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Africa :: Somalia
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Somalia
  • Geography :: SOMALIA

  • Eastern Africa, bordering the Gulf of Aden and the Indian Ocean, east of Ethiopia
    10 00 N, 49 00 E
    Africa
    total: 637,657 sq km
    land: 627,337 sq km
    water: 10,320 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 44
    almost five times the size of Alabama; slightly smaller than Texas
    Area comparison map:
    total: 2,385 km
    border countries: Djibouti 61 km, Ethiopia 1,640 km, Kenya 684 km
    3,025 km
    territorial sea: 200 nm
    principally desert; northeast monsoon (December to February), moderate temperatures in north and hot in south; southwest monsoon (May to October), torrid in the north and hot in the south, irregular rainfall, hot and humid periods (tangambili) between monsoons
    mostly flat to undulating plateau rising to hills in north
    lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
    highest point: Shimbiris 2,416 m
    uranium and largely unexploited reserves of iron ore, tin, gypsum, bauxite, copper, salt, natural gas, likely oil reserves
    arable land: 1.75%
    permanent crops: 0.05%
    other: 98.2% (2012 est.)
    2,000 sq km (2003)
    14.7 cu km (2011)
    total: 3.3 cu km/yr (0%/0%/100%)
    per capita: 377.6 cu m/yr (2003)
    recurring droughts; frequent dust storms over eastern plains in summer; floods during rainy season
    famine; use of contaminated water contributes to human health problems; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification
    party to: Biodiversity, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    strategic location on Horn of Africa along southern approaches to Bab el Mandeb and route through Red Sea and Suez Canal
  • People and Society :: SOMALIA

  • noun: Somali(s)
    adjective: Somali
    Somali 85%, Bantu and other non-Somali 15% (including 30,000 Arabs)
    Somali (official), Arabic (official, according to the Transitional Federal Charter), Italian, English
    Sunni Muslim (Islam) (official, according to the Transitional Federal Charter)
    10,428,043
    note: this estimate was derived from an official census taken in 1975 by the Somali Government; population counting in Somalia is complicated by the large number of nomads and by refugee movements in response to famine and clan warfare (July 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 85
    0-14 years: 44% (male 2,293,746/female 2,298,442)
    15-24 years: 18.9% (male 995,102/female 970,630)
    25-54 years: 31.2% (male 1,681,705/female 1,571,586)
    55-64 years: 3.6% (male 180,622/female 199,059)
    65 years and over: 2.3% (male 92,707/female 144,444) (2014 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 99.1%
    youth dependency ratio: 93.4%
    elderly dependency ratio: 5.6%
    potential support ratio: 17.8% (2014 est.)
    total: 17.7 years
    male: 17.9 years
    female: 17.6 years (2014 est.)
    1.75% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 70
    40.87 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 8
    13.91 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 9
    -9.51 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 212
    urban population: 39.1% of total population (2014)
    rate of urbanization: 4.06% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    MOGADISHU (capital) 2.014 million (2014)
    at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.66 male(s)/female
    total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2014 est.)
    1,000 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 3
    total: 100.14 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 108.89 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 91.12 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 3
    total population: 51.58 years
    male: 49.58 years
    female: 53.65 years (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 218
    6.08 children born/woman (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 4
    14.6% (2006)
    0.04 physicians/1,000 population (2006)
    improved:
    urban: 69.6% of population
    rural: 8.8% of population
    total: 31.7% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 30.4% of population
    rural: 91.2% of population
    total: 68.3% of population (2011 est.)
    improved:
    urban: 52% of population
    rural: 6.3% of population
    total: 23.6% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 48% of population
    rural: 93.7% of population
    total: 76.4% of population (2011 est.)
    0.53% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 62
    32,300 (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 66
    2,500 (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 53
    degree of risk: very high
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
    vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, malaria, and Rift Valley fever
    water contact disease: schistosomiasis
    animal contact disease: rabies (2013)
    4.8% (2008)
    country comparison to the world: 162
    32.8% (2006)
    country comparison to the world: 9
    NA
    total number: 1,148,265
    percentage: 49% (2006 est.)
  • Government :: SOMALIA

