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East & Southeast Asia :: Singapore
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Singapore
  • Introduction :: SINGAPORE

  • Singapore was founded as a British trading colony in 1819. It joined the Malaysian Federation in 1963 but was ousted two years later and became independent. Singapore subsequently became one of the world's most prosperous countries with strong international trading links (its port is one of the world's busiest in terms of tonnage handled) and with per capita GDP equal to that of the leading nations of Western Europe.
  • Geography :: SINGAPORE

  • Southeastern Asia, islands between Malaysia and Indonesia
    1 22 N, 103 48 E
    Southeast Asia
    total: 697 sq km
    land: 687 sq km
    water: 10 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 192
    slightly more than 3.5 times the size of Washington, DC
    0 km
    193 km
    territorial sea: 3 nm
    exclusive fishing zone: within and beyond territorial sea, as defined in treaties and practice
    tropical; hot, humid, rainy; two distinct monsoon seasons - northeastern monsoon (December to March) and southwestern monsoon (June to September); inter-monsoon - frequent afternoon and early evening thunderstorms
    lowlying, gently undulating central plateau
    lowest point: Singapore Strait 0 m
    highest point: Bukit Timah 166 m
    fish, deepwater ports
    agricultural land: 1%
    arable land 0.9%; permanent crops 0.1%; permanent pasture 0%
    forest: 3.3%
    other: 95.7% (2011 est.)
    NA
    0.6 cu km (2011)
    total: 0.19 cu km/yr (47%/53%/0%)
    per capita: 81.97 cu m/yr (2005)
    NA
    industrial pollution; limited natural freshwater resources; limited land availability presents waste disposal problems; seasonal smoke/haze resulting from forest fires in Indonesia
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    focal point for Southeast Asian sea routes
  • People and Society :: SINGAPORE

  • noun: Singaporean(s)
    adjective: Singapore
    Chinese 74.2%, Malay 13.3%, Indian 9.2%, other 3.3% (2013 est.)
    Mandarin (official) 36.3%, English (official) 29.8%, Malay (official) 11.9%, Hokkien 8.1%, Tamil (official) 4.4%, Cantonese 4.1%, Teochew 3.2%, other Indian languages 1.2%, other Chinese dialects 1.1%, other 1.1% (2010 est.)
    Buddhist 33.9%, Muslim 14.3%, Taoist 11.3%, Catholic 7.1%, Hindu 5.2%, other Christian 11%, other 0.7%, none 16.4% (2010 est.)
    5,674,472 (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 116
    0-14 years: 13.14% (male 381,404/female 364,424)
    15-24 years: 17.43% (male 486,979/female 502,159)
    25-54 years: 50.39% (male 1,393,686/female 1,465,601)
    55-64 years: 10.16% (male 288,489/female 287,992)
    65 years and over: 8.88% (male 229,117/female 274,621) (2015 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 37.4%
    youth dependency ratio: 21.4%
    elderly dependency ratio: 16.1%
    potential support ratio: 6.2% (2015 est.)
    total: 33.8 years
    male: 33.7 years
    female: 33.9 years (2014 est.)
    1.89% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 57
    8.27 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 221
    3.43 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 217
    14.05 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 8
    urban population: 100% of total population (2015)
    rate of urbanization: 2.02% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    SINGAPORE (capital) 5.619 million (2015)
    at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.83 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2015 est.)
    total: 2.48 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 2.65 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 2.28 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 220
    total population: 84.68 years
    male: 82.06 years
    female: 87.5 years (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 4
    0.81 children born/woman (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 224
    4.6% of GDP (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 146
    1.95 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
    2 beds/1,000 population (2011)
    improved:
    urban: 100% of population
    total: 100% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 0% of population
    total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
    improved:
    urban: 100% of population
    total: 100% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 0% of population
    total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
    NA
    NA
    NA
    6.8% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 142
    2.9% of GDP (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 140
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 96.8%
    male: 98.6%
    female: 95% (2015 est.)
    total: 6.7% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 121
  • Government :: SINGAPORE

