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East Asia/Southeast Asia :: Singapore Print
Page last updated on September 11, 2020
  • Introduction :: Singapore
  • Background field listing
    A Malay trading port known as Temasek existed on the island of Singapore by the 14th century. The settlement changed hands several times in the ensuing centuries and was eventually burned in the 17th century and fell into obscurity. The British founded modern Singapore as a trading colony on the site in 1819. It joined the Malaysian Federation in 1963 but was ousted two years later and became independent. Singapore subsequently became one of the world's most prosperous countries with strong international trading links (its port is one of the world's busiest in terms of tonnage handled) and with per capita GDP equal to that of the leading nations of Western Europe.
  • Geography :: Singapore
  • Location field listing
    Southeastern Asia, islands between Malaysia and Indonesia
    Geographic coordinates field listing
    1 22 N, 103 48 E
    Map references field listing
    Southeast Asia
    Area field listing
    total: 719.2 sq km
    land: 709.2 sq km
    water: 10 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 191
    Area - comparative field listing
    slightly more than 3.5 times the size of Washington, DC
    Area comparison map: Area comparison map
    Land boundaries field listing
    0 km
    Coastline field listing
    193 km
    Maritime claims field listing
    territorial sea: 3 nm
    exclusive fishing zone: within and beyond territorial sea, as defined in treaties and practice
    Climate field listing
    tropical; hot, humid, rainy; two distinct monsoon seasons - northeastern monsoon (December to March) and southwestern monsoon (June to September); inter-monsoon - frequent afternoon and early evening thunderstorms
    Terrain field listing
    lowlying, gently undulating central plateau
    Elevation field listing
    lowest point: Singapore Strait 0 m
    highest point: Bukit Timah 166 m
    Natural resources field listing
    fish, deepwater ports
    Land use field listing
    agricultural land: 1% (2011 est.)
    arable land: 0.9% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 0.1% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 0% (2011 est.)
    forest: 3.3% (2011 est.)
    other: 95.7% (2011 est.)
    Irrigated land field listing
    0 sq km (2012)
    Population distribution field listing
    most of the urbanization is along the southern coast, with relatively dense population clusters found in the central areas
    Natural hazards field listing
    flash floods
    Environment - current issues field listing
    water pollution; industrial pollution; limited natural freshwater resources; limited land availability presents waste disposal problems; air pollution; deforestation; seasonal smoke/haze resulting from forest fires in Indonesia
    Environment - international agreements field listing
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    Geography - note field listing
    focal point for Southeast Asian sea routes; consists of about 60 islands, by far the largest of which is Pulau Ujong; land reclamation has removed many former islands and created a number of new ones
  • People and Society :: Singapore
  • Population field listing
    6,209,660 (July 2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 110
    Nationality field listing
    noun: Singaporean(s)
    adjective: Singapore
    Ethnic groups field listing
    Chinese 74.3%, Malay 13.4%, Indian 9%, other 3.2% (2018 est.)

    note: individuals self-identify; the population is divided into four categories: Chinese, Malay (includes indigenous Malays and Indonesians), Indian (includes Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, or Sri Lankan), and other ethnic groups (includes Eurasians, Caucasians, Japanese, Filipino, Vietnamese)

    Languages field listing
    English (official) 36.9%, Mandarin (official) 34.9%, other Chinese dialects (includes Hokkien, Cantonese, Teochew, Hakka) 12.2%, Malay (official) 10.7%, Tamil (official) 3.3%, other 2% (2015 est.)

