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Europe :: San Marino
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San Marino
  • Introduction :: SAN MARINO

  • Geographically the third smallest state in Europe (after the Holy See and Monaco), San Marino also claims to be the world's oldest republic. According to tradition, it was founded by a Christian stonemason named MARINUS in A.D. 301. San Marino's foreign policy is aligned with that of the European Union, although it is not a member; social and political trends in the republic track closely with those of its larger neighbor, Italy.
  • Geography :: SAN MARINO

  • Southern Europe, an enclave in central Italy
    43 46 N, 12 25 E
    total: 61 sq km
    land: 61 sq km
    water: 0 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 229
    about one-third the size of Washington, DC
    total: 37 km
    border countries (1): Italy 37 km
    0 km (landlocked)
    none (landlocked)
    Mediterranean; mild to cool winters; warm, sunny summers
    rugged mountains
    lowest point: Torrente Ausa 55 m
    highest point: Monte Titano 755 m
    building stone
    agricultural land: 16.7%
    arable land 16.7%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 0%
    forest: 0%
    other: 83.3% (2011 est.)
    air pollution; urbanization decreasing rural farmlands
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Whaling
    signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution
    landlocked; smallest independent state in Europe after the Holy See and Monaco; dominated by the Apennine Mountains
  • People and Society :: SAN MARINO

  • noun: Sammarinese (singular and plural)
    adjective: Sammarinese
    Sammarinese, Italian
    Roman Catholic
    33,020 (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 215
    0-14 years: 15.69% (male 2,756/female 2,424)
    15-24 years: 11.15% (male 1,890/female 1,792)
    25-54 years: 41.88% (male 6,518/female 7,310)
    55-64 years: 12.19% (male 2,009/female 2,015)
    65 years and over: 19.1% (male 2,822/female 3,484) (2015 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total: 43.9 years
    male: 42.9 years
    female: 44.7 years (2015 est.)
    0.82% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 134
    8.63 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 215
    8.45 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 79
    8.03 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 14
    urban population: 94.2% of total population (2015)
    rate of urbanization: 0.62% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    SAN MARINO 4,000 (2014)
    at birth: 1.1 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.14 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 0.89 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2015 est.)
    total: 4.45 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 4.65 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 4.24 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 183
    total population: 83.24 years
    male: 80.69 years
    female: 86.01 years (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 5
    1.49 children born/woman (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 198
    6.5% of GDP (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 94
    5.1 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
    3.8 beds/1,000 population (2012)
    total: 15 years
    male: 15 years
    female: 16 years (2011)
  • Government :: SAN MARINO

