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Africa :: Senegal
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Senegal
  • Introduction :: SENEGAL

  • The French colonies of Senegal and French Sudan were merged in 1959 and granted independence in 1960 as the Mali Federation. The union broke up after only a few months. Senegal joined with The Gambia to form the nominal confederation of Senegambia in 1982. The envisaged integration of the two countries was never implemented, and the union was dissolved in 1989. The Movement of Democratic Forces in the Casamance has led a low-level separatist insurgency in southern Senegal since the 1980s, and several peace deals have failed to resolve the conflict. Nevertheless, Senegal remains one of the most stable democracies in Africa and has a long history of participating in international peacekeeping and regional mediation. Senegal was ruled by a Socialist Party for 40 years until Abdoulaye WADE was elected president in 2000. He was reelected in 2007 and during his two terms amended Senegal's constitution over a dozen times to increase executive power and weaken the opposition. His decision to run for a third presidential term sparked a large public backlash that led to his defeat in a March 2012 runoff with Macky SALL, whose term runs until 2019. A 2016 constitutional referendum reduced the term to five years with a maximum of two consecutive terms for future presidents.
  • Geography :: SENEGAL

  • Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Guinea-Bissau and Mauritania
    14 00 N, 14 00 W
    Africa
    total: 196,722 sq km
    land: 192,530 sq km
    water: 4,192 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 88
    slightly smaller than South Dakota
    total: 2,684 km
    border countries (5): The Gambia 749 km, Guinea 363 km, Guinea-Bissau 341 km, Mali 489 km, Mauritania 742 km
    531 km
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    contiguous zone: 24 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
    tropical; hot, humid; rainy season (May to November) has strong southeast winds; dry season (December to April) dominated by hot, dry, harmattan wind
    generally low, rolling, plains rising to foothills in southeast
    mean elevation: 69 m
    elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
    highest point: unnamed elevation southwest of Kedougou 581 m
    fish, phosphates, iron ore
    agricultural land: 46.8%
    arable land 17.4%; permanent crops 0.3%; permanent pasture 29.1%
    forest: 43.8%
    other: 9.4% (2011 est.)
    1,200 sq km (2012)
    38.8 cu km (2011)
    total: 2.22 cu km/yr (4%/3%/93%)
    per capita: 221.6 cu m/yr (2002)
    lowlands seasonally flooded; periodic droughts
    wildlife populations threatened by poaching; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; overfishing
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    westernmost country on the African continent; The Gambia is almost an enclave within Senegal
  • People and Society :: SENEGAL

  • noun: Senegalese (singular and plural)
    adjective: Senegalese
    Wolof 38.7%, Pular 26.5%, Serer 15%, Mandinka 4.2%, Jola 4%, Soninke 2.3%, other 9.3% (includes Europeans and persons of Lebanese descent) (2010-11 est.)
    French (official), Wolof, Pulaar, Jola, Mandinka
    Muslim 95.4% (most adhere to one of the four main Sufi brotherhoods), Christian 4.2% (mostly Roman Catholic), animist 0.4% (2010-11 est.)
    13,975,834 (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 73
    0-14 years: 42.16% (male 2,960,395/female 2,931,298)
    15-24 years: 20.4% (male 1,420,180/female 1,431,571)
    25-54 years: 30.67% (male 1,960,745/female 2,325,620)
    55-64 years: 3.84% (male 233,892/female 303,394)
    65 years and over: 2.92% (male 184,196/female 224,543) (2015 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 87.6%
    youth dependency ratio: 82.1%
    elderly dependency ratio: 5.5%
    potential support ratio: 18.2% (2015 est.)
    total: 18.5 years
    male: 17.7 years
    female: 19.4 years (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 207
    2.45% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 29
    34.52 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 24
    8.46 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 78
    -1.59 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 159
    urban population: 43.7% of total population (2015)
    rate of urbanization: 3.59% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    DAKAR (capital) 3.52 million (2015)
    at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 0.84 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.77 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2015 est.)
    21.4
    note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2010/11 est.)
    315 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 28
    total: 51.54 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 57.62 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 45.29 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 34
    total population: 61.32 years
    male: 59.29 years
    female: 63.42 years (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 195
    4.44 children born/woman (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 30
    17.8% (2012/13)
    4.2% of GDP (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 141
    0.06 physicians/1,000 population (2008)
    0.3 beds/1,000 population (2008)
    improved:
    urban: 92.9% of population
    rural: 67.3% of population
    total: 78.5% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 7.1% of population
    rural: 32.7% of population
    total: 21.5% of population (2015 est.)
    improved:
    urban: 65.4% of population
    rural: 33.8% of population
    total: 47.6% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 34.6% of population
    rural: 66.2% of population
    total: 52.4% of population (2015 est.)
    0.53% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 66
    44,000 (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 58
    2,400 (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 52
    degree of risk: very high
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
    vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, malaria, and yellow fever
    water contact disease: schistosomiasis
    respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
    animal contact disease: rabies (2013)
    8.3% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 145
    16.8% (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 40
    5.6% of GDP (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 53
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 57.7%
    male: 69.7%
    female: 46.6% (2015 est.)
    total: 8 years
    male: 8 years
    female: 8 years (2010)
    total number: 657,216
    percentage: 22% (2005 est.)
    total: 12.7%
    male: 8.3%
    female: 19% (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 77
  • Government :: SENEGAL