    note: data represent language most frequently spoken at home

    Religions field listing
    Buddhist 33.2%, Christian 18.8%, Muslim 14%, Taoist 10%, Hindu 5%, other 0.6%, none 18.5% (2015 est.)
    Age structure field listing
    0-14 years: 12.8% (male 406,983/female 387,665)
    15-24 years: 15.01% (male 457,190/female 474,676)
    25-54 years: 50.73% (male 1,531,088/female 1,618,844)
    55-64 years: 10.58% (male 328,024/female 328,808)
    65 years and over: 10.89% (male 310,123/female 366,259) (2020 est.)
    population pyramid : population pyramid
    Dependency ratios field listing
    total dependency ratio: 34.5
    youth dependency ratio: 16.5
    elderly dependency ratio: 18
    potential support ratio: 5.6 (2020 est.)
    Median age field listing
    total: 35.6 years
    male: 35.4 years
    female: 35.7 years (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 82
    Population growth rate field listing
    1.73% (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 59
    Birth rate field listing
    8.9 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 207
    Death rate field listing
    3.6 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 218
    Net migration rate field listing
    11.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 5
    Population distribution field listing
    most of the urbanization is along the southern coast, with relatively dense population clusters found in the central areas
    Urbanization field listing
    urban population: 100% of total population (2020)
    rate of urbanization: 1.39% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    Major urban areas - population field listing
    5.935 million SINGAPORE (capital) (2020)
    Sex ratio field listing
    at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
    Mother's mean age at first birth field listing
    30.5 years (2015 est.)
    median age
    Maternal mortality rate field listing
    8 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 153
    Infant mortality rate field listing
    total: 2.3 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 2.4 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 2 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 224
    Life expectancy at birth field listing
    total population: 86 years
    male: 83.3 years
    female: 88.9 years (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 3
    Total fertility rate field listing
    0.87 children born/woman (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 228
    Drinking water source field listing
    improved: urban: 100% of population
    total: 100% of population
    unimproved: urban: 0% of population
    total: 0% of population (2017 est.)
    Current Health Expenditure field listing
    4.4% (2017)
    Physicians density field listing
    2.29 physicians/1,000 population (2016)
    Hospital bed density field listing
    2.5 beds/1,000 population (2017)
    Sanitation facility access field listing
    improved: urban: 100% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 100% of population
    unimproved: urban: 0% of population
    total: 0% of population (2017 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate field listing
    0.2% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 111
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS field listing
    7,900 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 110
    HIV/AIDS - deaths field listing
    <100 (2018 est.)
    Obesity - adult prevalence rate field listing
    6.1% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 171
    Education expenditures field listing
    2.9% of GDP (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 144
    Literacy field listing
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 97.3%
    male: 98.9%
    female: 95.9% (2018)
    School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education) field listing
    total: 16 years
    male: 16 years
    female: 17 years (2016)
    Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 field listing
    total: 9.1%
    male: 6.2%
    female: 12.5% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 134
  • Government :: Singapore
  • Country name field listing
    conventional long form: Republic of Singapore
    conventional short form: Singapore
    local long form: Republic of Singapore
    local short form: Singapore
    etymology: name derives from the Sanskrit words "simha" (lion) and "pura" (city) to describe the city-state's leonine symbol
    Government type field listing
    parliamentary republic
    Capital field listing
    name: Singapore
    geographic coordinates: 1 17 N, 103 51 E
    time difference: UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    etymology: name derives from the Sanskrit words "simha" (lion) and "pura" (city), thus creating the city's epithet "lion city"
    Administrative divisions field listing
    no first order administrative divisions; there are five community development councils: Central Singapore Development Council, North East Development Council, North West Development Council, South East Development Council, South West Development Council (2019)
    Independence field listing
    9 August 1965 (from Malaysian Federation)
    National holiday field listing
    National Day, 9 August (1965)
    Constitution field listing
    history: several previous; latest adopted 22 December 1965