  • conventional long form: Federal Republic of Somalia
    conventional short form: Somalia
    local long form: Jamhuuriyadda Federaalkaa Soomaaliya
    local short form: Soomaaliya
    former: Somali Republic, Somali Democratic Republic
    in the process of building a federal parliamentary republic
    name: Mogadishu
    geographic coordinates: 2 04 N, 45 20 E
    time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    18 regions (plural - NA, singular - gobolka); Awdal, Bakool, Banaadir, Bari, Bay, Galguduud, Gedo, Hiiraan, Jubbada Dhexe (Middle Jubba), Jubbada Hoose (Lower Jubba), Mudug, Nugaal, Sanaag, Shabeellaha Dhexe (Middle Shabeelle), Shabeellaha Hoose (Lower Shabeelle), Sool, Togdheer, Woqooyi Galbeed
    1 July 1960 (from a merger of British Somaliland that became independent from the UK on 26 June 1960 and Italian Somaliland that became independent from the Italian-administered UN trusteeship on 1 July 1960 to form the Somali Republic)
    Foundation of the Somali Republic, 1 July (1960); note - 26 June (1960) in Somaliland
    previous 1961, 1979; latest drafted 12 June 2012, approved 1 August 2012 (provisional) (2012)
    mixed legal system of civil law, Islamic law, and customary law (referred to as Xeer)
    accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; non-party state to the ICCt
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: President HASSAN SHEIKH Mohamud (since 10 September 2012)
    head of government: Prime Minister Omar Abdirashid Ali SHARMARKE (since 24 December 2014); Deputy Prime Minister Ridwan HIRSI Mohamed (since 17 January 2014)
    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister, approved by the National Parliament; note - new cabinet sworn in 22 January 2014
    elections: president elected by the National Parliament for a 4-year term; last held 10 September 2012 (next to be held in 2016)
    election results: HASSAN SHEIKH Mahamud elected president; National Parliament vote - HASSAN SHEIKH Mahamud 190, Sheikh SHARIF Sheikh Ahmed 79; the prime minister is chosen by the president and confirmed by the National Parliament
    description: unicameral National Parliament or Golaha Shacabka Soomaaliya consists of the House of the People (275 seats; members directly elected to serve 4-year terms)
    note: the inaugural House of the People was appointed in September 2012 by clan elders; slated for 2016, the National Parliament will become bicameral with the formation of an upper house that will consist of 54 seats with members indirectly elected by regional governing councils to serve 4-year terms
    highest court(s): the provisional constitution stipulates the establishment of the Constitutional Court (consists of 5 judges including the chief judge and deputy chief judge); note - under the terms of the 2004 Transitional National Charter (TNC), a Supreme Court based in Mogadishu and an Appeal Court were established; yet most regions have reverted to local forms of conflict resolution, either secular, traditional Somali customary law, or sharia Islamic law
    judge selection and term of office: judges appointed by the president upon proposal of the Judicial Service Commission, a 9-member judicial and administrative body; judge tenure NA
    subordinate courts: federal- and federal member state-level courts; military courts; sharia (Islamic) courts
    none
    other: numerous clan and sub-clan factions exist both in support and in opposition to the transitional government
    ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AU, CAEU (candidate), FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITSO, ITU, LAS, NAM, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO
    chief of mission: (vacant)
    chancery: 425 East 61st Street, Suite 702, New York City, NY 10021
    telephone: [1] (212) 688-9410, 688-5046
    FAX: [1] (212) 759-0651
    the US does not have an embassy in Somalia; US interests are represented by the US Special Representative for Somalia, Ambassador James P. MCANULTY (since August 2013), operating out of the US Embassy in Nairobi, Kenya at United Nations Avenue, Nairobi; mailing address: Unit 64100, Nairobi; APO AE 09831; telephone: [254] (20) 363-6000; FAX [254] (20) 363-6157
    light blue with a large white five-pointed star in the center; the blue field was originally influenced by the flag of the UN, but today is said to denote the sky and the neighboring Indian Ocean; the five points of the star represent the five regions in the horn of Africa that are inhabited by Somali people: the former British Somaliland and Italian Somaliland (which together make up Somalia), Djibouti, Ogaden (Ethiopia), and the North East Province (Kenya)
    leopard; national colors: blue, white
    name: "Qolobaa Calankeed" (Every Nation Has its own Flag)
    lyrics/music: lyrics/music: Abdullahi QARSHE
    note: adopted 2012; written in 1959
    regional and local governing bodies continue to exist and control various areas of the country, including the self-declared Republic of Somaliland in northwestern Somalia and the semi-autonomous state of Puntland in northeastern Somalia
  • Economy :: SOMALIA