  • conventional long form: Republic of Senegal
    conventional short form: Senegal
    local long form: Republique du Senegal
    local short form: Senegal
    former: Senegambia (along with The Gambia), Mali Federation
    etymology: named for the Senegal River that forms the northern border of the country; many theories exist for the origin of the river name; perhaps the most widely cited derives the name from "Azenegue," the Portuguese appellation for the Berber Zenaga people who lived north of the river
    presidential republic
    name: Dakar
    geographic coordinates: 14 44 N, 17 38 W
    time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    14 regions (regions, singular - region); Dakar, Diourbel, Fatick, Kaffrine, Kaolack, Kedougou, Kolda, Louga, Matam, Saint-Louis, Sedhiou, Tambacounda, Thies, Ziguinchor
    4 April 1960 (from France); note - complete independence achieved upon dissolution of federation with Mali on 20 August 1960
    Independence Day, 4 April (1960)
    previous 1959 (preindependence), 1963; latest adopted by referendum 7 January 2001, promulgated 22 January 2001; amended many times, last in 2016 (2016)
    civil law system based on French law; judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Court
    accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Senegal
    dual citizenship recognized: no, but Senegalese citizens do not automatically lose their citizenship if they acquire citizenship in another state
    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: President Macky SALL (since 2 April 2012)
    head of government: Prime Minister Mohammed Abdallah Boun DIONNE (since 4 July 2014)
    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister in consultation with the president
    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second consecutive term); election last held on 26 February 2012 with a runoff on 25 March 2012 (next to be held in 2019); prime minister appointed by the president
    election results: Macky SALL elected president; percent of vote in runoff - Macky SALL ( Alliance for the Republic-Yakaar ) 65.8%, Abdoulaye WADE (PDS) 34.2%
    description: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (150 seats; 90 members directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 60 directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)
    elections: National Assembly - last held on 1 July 2012 (next to be held in 2017)
    election results: National Assembly results - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Benno Bokk Yakaar coalition 119, PDS 12, Bokk Gis Gis coalition 4, MCRN-Bes Du Nakk 4, PVD 2, MRSD 2, URD 1, AJ/PADS 1, other 5
    highest court(s): Court of Final Appeals or Cour de Cassation (consists of NA judges); Constitutional Council (consists of 7 members to include the court president, vice-president, and 5 judges)
    judge selection and term of office: Court of Final Appeals judges appointed by the president upon recommendation of the Higher Council of the Judiciary, a body chaired by the president of the republic; judge tenure NA; Constitutional Council members - 5 appointed by the president of the republic and 2 chosen by the president of the National Assembly to serve 6-year terms with renewal of 3 members every 2 years
    subordinate courts: High Court of Justice (for crime of high treason by president); Supreme Court (for abuses by government executives and local officials); Court of Auditors; Courts of Appeal; Assize Courts (4); Regional and District Courts, Labor Court
    Alliance for the Republic-Yakaar or APR-Yakaar [Macky SALL]
    Alliance of Forces of Progress or AFP [Moustapha NIASSE]
    And-Jef/African Party for Democracy and Socialism or AJ/PADS [Mamadou DIOP]
    And-Jef/African Party for Democracy and Socialism or AJ/PADS-A [Landing SAVANE]
    Bokk Gis Gis coalition [Pape DIOP]
    Citizen Movement for National Reform or MCRN-Bes Du Nakk
    Democratic League-Labor Party Movement or LD-MPT [Mamadou NDOYE]
    Front for Socialism and Democracy/Benno Jubel or FSD/BJ [Cheikh Abdoulaye Bamba DIEYE]
    Gainde Centrist Bloc or BGC [Jean-Paul DIAS]
    Grand Party or GP [Malick GACKOU]
    Independence and Labor Party or PIT [Magatte THIAM]
    Jef-Jel [Talla SYLLA]
    National Democratic Rally or RND [Madior DIOUF]
    Party for Truth and Development or PVD [Cheikh Ahmadou Kara MBAKE]
    People's Labor Party or PTP [El Hadji DIOUF]
    Reform Party or PR [Abdourahim AGNE]
    Republican Movement for Socialism and Democracy or MRSD
    Rewmi Party [Idrissa SECK]
    Senegalese Democratic Party or PDS [Abdoulaye WADE]
    Socialist Party or PS [Ousmane Tanor DIENG]
    Union for Democratic Renewal or URD [Djibo Leyti KA]
    other: Catholic clergy; labor; religious groups; students; Sufi brotherhoods, including the Mourides and Tidjanes; teachers
    ACP, AfDB, AU, CD, CPLP (associate), ECOWAS, EITI (candidate country), FAO, FZ, G-15, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    chief of mission: Ambassador Babacar DIAGNE (since 18 November 2014)
    embassy: 2215 M Street, NW, Washington, DC 20007
    telephone: [1] (202) 234-0540
    FAX: [1] (202) 629-2961
    consulate(s) general: Houston, New York
    chief of mission: Ambassador James P. ZUMWALT (since 9 January 2015); note - also accredited to Guinea-Bissau
    embassy: Route des Almadies, Dakar
    mailing address: B. P. 49, Dakar
    telephone: [221] 33-879-4000
    FAX: [221] 33-822-2991
    three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), yellow, and red with a small green five-pointed star centered in the yellow band; green represents Islam, progress, and hope; yellow signifies natural wealth and progress; red symbolizes sacrifice and determination; the star denotes unity and hope
    note: uses the popular Pan-African colors of Ethiopia; the colors from left to right are the same as those of neighboring Mali and the reverse of those on the flag of neighboring Guinea
    lion; national colors: green, yellow, red
    name: "Pincez Tous vos Koras, Frappez les Balafons" (Pluck Your Koras, Strike the Balafons)
    lyrics/music: Leopold Sedar SENGHOR/Herbert PEPPER
    note: adopted 1960; lyrics written by Leopold Sedar SENGHOR, Senegal's first president; the anthem sometimes played incorporating the Koras (harp-like stringed instruments) and Balafons (types of xylophones) mentioned in the title
  • Economy :: SENEGAL