  • conventional long form: Republic of Singapore
    conventional short form: Singapore
    local long form: Republic of Singapore
    local short form: Singapore
    parliamentary republic
    name: Singapore
    geographic coordinates: 1 17 N, 103 51 E
    time difference: UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    none
    9 August 1965 (from Malaysian Federation)
    National Day, 9 August (1965)
    several previous; latest adopted 22 December 1965; amended several times, last in 2010 (2013)
    English common law
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
    21 years of age; universal and compulsory
    chief of state: President Tony TAN Keng Yam (since 1 September 2011)
    head of government: Prime Minister LEE Hsien Loong (since 12 August 2004); Deputy Prime Ministers TEO Chee Hean (since 1 April 2009) and Tharman SHANMUGARATNAM (since 21 May 2011)
    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister; Cabinet responsible to Parliament
    elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a single 6-year term; election last held on 27 August 2011 (next to be held by August 2017); following legislative elections, leader of majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by president; deputy prime ministers appointed by the president
    election results: Tony TAN Keng Yam elected president; percent of vote - Tony TAN Keng Yam (independent) 35.2% , TAN Cheng Bock (independent) 34.9%, TAN Jee Say (independent) 25% , TAN Kin Lian (PP) 4.9%
    description: unicameral Parliament (99 seats; 75 members directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies by majority party bloc vote, 12 directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 9 nominated by the president, and 3 appointed from a "national compensatory" list to ensure political diversity; members serve 5-year terms)
    elections: last held on 7 May 2011 (next to be held on 11 September 2015); note - an early election was called amid public concerns over immigration and the rising cost of living
    election results: percent of vote by party - PAP 60.1%, WP 12.8%, NSP 12.1%, other 15%; seats by party - PAP 81, WP 6; seats by party as of February 2013 - PAP 80, WP 7
    highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the president or chief justice and 16 justices and organized into an upper tier Appeal Court and a lower tier High Court)
    judge selection and term of office: all judges appointed by the president from candidates recommended by the prime minister after consultation with the chief justice; justices appointed for life
    subordinate courts: district, magistrates', juvenile, family, community, and coroners' courts; small claims tribunals
    National Solidarity Party or NSP [LIM Tean, acting secretary general]
    People's Action Party or PAP [LEE Hsien Loong]
    Reform Party [Kenneth JEYARETNAM]
    Singapore Democratic Alliance or SDA [Desmond LIM] (includes Singapore Justice Party or SJP [Desmond LIM] and Singapore National Malay Organization/Pertubuhan Kebangsaan Melayu Singapura or PKMS [Abu Bin MOHAMED])
    Singapore Democratic Party or SDP [CHEE Soon Juan]
    Singapore People's Party or SPP [CHIAM See Tong]
    Workers' Party or WP [LOW Thia Khiang]
    none
    ADB, AOSIS, APEC, Arctic Council (observer), ARF, ASEAN, BIS, C, CP, EAS, FAO, FATF, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OPCW, Pacific Alliance (observer), PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    chief of mission: Ambassador Ashok Kumar MIRPURI (since 24 July 2012)
    chancery: 3501 International Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 537-3100
    FAX: [1] (202) 537-0876
    consulate(s) general: San Francisco
    consulate(s): New York
    chief of mission: Ambassador Kirk W. WAGAR (since 25 September 2013)
    embassy: 27 Napier Road, Singapore 258508
    mailing address: FPO AP 96507-0001
    telephone: [65] 6476-9100
    FAX: [65] 6476-9340
    two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; near the hoist side of the red band, there is a vertical, white crescent (closed portion is toward the hoist side) partially enclosing five white five-pointed stars arranged in a circle; red denotes brotherhood and equality; white signifies purity and virtue; the waxing crescent moon symbolizes a young nation on the ascendancy; the five stars represent the nation's ideals of democracy, peace, progress, justice, and equality
    lion, merlion (mythical half lion-half fish creature), orchid; national colors: red, white
    name: "Majulah Singapura" (Onward Singapore)
    lyrics/music: ZUBIR Said
    note: adopted 1965; first performed in 1958 at the Victoria Theatre, the anthem is sung only in Malay
  • Economy :: SINGAPORE