    amendments: proposed by Parliament; passage requires two-thirds majority vote in the second and third readings by the elected Parliament membership and assent of the president of the republic; passage of amendments affecting sovereignty or control of the Police Force or the Armed Forces requires at least two-thirds majority vote in a referendum; amended many times, last in 2016
    International law organization participation field listing
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICC (2019)
    Citizenship field listing
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Singapore
    dual citizenship recognized: no
    residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years
    Suffrage field listing
    21 years of age; universal and compulsory
    Executive branch field listing
    chief of state: President HALIMAH Yacob (since 14 September 2017); note - President TAN's term ended on 31 August 2017; HALIMAH is Singapore's first female president; the head of the Council of Presidential Advisors, J.Y. PILLAY, served as acting president until HALIMAH was sworn in as president on 14 September 2017
    head of government: Prime Minister LEE Hsien Loong (since 12 August 2004, reelected 10 July 2020); Deputy Prime Ministers HENG Swee Keat (since 1 May 2019) (2019)
    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister; Cabinet responsible to Parliament
    elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a fixed term of 6-years (there are no term limits); election last held on 13 September 2017 (next to be held in 2023); following legislative elections, leader of majority party or majority coalition appointed prime minister by president; deputy prime ministers appointed by the president
    election results: HALIMAH Yacob was declared president on 13 September 2017, being the only eligible candidate; Tony TAN Keng Yam elected president in the previous contested election on 27 August 2011; percent of vote - Tony TAN Keng Yam (independent) 35.2% , TAN Cheng Bock (independent) 34.9%, TAN Jee Say (independent) 25%, TAN Kin Lian (independent) 4.9%
    Legislative branch field listing
    description: unicameral Parliament (104 seats; 93 members directly elected by popular vote, up to 9 nominated by a parliamentary selection committee and appointed by the president, and up to 12 non-constituency members from opposition parties to ensure political diversity; members serve 5-year terms); note - the number of nominated members will increase to 12 for the 2020 election for the first time (2020)
    elections: last held on 10 July 2020 (next must be held by 2025)
    election results: percent of vote by party - PAP 61.2%, WP 11.2%, PSP 10.2%; seats by party - PAP 83, WP 10, PSP 2; composition - men 79, women 25, percent of women 24%
    Judicial branch field listing
    highest courts: Supreme Court (although the number of judges varies - as of April 2019, the court totaled 20 judges, 7 judicial commissioners, 4 judges of appeal, and 16 international judges); the court is organized into an upper tier Appeal Court and a lower tier High Court
    judge selection and term of office: judges appointed by the president from candidates recommended by the prime minister after consultation with the chief justice; judges usually serve until retirement at age 65, but terms can be extended
    subordinate courts: district, magistrates', juvenile, family, community, and coroners' courts; small claims tribunals; employment claims tribunals
    Political parties and leaders field listing
    National Solidarity Party or NSP [Reno FONG]
    People's Action Party or PAP [LEE Hsien Loong]
    People's Power Party or (PPP) [Goh Meng SENG]
    People's Voice or PV [Lim TEAN]
    Progress Singapore Party or PSP [Tan Cheng Bock]
    Red Dot United or RDU [Ravi PHILEMON]
    Reform Party or RP [Kenneth JEYARETNAM]
    Singapore Democratic Alliance or SDA [Abu MOHAMED]
    Singapore Democratic Party or SDP [Dr. CHEE Soon Juan]
    Singapore People's Party or SPP [Steve Chia]
    Workers' Party or WP [Pritam SINGH] (2020)
    International organization participation field listing
    ADB, AOSIS, APEC, Arctic Council (observer), ARF, ASEAN, BIS, C, CP, EAS, FAO, FATF, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OPCW, Pacific Alliance (observer), PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    Diplomatic representation in the US field listing
    Ambassador Ashok Kumar MIRPURI (since 30 July 2012)
    chancery: 3501 International Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 537-3100
    FAX: [1] (202) 537-0876
    consulate(s) general: San Francisco
    consulate(s): New York
    Diplomatic representation from the US field listing
    chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Rafik MANSOUR (since July 2019)
    telephone: [65] 6476-9100
    embassy: 27 Napier Road, Singapore 258508
    mailing address: FPO AP 96507-0001
    FAX: [65] 6476-9340
    Flag description field listing
    two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; near the hoist side of the red band, there is a vertical, white crescent (closed portion is toward the hoist side) partially enclosing five white five-pointed stars arranged in a circle; red denotes brotherhood and equality; white signifies purity and virtue; the waxing crescent moon symbolizes a young nation on the ascendancy; the five stars represent the nation's ideals of democracy, peace, progress, justice, and equality
    National symbol(s) field listing
    lion, merlion (mythical half lion-half fish creature), orchid; national colors: red, white
    National anthem field listing
    name: "Majulah Singapura" (Onward Singapore)
    lyrics/music: ZUBIR Said