  • Senegal’s economy is driven by mining, construction, tourism, fisheries and agriculture which is the primary source of employment in rural areas. The country's key export industries include phosphate mining, fertilizer production, agricultural products and commercial fishing and it is also working on oil exploration projects. Senegal relies heavily on donor assistance, remittances and foreign direct investment.
    President Macky SALL, who was elected in March 2012 under a reformist policy agenda, inherited an economy with high energy costs, a challenging business environment, and a culture of overspending. President SALL unveiled an ambitious economic plan, the Emerging Senegal Plan, which aims to implement priority economic reforms and investment projects to increase economic growth while preserving macroeconomic stability and debt sustainability. Bureaucratic bottlenecks and a challenging business climate are among the perennial challenges that may slow the implementation of this plan.
    Senegal is receiving technical support from the IMF from 2015-2017 under a Policy Support Instrument to assist with implementation of the Emerging Senegal Plan. Investors have signaled confidence in the country through Senegal’s successful Eurobond issuances in recent years, including in 2014.
    $36.3 billion (2015 est.)
    $34.54 billion (2014 est.)
    $32.98 billion (2013 est.)
    note: data are in 2015 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 118
    $13.99 billion (2015 est.)
    5.1% (2015 est.)
    4.7% (2014 est.)
    3.6% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 40
    $2,500 (2015 est.)
    $2,400 (2014 est.)
    $2,300 (2013 est.)
    note: data are in 2015 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 197
    20.8% of GDP (2015 est.)
    19.1% of GDP (2014 est.)
    17.5% of GDP (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 82
    household consumption: 76.5%
    government consumption: 15.2%
    investment in fixed capital: 25.7%
    investment in inventories: 0.9%
    exports of goods and services: 27%
    imports of goods and services: -45.3% (2015 est.)
    agriculture: 17.1%
    industry: 24.3%
    services: 58.6% (2015 est.)
    peanuts, millet, corn, sorghum, rice, cotton, tomatoes, green vegetables; cattle, poultry, pigs; fish
    agricultural and fish processing, phosphate mining, fertilizer production, petroleum refining, zircon, and gold mining, construction materials, ship construction and repair
    5.8% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 24
    6.515 million (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 67
    agriculture: 77.5%
    industry and services: 22.5% (2007 est.)
    48% (2007 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 200
    46.7% (2011 est.)
    lowest 10%: 2.5%
    highest 10%: 31.1% (2011)
    40.3 (2011)
    40.3 (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 61
    revenues: $3.394 billion
    expenditures: $4.031 billion (2015 est.)
    24.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 126
    -4.6% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 161
    55.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
    53.4% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 69
    calendar year
    -0.4% (2015 est.)
    -1.1% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 23
    0.25% (31 December 2010)
    4.25% (31 December 2009)
    country comparison to the world: 135
    14.3% (31 December 2015 est.)
    14.5% (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 46
    $4.067 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $3.931 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 105
    $6.351 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $6.446 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 122
    $5.315 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $4.882 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 121
    $NA
    -$849 million (2015 est.)
    -$1.377 billion (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 113
    $2.307 billion (2015 est.)
    $2.678 billion (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 134
    fish, groundnuts (peanuts), petroleum products, phosphates, cotton
    Mali 16%, Switzerland 10.5%, UAE 5.2%, France 4.6% (2014)
    $4.668 billion (2015 est.)
    $5.696 billion (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 127
    food and beverages, capital goods, fuels
    France 18.4%, Nigeria 8.7%, China 7.7%, Netherlands 6.3%, India 5.8%, Turkey 4.6%, Belgium 4.3% (2014)
    $2.099 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $2.038 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 118
    $6.536 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $5.223 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 124
    Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar -
    580.5 (2015 est.)
    494.42 (2014 est.)
    494.42 (2013 est.)
    510.53 (2012 est.)
    471.87 (2011 est.)
  • Energy :: SENEGAL