  • conventional long form: Republic of San Marino
    conventional short form: San Marino
    local long form: Repubblica di San Marino
    local short form: San Marino
    name: San Marino
    geographic coordinates: 43 56 N, 12 25 E
    time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
    9 municipalities (castelli, singular - castello); Acquaviva, Borgo Maggiore, Chiesanuova, Domagnano, Faetano, Fiorentino, Montegiardino, San Marino Citta, Serravalle
    3 September 301
    Founding of the Republic, 3 September (A.D. 301)
    consists of several legislative instruments, chief among them the Statutes (Leges Statuti) of 1600 and the Declaration of Citizen Rights of 1974; latter document amended 2000, 2002 (2013)
    civil law system with Italian civil law influences
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: co-chiefs of state Captain Regent Andrea BELLUZZI and Captain Regent Roberto VENTURINI (for the period 1 April 2015 - 1 October 2015)
    head of government: Secretary of State for Foreign and Political Affairs Pasquale VALENTINI (since 5 December 2012)
    cabinet: Congress of State elected by the Great and General Council
    elections/appointments: co-chiefs of state (captains regent) indirectly elected by the Grand and General Council for a single 6-month term; election last held in March 2015 (next to be held in September 2015); secretary of state for foreign and political affairs indirectly elected by the Grand and General Council for a single 5-year term; election last held on 11 November 2012 (next to be held by November 2017)
    election results: Andrea BELLUZZI (PSD) and Roberto VENTURINI (AP) elected captains regent; percent of Grand and General Council vote - NA; Pasquale VALENTINI (PDCS) elected secretary of state for foreign and political affairs; percent of Grand and General Council vote - NA
    note: the directly elected parliament (Grand and General Council) selects 2 of its members to serve as the captains regent (co-chiefs of state) for a 6-month period; they preside over meetings of the Grand and General Council and its cabinet (Congress of State), which has 9 other members, all are selected by the Grand and General Council; assisting the captains regent are 9 secretaries of state; the secretary of state for Foreign Affairs has some prime ministerial roles
    description: unicameral Grand and General Council or Consiglio Grande e Generale (60 seats; members directly elected by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)
    elections: last held on 11 November 2012 (next to be held by November 2017)
    election results: percent of vote by party - San Marino Common Good coalition (San Marino Bene Comune) 50.7% (including PDCS 29.5%, PSD 14.3%, AP 6.7%), Entente for the Country coalition (Intesa per Il Paese) 22.3% (including PS 12.1%, UPR 8.4%, USDM 1.7%), Active Citizenry coalition (Cittadinanza Attiva) 16.1% (including SU 9.1%, Civic 10 6.7%), Civic Movement R.E.T.E. 6.3%, For San Marino 2.8%, San Marino 3.0 1.8%; seats by party - San Marino Common Good coalition 35 (PDCS 21, PSD 10, AP 4), Entente for the Country coalition 12 (PS 7, UPR 5), Active Citizenry 9 (SU 5, Civic 10 4), Civic Movement R.E.T.E. 4
    highest court(s): Council of Twelve or Consiglio dei XII (consists of 12 members); note - the College of Guarantors for the Constitutionality and General Norms functions as San Marino's constitutional court
    judge selection and term of office: judges elected by the Grand and General Council from among its own to serve 5-year terms
    subordinate courts: first instance and first appeal criminal, administrative, and civil courts; justices of the peace or conciliatory judges
    San Marino Common Good (includes Christian Democrats or PDCS [Teodoro LONFERNINI], Party of Socialists and Democrats or PSD [Denise BRONZETTI], Popular Alliance or AP [Mario VENTURINI])
    Entente for the Country (includes Sammarinese Union of Moderates or USDM [Romeo MORRI and Glauco SANSOVINI], New Socialist Party or NPS [Augusto CASALI], Union for the Republic or UPR [Gian Marco MARCUCCI])
    Active Citizenship (includes Civic 10 [Mateo CIACCI], United Left or SU [Gastone PASOLINI])
    other: Civic Movement R.E.T.E. (Network) [Gloria ARCANGELONI]
    For San Marino [Emilio DELLA BALDA]
    San Marino 3.0 [Simone DELLA VALLE]
    CE, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAIA (observer), OPCW, OSCE, Schengen Convention (de facto member), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WHO, WIPO
    chief of mission: Ambassador Paolo RONDELLI (since 16 July 2007)
    chancery: 1711 N Street NW, 2nd floor, Washington, DC 20036
    telephone: 202-250-1535
    FAX: 202-223-2748
    the US does not have an embassy in San Marino; the ambassador to Italy is accredited to San Marino
    two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and light blue with the national coat of arms superimposed in the center; the main colors derive from the shield of the coat of arms, which features three white towers on three peaks on a blue field; the towers represent three castles built on San Marino's highest feature, Mount Titano: Guaita, Cesta, and Montale; the coat of arms is flanked by a wreath, below a crown and above a scroll bearing the word LIBERTAS (Liberty); the white and blue colors are also said to stand for peace and liberty respectively
    three peaks each displaying a tower; national colors: white, blue
    name: "Inno Nazionale della Repubblica" (National Anthem of the Republic)
    lyrics/music: no lyrics/Federico CONSOLO
    note: adopted 1894; the music for the lyric-less anthem is based on a 10th century chorale piece
  • Economy :: SAN MARINO