    note: adopted 1965; first performed in 1958 at the Victoria Theatre, the anthem is sung only in Malay

  • Economy :: Singapore
  • Economy - overview field listing

    Singapore has a highly developed and successful free-market economy. It enjoys an open and corruption-free environment, stable prices, and a per capita GDP higher than that of most developed countries. Unemployment is very low. The economy depends heavily on exports, particularly of electronics, petroleum products, chemicals, medical and optical devices, pharmaceuticals, and on Singapore’s vibrant transportation, business, and financial services sectors.

    The economy contracted 0.6% in 2009 as a result of the global financial crisis, but has continued to grow since 2010. Growth from 2012-2017 was slower than during the previous decade, a result of slowing structural growth - as Singapore reached high-income levels - and soft global demand for exports. Growth recovered to 3.6% in 2017 with a strengthening global economy.

    The government is attempting to restructure Singapore’s economy to reduce its dependence on foreign labor, raise productivity growth, and increase wages amid slowing labor force growth and an aging population. Singapore has attracted major investments in advanced manufacturing, pharmaceuticals, and medical technology production and will continue efforts to strengthen its position as Southeast Asia's leading financial and technology hub. Singapore is a signatory of the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP), and a party to the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) negotiations with nine other ASEAN members plus Australia, China, India, Japan, South Korea, and New Zealand. In 2015, Singapore formed, with the other ASEAN members, the ASEAN Economic Community.

    GDP (purchasing power parity) field listing
    $528.1 billion (2017 est.)
    $509.7 billion (2016 est.)
    $497.8 billion (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 38
    GDP (official exchange rate) field listing
    $323.9 billion (2017 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate field listing
    3.6% (2017 est.)
    2.4% (2016 est.)
    2.2% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 96
    GDP - per capita (PPP) field listing
    $94,100 (2017 est.)
    $90,900 (2016 est.)
    $89,900 (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 7
    Gross national saving field listing
    46.5% of GDP (2017 est.)
    46% of GDP (2016 est.)
    45.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 5
    GDP - composition, by end use field listing
    household consumption: 35.6% (2017 est.)
    government consumption: 10.9% (2017 est.)
    investment in fixed capital: 24.8% (2017 est.)
    investment in inventories: 2.8% (2017 est.)
    exports of goods and services: 173.3% (2017 est.)
    imports of goods and services: -149.1% (2017 est.)
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin field listing
    agriculture: 0% (2017 est.)
    industry: 24.8% (2017 est.)
    services: 75.2% (2017 est.)
    Agriculture - products field listing
    vegetables; poultry, eggs; fish, ornamental fish, orchids
    Industries field listing
    electronics, chemicals, financial services, oil drilling equipment, petroleum refining, biomedical products, scientific instruments, telecommunication equipment, processed food and beverages, ship repair, offshore platform construction, entrepot trade
    Industrial production growth rate field listing
    5.7% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 46
    Labor force field listing
    3.657 million (2017 est.)

    note: excludes non-residents

    country comparison to the world: 99
    Labor force - by occupation field listing
    agriculture: 0.7%
    industry: 25.6%
    services: 73.7% (2017)

    note: excludes non-residents

    Unemployment rate field listing
    2.2% (2017 est.)
    2.1% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 21
    Population below poverty line field listing
    Household income or consumption by percentage share field listing
    lowest 10%: 1.6%
    highest 10%: 27.5% (2017)
    Budget field listing
    revenues: 50.85 billion (2017 est.)
    expenditures: 51.87 billion (2017 est.)

    note: expenditures include both operational and development expenditures

    Taxes and other revenues field listing
    15.7% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 187
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) field listing
    -0.3% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 55
    Public debt field listing
    111.1% of GDP (2017 est.)
    106.8% of GDP (2016 est.)

    note: Singapore's public debt consists largely of Singapore Government Securities (SGS) issued to assist the Central Provident Fund (CPF), which administers Singapore's defined contribution pension fund; special issues of SGS are held by the CPF, and are non-tradable; the government has not borrowed to finance deficit expenditures since the 1980s; Singapore has no external public debt