  • 3.148 billion kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 131
    2.586 billion kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 140
    0 kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 193
    0 kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 199
    623,000 kW (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 134
    99.7% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 44
    0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 178
    0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 200
    0.3% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 105
    0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 188
    0 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 186
    15,560 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 71
    0 bbl (1 January 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 187
    16,190 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 97
    38,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 108
    2,070 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 106
    23,820 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 104
    46 million cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 84
    46 million cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 110
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 177
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 131
    0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 191
    7.139 million Mt (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 115
  • Communications :: SENEGAL

  • total subscriptions: 310,000
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 2 (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 115
    total: 14.4 million
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 105 (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 67
    general assessment: good system with microwave radio relay, coaxial cable and fiber-optic cable in trunk system
    domestic: above-average urban system with a fiber-optic network; nearly two-thirds of all fixed-line connections are in Dakar where a call-center industry is emerging; expansion of fixed-line services in rural areas needed; mobile-cellular service is expanding rapidly
    international: country code - 221; the SAT-3/WASC fiber-optic cable provides connectivity to Europe and Asia while Atlantis-2 provides connectivity to South America; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2010)
    state-run Radiodiffusion Television Senegalaise (RTS) operates 2 TV stations; a few private TV subscription channels rebroadcast foreign channels without providing any local news or programs; RTS operates a national radio network and a number of regional FM stations; many community and private-broadcast radio stations are available; transmissions of at least 2 international broadcasters are accessible on FM in Dakar (2007)
    AM 8, FM 20, shortwave 1 (2001)
    7 (2008)
    .sn
    237 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 197
    total: 3 million
    percent of population: 22.0% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 84
  • Transportation :: SENEGAL

  • 20 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 136
    total: 9
    over 3,047 m: 2
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
    914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)
    total: 11
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
    914 to 1,523 m: 3
    under 914 m: 1 (2013)
    gas 43 km; refined products 8 km (2013)
    total: 906 km
    narrow gauge: 906 km 1.000-m gauge (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 91
    total: 15,000 km
    paved: 5,300 km (includes 7 km of expressways)
    unpaved: 9,700 km (2015)
    country comparison to the world: 125
    1,000 km (primarily on the Senegal, Saloum, and Casamance Rivers) (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 64
    total: 1
    by type: passenger/cargo 1 (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 154
    major seaport(s): Dakar
  • Military and Security :: SENEGAL

  • Senegalese Armed Forces: Army, Senegalese National Navy (Marine Senegalaise, MNS), Senegalese Air Force (Armee de l'Air du Senegal) (2013)
    18 years of age for voluntary military service; 20 years of age for selective conscript service; 2-year service obligation; women have been accepted into military service since 2008 (2013)
  • Transnational Issues :: SENEGAL

  • The Gambia and Guinea-Bissau attempt to stem separatist violence, cross border raids, and arms smuggling into their countries from southern Senegal's Casamance region
    refugees (country of origin): 13,699 (Mauritania) (2014)
    IDPs: up to 24,000 (clashes between government troops and separatists in Casamance region) (2014)
    transshipment point for Southwest and Southeast Asian heroin and South American cocaine moving to Europe and North America; illicit cultivator of cannabis
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