.4% of total population (2014)
    rate of urbanization: 3.59% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    DAKAR (capital) 3.393 million (2014)
    at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 0.84 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2014 est.)
    note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2010/11 est.)
    320 deaths/100,000 live births (2013 est.)
    total: 52.72 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 58.91 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 46.35 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)
    total population: 60.95 years
    male: 58.94 years
    female: 63.02 years (2014 est.)
    4.52 children born/woman (2014 est.)
    17.8% (2012/13)
    4.2% of GDP (2013)
    0.06 physicians/1,000 population (2008)
    0.3 beds/1,000 population (2008)
    urban: 92.5% of population
    rural: 60.3% of population
    total: 74.1% of population
    urban: 7.5% of population
    rural: 39.7% of population
    total: 25.9% of population (2012 est.)
    urban: 67.1% of population
    rural: 40.5% of population
    total: 51.9% of population
    urban: 32.9% of population
    rural: 59.5% of population
    total: 48.1% of population (2012 est.)
    0.46% (2013 est.)
    38,700 (2013 est.)
    1,800 (2013 est.)
    degree of risk: very high
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
    vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, malaria, and yellow fever
    water contact disease: schistosomiasis
    respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
    animal contact disease: rabies (2013)
    8.3% (2014)
    16.8% (2013)
    5.6% of GDP (2010)
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 57.7%
    male: 69.7%
    female: 46.6% (2015 est.)
    total: 8 years
    male: 8 years
    female: 8 years (2010)
    total number: 657,216
    percentage: 22% (2005 est.)
    total: 14.8%
    male: 11.9%
    female: 20.1% (2006 est.)
  • Government :: SENEGAL

  • conventional long form: Republic of Senegal
    conventional short form: Senegal
    local long form: Republique du Senegal
    local short form: Senegal
    former: Senegambia (along with The Gambia), Mali Federation
    name: Dakar
    geographic coordinates: 14 44 N, 17 38 W
    time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    14 regions (regions, singular - region); Dakar, Diourbel, Fatick, Kaffrine, Kaolack, Kedougou, Kolda, Louga, Matam, Saint-Louis, Sedhiou, Tambacounda, Thies, Ziguinchor
    4 April 1960 (from France); note - complete independence achieved upon dissolution of federation with Mali on 20 August 1960
    Independence Day, 4 April (1960)
    previous 1959 (preindependence), 1963; latest adopted by referendum 7 January 2001, promulgated 22 January 2001; amended many times, last in 2009 (2014)
    civil law system based on French law; judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Court
    accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: President Macky SALL (since 2 April 2012)
    head of government: Prime Minister Mohammed Abdallah Boun DIONNE (since 4 July 2014)
    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister in consultation with the president
    elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 26 February 2012 with a second round runoff on 25 March 2012 (next to be held 2019); prime minister appointed by the president
    election results: Macky SALL elected president; percent of votes in a runoff - Macky SALL 65.8%, Abdoulaye WADE 34.2%
    description: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (150 seats; 90 members directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 60 directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)
    elections: National Assembly - last held on 1 July 2012 (next to be held in 2017)
    election results: National Assembly results - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Benno Bokk Yakaar coalition 119, PDS 12, Bokk Giss Giss coalition 4, MCRN-Bes Du Nakk 4, PVD 2, MRDS 2, URD 1, AJ/PADS 1, other 5
    highest court(s): Court of Final Appeals or Cour de Cassation (consists of NA judges); Constitutional Council (consists of 5 members including the court president, vice-president, and 3 judges)
    judge selection and term of office: Court of Final Appeals judges' appointed by the president upon recommendation of the Higher Council of the Judiciary, a body chaired by the president of the republic; judge tenure NA; Constitutional Council members appointed by the president of the republic to serve 6-year terms with renewal of 3 members every two years
    subordinate courts: High Court of Justice (for crime of high treason by president); Supreme Court (for abuses by government executives and local officials); Court of Auditors; Courts of Appeal; Assize Courts (4); Regional and District Courts, Labor Court
    Alliance for the Republic-Yakaar [Macky SALL]
    Alliance of Forces of Progress or AFP [Moustapha NIASSE]
    And-Jef/African Party for Democracy and Socialism or AJ/PADS [Mamadou DIOP, Landing SAVANE]
    Benno Bokk Yakaar coaltion [Macky SALL]
    Benno Siggil Senegal (a coalition of opposition parties)
    Bokk Giss Giss coalition [pape DIOP]
    Citizen Movement for National Reform or MCRN-Bes Du Nakk
    Convergence Democratique BOKK GIS GIS’ (Common Vision) Pape DIOP
    Democratic League-Labor Party Movement or LD-MPT [Mamadou NDOYE]
    Front for Socialism and Democracy/Benno Jubel or FSD/BJ [Cheikh Abdoulaye Bamba DIEYE]
    Gainde Centrist Bloc or BGC [Jean-Paul DIAS]
    Independence and Labor Party or PIT [Magette THIAM]
    People's Labor Party or PTP [El Hadji DIOUF]
    Reform Party or PR [Abdourahim AGNE]
    Republican Movement for Socialism and Democracy or MRDS
    Rewmi Party [Idrissa SECK]
    Senegalese Democratic Party or PDS [Abdoulaye WADE]
    Socialist Party or PS [Ousmane Tanor DIENG]
    Union Centriste du Senegal or UCS [Abdoulaye BALDE']
    Union for Democratic Renewal or URD [Djibo Leyti KA]
    other: labor; students; Sufi brotherhoods, including the Mourides and Tidjanes; teachers
    chief of mission: Ambassador Babacar DIAGNE (since 18 November 2014)
    embassy: 2215 M Street, NW, Washington, DC 20007
    telephone: [1] (202) 234-0540
    FAX: [1] (202) 629-2961
    consulate(s) general: Houston, New York
    chief of mission: Ambassador James P. Zumwalt (since 9 January 2015); note - also accredited to Guinea-Bissau
    embassy: Route des Almadies, Dakar
    mailing address: B. P. 49, Dakar
    telephone: [221] 33-879-4000
    FAX: [221] 33-822-2991
    three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), yellow, and red with a small green five-pointed star centered in the yellow band; green represents Islam, progress, and hope; yellow signifies natural wealth and progress; red symbolizes sacrifice and determination; the star denotes unity and hope
    note: uses the popular Pan-African colors of Ethiopia; the colors from left to right are the same as those of neighboring Mali and the reverse of those on the flag of neighboring Guinea
    lion; national colors: green, yellow, red
    name: "Pincez Tous vos Koras, Frappez les Balafons" (Pluck Your Koras, Strike the Balafons)
    lyrics/music: Leopold Sedar SENGHOR/Herbert PEPPER
    note: adopted 1960; lyrics written by Leopold Sedar SENGHOR, Senegal's first president; the anthem sometimes played incorporating the Koras (harp-like stringed instruments) and Balafons (types of xylophones) mentioned in the title
  • Economy :: SENEGAL