    country comparison to the world: 11
    Fiscal year field listing
    1 April - 31 March
    Inflation rate (consumer prices) field listing
    0.6% (2017 est.)
    -0.5% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 33
    Current account balance field listing
    $60.99 billion (2017 est.)
    $58.85 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 8
    Exports field listing
    $396.8 billion (2017 est.)
    $338 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 13
    Exports - partners field listing
    China 14.7%, Hong Kong 12.6%, Malaysia 10.8%, US 6.6%, Indonesia 5.8%, Japan 4.7%, South Korea 4.6%, Thailand 4% (2017)
    Exports - commodities field listing
    machinery and equipment (including electronics and telecommunications), pharmaceuticals and other chemicals, refined petroleum products, foodstuffs and beverages
    Imports field listing
    $312.1 billion (2017 est.)
    $277.6 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 16
    Imports - commodities field listing
    machinery and equipment, mineral fuels, chemicals, foodstuffs, consumer goods
    Imports - partners field listing
    China 13.9%, Malaysia 12%, US 10.7%, Japan 6.3%, South Korea 5% (2017)
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold field listing
    $279.9 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $271.8 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 11
    Debt - external field listing
    $566.1 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $464.1 billion (30 September 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 20
    Exchange rates field listing
    Singapore dollars (SGD) per US dollar -
    1.3 (2017 est.)
    1.35 (2016 est.)
    1.3815 (2015 est.)
    1.3748 (2014 est.)
    1.2671 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: Singapore
  • Electricity access field listing
    electrification - total population: 100% (2016)
    Electricity - production field listing
    48.66 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 55
    Electricity - consumption field listing
    47.69 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 51
    Electricity - exports field listing
    0 kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 198
    Electricity - imports field listing
    0 kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 200
    Electricity - installed generating capacity field listing
    13.35 million kW (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 53
    Electricity - from fossil fuels field listing
    98% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 29
    Electricity - from nuclear fuels field listing
    0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 183
    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants field listing
    0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 200
    Electricity - from other renewable sources field listing
    2% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 144
    Crude oil - production field listing
    0 bbl/day (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 200
    Crude oil - exports field listing
    14,780 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 54
    Crude oil - imports field listing
    783,300 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 15
    Crude oil - proved reserves field listing
    0 bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 195
    Refined petroleum products - production field listing
    755,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 24
    Refined petroleum products - consumption field listing
    1.322 million bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 17
    Refined petroleum products - exports field listing
    1.82 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 4
    Refined petroleum products - imports field listing
    2.335 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 1
    Natural gas - production field listing
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 196
    Natural gas - consumption field listing
    12.97 billion cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 44
    Natural gas - exports field listing
    622.9 million cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 41
    Natural gas - imports field listing
    13.48 billion cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 23
    Natural gas - proved reserves field listing
    0 cu m (1 January 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 194
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy field listing
    249.5 million Mt (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 27
  • Communications :: Singapore
  • Telephones - fixed lines field listing
    total subscriptions: 2.001 million
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 33 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 59
    Telephones - mobile cellular field listing
    total subscriptions: 8,568,400
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 143 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 95
    Telecommunication systems field listing
    general assessment: excellent service; world leader in telecommunications and perhaps the first 'Smart Nation' where a sensor network is implemented, for water and air, smart logistics and smart sensor in the home of elderly or chronically ill; roll out of 4G and 5G networks to ensure faster speeds; wireless and fiber broadband growing segments of telecommunications; roll out of 'Next Generation Network' (NGNBN) almost complete with FttH and wireless network fiber based services; mobile sector saturated, but with mobile operators competing to offer more to the consumer such as value-added services; 4 MNVO; demand for data storage in Singapore (2020)
    domestic: excellent domestic facilities; fixed-line 33 per 100 and mobile-cellular 143 per 100 teledensity; multiple providers of high-speed Internet connectivity (2018)
    international: country code - 65; landing points for INDIGO-West, SeaMeWe -3,-4,-5, SIGMAR, SJC, i2icn, PGASCOM, BSCS, IGG, B3JS, SAEx2, APCN-2, APG, ASC, SEAX-1, ASE, EAC-C2C, Matrix Cable System and SJC2 submarine cables providing links throughout Asia, Southeast Asia, Africa, Australia, the Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 3, Bukit Timah, Seletar, and Sentosa; supplemented by VSAT coverage (2019 )
    the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
    Broadcast media field listing
    state controls broadcast media; 6 domestic TV stations operated by MediaCorp which is wholly owned by a state investment company; broadcasts from Malaysian and Indonesian stations available; satellite dishes banned; multi-channel cable TV services available; a total of 19 domestic radio stations broadcasting, with MediaCorp operating 11, Singapore Press Holdings, also government-linked, another 5, 2 controlled by the Singapore Armed Forces Reservists Association and one owned by BBC Radio; Malaysian and Indonesian radio stations are available as is BBC; a number of Internet service radio stations are also available (2019)
    Internet country code field listing
    Internet users field listing
    total: 5,286,665
    percent of population: 88.17% (July 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 80
    Broadband - fixed subscriptions field listing
    total: 1,610,500
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 27 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 60
  • Military and Security :: Singapore
  • Military and security forces field listing
    Singapore Armed Forces: Singapore Army, Republic of Singapore Navy, Republic of Singapore Air Force (includes air defense);  Police Coast Guard (subordinate to the Singapore Police Force) (2019)
    Military expenditures field listing
    3.2% of GDP (2019)
    3.1% of GDP (2018)
    3.1% of GDP (2017)
    3.2% of GDP (2016)
    3.1% of GDP (2015)
    country comparison to the world: 24
    Military and security service personnel strengths field listing

    the Singapore Armed Forces (SAF) have approximately 62,000 active duty troops (45,000 Army; 7,000 Navy; 10,000 Air Force)