  • Singapore has a highly developed and successful free-market economy. It enjoys a remarkably open and corruption-free environment, stable prices, and a per capita GDP higher than that of most developed countries. Unemployment is very low. The economy depends heavily on exports, particularly of consumer electronics, information technology products, medical and optical devices, pharmaceuticals, and on its vibrant transportation, business, and financial services sectors. The economy contracted 0.6% in 2009 as a result of the global financial crisis, but has continued to grow since 2010 on the strength of renewed exports. Growth in 2014 was slower at 2.9%, largely a result of soft demand for exports amid a sluggish global economy and weak growth in Singapore’s manufacturing sector. The government is attempting to restructure Singapore’s economy by weaning its dependence on foreign labor, addressing weak productivity, and increasing Singaporean wages. Singapore has attracted major investments in pharmaceuticals and medical technology production and will continue efforts to strengthen its position as Southeast Asia's leading financial and high-tech hub. Singapore is a member of the 12-nation Trans-Pacific Partnership free trade negotiations, the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership negotiations with the nine other ASEAN members plus Australia, China, India, Japan, South Korea and New Zealand, and in 2015, Singapore will form, with the other ASEAN members, the ASEAN Economic Community.
    $445.2 billion (2014 est.)
    $432.6 billion (2013 est.)
    $414.4 billion (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2014 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 40
    $308.1 billion (2014 est.)
    2.9% (2014 est.)
    4.4% (2013 est.)
    3.4% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 114
    $82,800 (2014 est.)
    $80,400 (2013 est.)
    $77,000 (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2014 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 7
    46.7% of GDP (2014 est.)
    46.9% of GDP (2013 est.)
    47.2% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 7
    household consumption: 36.8%
    government consumption: 10%
    investment in fixed capital: 25.4%
    investment in inventories: 2.3%
    exports of goods and services: 187.6%
    imports of goods and services: -162.2%
    (2014 est.)
    agriculture: 0%
    industry: 25%
    services: 75% (2014 est.)
    orchids, vegetables; poultry, eggs; fish, ornamental fish
    electronics, chemicals, financial services, oil drilling equipment, petroleum refining, rubber processing and rubber products, processed food and beverages, ship repair, offshore platform construction, life sciences, entrepot trade
    3.7% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 95
    3.623 million
    note: excludes non-residents (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 99
    agriculture: 1.3%
    industry: 14.8%
    services: 83.9%
    note: excludes non-residents (2014)
    2% (2014 est.)
    1.9% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 9
    NA%
    lowest 10%: 2.3%
    highest 10%: 11% (2014)
    46.4 (2014)
    46.3 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 30
    revenues: $47.45 billion
    expenditures: $50.37 billion
    note: expenditures include both operational and development expenditures (2015 est.)
    15.4% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 192
    -0.9% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 29
    103.2% of GDP (2014 est.)
    99.3% of GDP (2013 est.)
    note: Singapore's public debt consists largely of Singapore Government Securities (SGS) issued to assist the Central Provident Fund (CPF), which administers Singapore's defined contribution pension fund; special issues of SGS are held by the CPF, and are non-tradable; the government has not borrowed to finance deficit expenditures since the 1980s; Singapore has no external public debt
    country comparison to the world: 11
    1 April - 31 March
    1% (2014 est.)
    2.4% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 60
    5.35% (31 December 2014 est.)
    5.38% (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 148
    $126.5 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $123.6 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 31
    $413.7 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $405.1 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 23
    $479.8 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $458.9 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 28
    $787.3 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $751.1 billion (31 December 2013)
    $747.8 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 19
    $58.81 billion (2014 est.)
    $54.08 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 8
    $409.5 billion (2014 est.)
    $410.3 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 14
    machinery and equipment (including electronics and telecommunications), pharmaceuticals and other chemicals, refined petroleum products, foodstuffs and beverages
    Malaysia 12.2%, China 11.8%, Hong Kong 11.2%, Indonesia 9.9%, US 5.8%, Japan 4.3%, South Korea 4.1% (2013)
    $366 billion (2014 est.)
    $373 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 15
    machinery and equipment, mineral fuels, chemicals, foodstuffs, consumer goods
    China 11.7%, Malaysia 10.9%, US 10.4%, South Korea 6.4%, Japan 5.5%, Indonesia 5.2%, UAE 4.4% (2013)
    $256.9 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $273.1 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 12
    $0 (2014 est.)
    $0 (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 75
    $900.2 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $837.7 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 10
    $517.8 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $497.9 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 17
    Singapore dollars (SGD) per US dollar -
    1.2671 (2014 est.)
    1.2513 (2013 est.)
    1.25 (2012 est.)
    1.258 (2011 est.)
    1.3635 (2010 est.)
  • Energy :: SINGAPORE

  • 49.31 billion kWh (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 53
    47.18 billion kWh (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 54
    0 kWh (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 197
    0 kWh (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 201
    10.49 million kW (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 55
    95.3% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 59
    0% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 179
    0% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 200
    3.9% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 72
    500 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 105
    0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 183
    1.137 million bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 10
    0 bbl (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 189
    1.357 million bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 15
    1.292 million bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 18
    0 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 130
    1.36 million bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 4
    0 cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 191
    9.38 billion cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 50
    0 cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 180
    9.38 billion cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 25
    0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 194
    208 million Mt (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 29
  • Communications :: SINGAPORE