  • Senegal’s economy is driven by mining, construction, tourism, fisheries and agriculture which is the primary source of employment in rural areas. The country's key export industries include phosphate mining, fertilizer production, agricultural products and commercial fishing and it is also working on oil exploration projects. Senegal relies heavily on donor assistance, remittances and foreign direct investment. President Macky SALL, who was elected in March 2012 under a reformist policy agenda, inherited an economy with high energy costs, a challenging business environment, and a culture of overspending. Senegal received technical support from the IMF in 2010-2014 under a Policy Support Instrument to assist economic reform through sound macroeconomic and fiscal policies to reduce the fiscal deficit, increase transparency and facilitate private investment. President SALL unveiled an ambitious economic plan, the Emerging Senegal Plan, which aims to implement priority economic reforms and investment projects to increase economic growth. Bureaucratic bottlenecks and a challenging business climate are among the perennial challenges that may slow the implementation of this plan. Investors have signaled confidence in the country through Senegal’s successful Eurobond issuances in recent years, including in 2014.
    $33.13 billion (2014 est.)
    $31.69 billion (2013 est.)
    $30.37 billion (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2014 US dollars
    $15.88 billion (2014 est.)
    4.5% (2014 est.)
    2.8% (2013 est.)
    3.5% (2014 est.)
    $2,300 (2014 est.)
    $2,200 (2013 est.)
    $2,200 (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2013 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 199
    17.4% of GDP (2014 est.)
    16.4% of GDP (2013 est.)
    19% of GDP (2012 est.)
    household consumption: 73.1%
    government consumption: 16.6%
    investment in fixed capital: 23.5%
    investment in inventories: 4.2%
    exports of goods and services: 21.1%
    imports of goods and services: -38.5%
    (2014 est.)
    agriculture: 15.6%
    industry: 23.8%
    services: 60.6% (2014 est.)
    peanuts, millet, corn, sorghum, rice, cotton, tomatoes, green vegetables; cattle, poultry, pigs; fish
    agricultural and fish processing, phosphate mining, fertilizer production, petroleum refining, zircon, and gold mining, construction materials, ship construction and repair
    5.2% (2014 est.)
    6.326 million (2014 est.)
    agriculture: 77.5%
    industry and services: 22.5% (2007 est.)
    48% (2007 est.)
    46.7% (2011 est.)
    lowest 10%: 2.5%
    highest 10%: 31.1% (2011)
    40.3 (2011)
    40.3 (2011)
    revenues: $3.844 billion
    expenditures: $4.662 billion (2014 est.)
    24.2% of GDP (2014 est.)
    -5.2% of GDP (2014 est.)
    47.5% of GDP (2014 est.)
    43.6% of GDP (2013 est.)
    calendar year
    -1.1% (2014 est.)
    0.7% (2013 est.)
    0.25% (31 December 2010)
    4.25% (31 December 2009)
    13.3% (31 December 2014 est.)
    14% (31 December 2013 est.)
    $4.086 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $4.177 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    $6.443 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $6.574 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    $5.549 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $5.394 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    $-1.474 billion (2014 est.)
    $-1.598 billion (2013 est.)
    $2.462 billion (2014 est.)
    $2.563 billion (2013 est.)
    fish, groundnuts (peanuts), petroleum products, phosphates, cotton
    Mali 14.9%, Switzerland 9.6%, India 7.9%, Guinea 4.5%, France 4.4% (2013)
    $5.481 billion (2014 est.)
    $5.698 billion (2013 est.)
    food and beverages, capital goods, fuels
    France 17.7%, Nigeria 11.7%, China 8.2%, Netherlands 5.8%, India 5.5%, Spain 4.5% (2013)
    $1.95 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $2.253 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    $5.747 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $4.91 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar -
    494.4 (2014 est.)
    494 (2013 est.)
    510.53 (2012 est.)
    471.33 (2011 est.)
    495.28 (2010)
  • Energy :: SENEGAL