    (2019 est.)
    Military equipment inventories and acquisitions field listing
    the SAF has a diverse and largely modern mix of domestically-produced and imported weapons; Singapore has the most developed arms industry in Southeast Asia and is also the largest importer of weapons; the chief suppliers since 2010 are France, Germany, Spain, and the US (2019 est.)
    Military deployments field listing
    maintains permanent training bases and detachments of military personnel in Australia, France, and the US (June 2020)
    Military service age and obligation field listing
    18-21 years of age for male compulsory military service; 16 1/2 years of age for voluntary enlistment (with parental consent); 2-year conscript service obligation, with a reserve obligation to age 40 (enlisted) or age 50 (officers) (2019)
    Maritime threats field listing
    the International Maritime Bureau reports the territorial and offshore waters in the South China Sea as high risk for piracy and armed robbery against ships; numerous commercial vessels have been attacked and hijacked both at anchor and while underway; hijacked vessels are often disguised and cargo diverted to ports in East Asia; crews have been murdered or cast adrift; the Singapore Straits saw three attacks against commercial vessels in 2018, a slight decrease from the four attacks in 2017 (2018)
  • Transportation :: Singapore
  • National air transport system field listing
    number of registered air carriers: 5 (2015)
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 197 (2015)
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 33,290,544 (2015)
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 6,154,365,275 mt-km (2015)
    Civil aircraft registration country code prefix field listing
    9V (2016)
    Airports field listing
    9 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 158
    Airports - with paved runways field listing
    total: 9 (2017)
    over 3,047 m: 2 (2017)
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 (2017)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 (2017)
    914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2017)
    under 914 m: 1 (2017)
    Pipelines field listing
    3220 km domestic gas (2014), 1122 km cross-border pipelines (2017), 8 km refined products (2013)
    Roadways field listing
    total: 3,500 km (2017)
    paved: 3,500 km (includes 164 km of expressways) (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 158
    Merchant marine field listing
    total: 3,433
    by type: bulk carrier 585, container ship 492, general cargo 130, oil tanker 724, other 1,502 (2019)
    country comparison to the world: 8
    Ports and terminals field listing
    major seaport(s): Singapore
    container port(s) (TEUs): Singapore (33,666,000) (2017)
    LNG terminal(s) (import): Singapore
  • Terrorism :: Singapore
  • Terrorist groups - foreign based field listing
    Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham (ISIS) network in Singapore: aim(s): enhance its networks in Singapore; implement ISIS's strict interpretation of sharia
    area(s) of operation: attacks in Bangladesh are staged in Singapore; operates under the name the Islamic State in Bangladesh (2018)
    Jemaah Islamiyah (JI): aim(s): enhance its networks in Singapore and, ultimately, overthrow the Singapore Government and establish a pan-Islamic state across Southeast Asia
    area(s) of operation: maintains a presence (2018)
  • Transnational Issues :: Singapore
  • Disputes - international field listing

    disputes with Malaysia over territorial waters, airspace, the price of fresh water delivered to Singapore from Malaysia, Singapore's extensive land reclamation works, bridge construction, and maritime boundaries in the Johor and Singapore Straits; in 2008, ICJ awarded sovereignty of Pedra Branca (Pulau Batu Puteh/Horsburgh Island) to Singapore, and Middle Rocks to Malaysia, but did not rule on maritime regimes, boundaries, or disposition of South Ledge; Indonesia and Singapore continue to work on finalization of their 1973 maritime boundary agreement by defining unresolved areas north of Indonesia's Batam Island; piracy remains a problem in the Malacca Strait

    Refugees and internally displaced persons field listing
    stateless persons: 1,303 (2018)
    Illicit drugs field listing
    drug abuse limited because of aggressive law enforcement efforts, including carrying out death sentences; as a transportation and financial services hub, Singapore is vulnerable, despite strict laws and enforcement, as a venue for money laundering