  • total subscriptions: 1.96 million
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 35 (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 58
    total: 8.7 million
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 157 (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 92
    general assessment: excellent service
    domestic: excellent domestic facilities; launched 3G wireless service in February 2005; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity more than 180 telephones per 100 persons; multiple providers of high-speed Internet connectivity and the government is close to completing an island-wide roll out of a high-speed fiber-optic broadband network
    international: country code - 65; numerous submarine cables provide links throughout Asia, Australia, the Middle East, Europe, and US; satellite earth stations - 4; supplemented by VSAT coverage (2011)
    state controls broadcast media; 8 domestic TV stations operated by MediaCorp which is wholly owned by a state investment company; broadcasts from Malaysian and Indonesian stations available; satellite dishes banned; multi-channel cable TV service available; a total of 18 domestic radio stations broadcasting with MediaCorp operating more than a dozen and another 4 stations are closely linked to the ruling party or controlled by the Singapore Armed Forces Reservists Association; many Malaysian and Indonesian radio stations are available
    AM 0, FM 19, shortwave 1 (2008)
    1 (broadcasting on 8 channels); additional reception of numerous UHF and VHF signals originating in Malaysia and Indonesia (2008)
    .sg
    total: 4.5 million
    percent of population: 80.7% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 73
  • Transportation :: SINGAPORE

  • 9 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 158
    total: 9
    over 3,047 m: 2
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
    914 to 1,523 m: 1
    under 914 m: 1 (2013)
    gas 122 km; refined products 8 km (2013)
    total: 3,425 km
    paved: 3,425 km (includes 161 km of expressways) (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 164
    total: 1,599
    by type: bulk carrier 247, cargo 109, carrier 6, chemical tanker 256, container 339, liquefied gas 131, petroleum tanker 436, refrigerated cargo 13, roll on/roll off 5, vehicle carrier 57
    foreign-owned: 966 (Australia 12, Bangladesh 1, Belgium 1, Bermuda 25, Brazil 9, Chile 6, China 29, Cyprus 6, Denmark 149, France 3, Germany 32, Greece 22, Hong Kong 46, India 21, Indonesia 60, Italy 5, Japan 164, Malaysia 27, Netherlands 1, Norway 153, Russia 2, South Africa 13, South Korea 3, Sweden 11, Switzerland 3, Taiwan 77, Thailand 33, UAE 10, UK 6, US 36)
    registered in other countries: 344 (Australia 2, Bahamas 7, Bangladesh 7, Belize 4, Cambodia 3, Cyprus 1, France 3, Honduras 11, Hong Kong 13, Indonesia 46, Italy 1, Kiribati 9, Liberia 22, Malaysia 13, Maldives 4, Malta 4, Marshall Islands 30, Mongolia 3, North Korea 1, Panama 92, Philippines 1, Saint Kitts and Nevis 10, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 5, Sierra Leone 9, Thailand 1, Tuvalu 19, US 16, Vanuatu 2, unknown 5) (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 6
    major seaport(s): Singapore
    container port(s) (TEUs): Singapore (31,649,400)
    LNG terminal(s) (import): Singapore
    the International Maritime Bureau reports the territorial and offshore waters in the South China Sea as high risk for piracy and armed robbery against ships; numerous commercial vessels have been attacked and hijacked both at anchor and while underway; hijacked vessels are often disguised and cargo diverted to ports in East Asia; crews have been murdered or cast adrift
  • Military :: SINGAPORE

  • Singapore Armed Forces: Army, Navy, Air Force (includes Air Defense) (2013)
    18-21 years of age for male compulsory military service; 16 1/2 years of age for volunteers; 2-year conscript service obligation, with a reserve obligation to age 40 (enlisted) or age 50 (officers) (2012)
    males age 16-49: 1,255,902 (2010 est.)
    males age 16-49: 1,018,839
    females age 16-49: 1,087,134 (2010 est.)
    male: 27,098
    female: 25,368 (2010 est.)
    3.52% of GDP (2012)
    3.47% of GDP (2011)
    3.52% of GDP (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 15
  • Transnational Issues :: SINGAPORE

  • disputes persist with Malaysia over deliveries of fresh water to Singapore, Singapore's extensive land reclamation works, bridge construction, and maritime boundaries in the Johor and Singapore Straits; in 2008, ICJ awarded sovereignty of Pedra Branca (Pulau Batu Puteh/Horsburgh Island) to Singapore, and Middle Rocks to Malaysia, but did not rule on maritime regimes, boundaries, or disposition of South Ledge; Indonesia and Singapore continue to work on finalization of their 1973 maritime boundary agreement by defining unresolved areas north of Indonesia's Batam Island; piracy remains a problem in the Malacca Strait
    drug abuse limited because of aggressive law enforcement efforts, including carrying out death sentences; as a transportation and financial services hub, Singapore is vulnerable, despite strict laws and enforcement, as a venue for money laundering
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