  • San Marino's economy relies heavily on tourism, the banking industry and the manufacture and export of ceramics, clothing, fabrics, furniture, paints, spirits, tiles, and wine. The manufacturing and financial sectors account for more than half of San Marino's GDP. The per capita level of output and standard of living are comparable to those of the most prosperous regions of Italy. The economy benefits from foreign investment due to its relatively low corporate taxes and low taxes on interest earnings. The income tax rate is also very low, about one-third the average EU level. San Marino does not issue public debt securities; when necessary, it finances deficits by drawing down central bank deposits. San Marino's economy has been contracting since 2008, largely due to weakened demand from Italy - which accounts for nearly 90% of its export market - and financial sector consolidation. Difficulties in the banking sector, the recent global economic downturn, and the sizable decline in tax revenues have contributed to negative real GDP growth. The government has adopted measures to counter the economic downturn, including subsidized credit to businesses and is seeking to shift its growth model away from a reliance on bank and tax secrecy. San Marino continues to work towards harmonizing its fiscal laws with EU and international standards. In September 2009, the OECD removed San Marino from its list of tax havens that have yet to fully adopt global tax standards, and in 2010 San Marino signed Tax Information Exchange Agreements with most major countries. In 2013 San Marino's Government signed a Double Taxation Agreement with Italy, but a referendum on EU membership failed to reach the quorum needed to bring it to a vote.
    $1.907 billion (2014 est.)
    $1.926 billion (2013 est.)
    $2.017 billion (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2014 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 193
    $1.786 billion (2014 est.)
    -1% (2014 est.)
    -4.5% (2013 est.)
    -7.5% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 201
    $60,700 (2014 est.)
    $61,300 (2013 est.)
    $64,200 (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 18
    exports of goods and services: 176.6%
    imports of goods and services: -153.3% (2011)
    agriculture: 0.1%
    industry: 39.2%
    services: 60.7% (2009)
    wheat, grapes, corn, olives; cattle, pigs, horses, beef, cheese, hides
    tourism, banking, textiles, electronics, ceramics, cement, wine
    -1.1% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 179
    21,960 (September 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 210
    agriculture: 0.2%
    industry: 33.5%
    services: 66.3% (September 2013 est.)
    8.7% (2014 est.)
    5.5% (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 74
    lowest 10%: NA%
    highest 10%: NA%
    revenues: $667.7 million
    expenditures: $719.5 million (2011 est.)
    35.9% of GDP (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 57
    -2.9% of GDP (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 111
    25.8% of GDP (2013 est.)
    20.3% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 132
    calendar year
    1.1% (2014 est.)
    2% (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 65
    5.92% (31 December 2011 est.)
    5.38% (31 December 2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 138
    $1.326 billion (31 December 2007)
    $4.584 billion (31 December 2007)
    $8.822 billion (30 September 2010)
    $8.008 billion (31 December 2009)
    country comparison to the world: 107
    $3.827 billion (2011 est.)
    $2.576 billion (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 124
    building stone, lime, wood, chestnuts, wheat, wine, baked goods, hides, ceramics
    Italy 82.3% (2012 est.)
    $2.551 billion (2011 est.)
    $2.132 billion (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 155
    wide variety of consumer manufactures, food, energy
    Italy 81.8% (2012 est.)
    $308.6 million (2012 est.)
    $341.9 million (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 158
    euros (EUR) per US dollar -
    0.7489 (2014 est.)
    0.7634 (2013 est.)
    0.78 2012 est.)
    0.7185 (2011 est.)
    0.755 (2010 est.)
  • Communications :: SAN MARINO

  • total subscriptions: 18,600
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 57 (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 186
    total: 37,600
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 115 (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 206
    general assessment: automatic telephone system completely integrated into Italian system
    domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity 170 telephones per 100 persons
    international: country code - 378; connected to Italian international network (2011)
    state-owned public broadcaster operates 1 TV station and 3 radio stations; receives radio and TV broadcasts from Italy (2012)
    AM 0, FM 2, shortwave 0 (2008)
    1 (San Marino residents also receive broadcasts from Italy) (1997)
    total: 17,200
    percent of population: 52.6% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 202
  • Transportation :: SAN MARINO

  • total: 292 km
    paved: 292 km (2006)
    country comparison to the world: 206
  • Military :: SAN MARINO

  • no regular military forces; voluntary Military Corps (Corpi Militari) performs ceremonial duties and limited police support functions (2010)
    18 is the legal minimum age for voluntary military service; no conscription; government has the authority to call up all San Marino citizens from 16-60 years of age to service in the military (2012)
    males age 16-49: 6,892 (2010 est.)
    males age 16-49: 5,565
    females age 16-49: 6,067 (2010 est.)
    male: 186
    female: 166 (2010 est.)
    defense is the responsibility of Italy
  • Transnational Issues :: SAN MARINO

  • none