  • 3.148 billion kWh (2012 est.)
    2.586 billion kWh (2012 est.)
    0 kWh (2013 est.)
    0 kWh (2013 est.)
    623,000 kW (2011 est.)
    99.7% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    0% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    0% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    0.3% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    15,500 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    0 bbl (1 January 2014 est.)
    35,800 bbl/day (2011 est.)
    43,720 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    562 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    23,760 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    20.48 million cu m (2012 est.)
    20.48 million cu m (2012 est.)
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    7.139 million Mt (2012 est.)
  • Communications :: SENEGAL

  • 338,200 (2012)
    11.47 million (2012)
    general assessment: good system with microwave radio relay, coaxial cable and fiber-optic cable in trunk system
    domestic: above-average urban system with a fiber-optic network; nearly two-thirds of all fixed-line connections are in Dakar where a call-center industry is emerging; expansion of fixed-line services in rural areas needed; mobile-cellular service is expanding rapidly
    international: country code - 221; the SAT-3/WASC fiber-optic cable provides connectivity to Europe and Asia while Atlantis-2 provides connectivity to South America; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2010)
    state-run Radiodiffusion Television Senegalaise (RTS) operates 2 TV stations; a few private TV subscription channels rebroadcast foreign channels without providing any local news or programs; RTS operates a national radio network and a number of regional FM stations; many community and private-broadcast radio stations are available; transmissions of at least 2 international broadcasters are accessible on FM in Dakar (2007)
    AM 8, FM 20, shortwave 1 (2001)
    7 (2008)
    237 (2012)
    1.818 million (2009)
  • Transportation :: SENEGAL

  • 20 (2013)
    total: 9
    over 3,047 m: 2
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
    914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)
    total: 11
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
    914 to 1,523 m: 3
    under 914 m:
    1 (2013)
    gas 43 km; refined products 8 km (2013)
    total: 906 km
    narrow gauge: 906 km 1.000-m gauge (2008)
    total: 14,008 km
    paved: 4,099 km (includes 7 km of expressways)
    unpaved: 9,909 km (2003)
    1,000 km (primarily on the Senegal, Saloum, and Casamance rivers) (2012)
    total: 1
    by type: passenger/cargo 1 (2010)
    major seaport(s): Dakar
  • Military :: SENEGAL

  • Senegalese Armed Forces: Army, Senegalese National Navy (Marine Senegalaise, MNS), Senegalese Air Force (Armee de l'Air du Senegal) (2013)
    18 years of age for voluntary military service; 20 years of age for selective conscript service; service obligation is 2 years; women have been accepted into military service since 2008 (2013)
    males age 16-49: 2,699,196
    females age 16-49: 3,018,565 (2010 est.)
    males age 16-49: 1,788,493
    females age 16-49: 2,133,370 (2010 est.)
    male: 145,509
    female: 145,064 (2010 est.)
  • Transnational Issues :: SENEGAL

  • The Gambia and Guinea-Bissau attempt to stem separatist violence, cross border raids, and arms smuggling into their countries from southern Senegal's Casamance region
    refugees (country of origin): 13,699 (Mauritania) (2014)
    IDPs: up to 24,000 (clashes between government troops and separatists in Casamance region) (2014)
    transshipment point for Southwest and Southeast Asian heroin and South American cocaine moving to Europe and North America; illicit cultivator of cannabis