  • Despite the lack of effective national governance, Somalia maintains an informal economy largely based on livestock, remittance/money transfer companies, and telecommunications. Agriculture is the most important sector with livestock normally accounting for about 40% of GDP and more than 50% of export earnings. Nomads and semi-pastoralists, who are dependent upon livestock for their livelihood, make up a large portion of the population. Livestock, hides, fish, charcoal, and bananas are Somalia's principal exports, while sugar, sorghum, corn, qat, and machined goods are the principal imports. Somalia's small industrial sector, based on the processing of agricultural products, has largely been looted and the machinery sold as scrap metal. Telecommunication firms provide wireless services in most major cities and offer the lowest international call rates on the continent. Mogadishu's main market offers a variety of goods from food to electronic gadgets. Hotels continue to operate and are supported with private-security militias. Somalia's government lacks the ability to collect domestic revenue, and arrears to the IMF have continued to grow. Somalia's capital city - Mogadishu - has witnessed the development of the city's first gas stations, supermarkets, and flights between Europe (Istanbul-Mogadishu) since the collapse of central authority in 1991. This economic growth has yet to expand outside of Mogadishu, and within the city, security concerns dominate business. In the absence of a formal banking sector, money transfer/remittance services have sprouted throughout the country, handling up to $1.6 billion in remittances annually, although international concerns over the money transfers into Somalia currently threatens these services.
    $5.896 billion (2010 est.)
    $5.75 billion (2009 est.)
    $5.607 billion (2008 est.)
    note: data are in 2010 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 169
    $2.372 billion (2010 est.)
    2.6% (2010 est.)
    2.6% (2012 est.)
    2.6% (2008 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 126
    $600 (2010 est.)
    $600 (2009 est.)
    $600 (2008 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 229
    household consumption: 72.6%
    government consumption: 8.7%
    investment in fixed capital: 20%
    investment in inventories: 0.1%
    exports of goods and services: 0.3%
    imports of goods and services: -1.7%
    (2011 est.)
    agriculture: 60.2%
    industry: 7.4%
    services: 32.5% (2011 est.)
    bananas, sorghum, corn, coconuts, rice, sugarcane, mangoes, sesame seeds, beans; cattle, sheep, goats; fish
    light industries, including sugar refining, textiles, wireless communication
    2.6% (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 113
    3.011 million (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 104
    agriculture: 71%
    industry and services: 29% (1975)
    NA%
    NA%
    lowest 10%: NA%
    highest 10%: NA%
    revenues: $NA
    expenditures: $NA
    NA
    NA%
    note: businesses print their own money, so inflation rates cannot be easily determined
    NA%
    NA%
    $515.8 million (2012 est.)
    $594.3 million (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 174
    livestock, bananas, hides, fish, charcoal, scrap metal
    UAE 50.1%, Yemen 16.5%, Oman 12.6%, India 4.8% (2013)
    $1.263 billion (2010 est.)
    $798 million (2006 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 175
    manufactures, petroleum products, foodstuffs, construction materials, qat
    Djibouti 24.6%, Kenya 12.8%, India 9.6%, China 7.6%, Pakistan 5.8%, Oman 4.4%, UAE 4.3% (2013)
    $3.05 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $3.055 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 140
    Somali shillings (SOS) per US dollar -
    1,600 (2013 est.)
    1,600 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: SOMALIA

  • 310 million kWh (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 174
    288.3 million kWh (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 178
    0 kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 198
    0 kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 202
    80,000 kW (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 180
    100% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 33
    0% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 180
    0% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 201
    0% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 124
    0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 131
    0 bbl (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 190
    0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 195
    5,630 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 165
    0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 131
    5,399 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 147
    0 cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 192
    0 cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 194
    0 cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 181
    0 cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 131
    5.663 billion cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 92
    855,800 Mt (2012 est.)
  • Communications :: SOMALIA

  • 100,000 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 145
    658,000 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 162
    general assessment: the public telecommunications system was almost completely destroyed or dismantled during the civil war; private companies offer limited local fixed-line service and private wireless companies offer service in most major cities while charging the lowest international rates on the continent
    domestic: local cellular telephone systems have been established in Mogadishu and in several other population centers with one company beginning to provide 3G services in late 2012
    international: country code - 252; Mogadishu is a landing point for the EASSy fiber-optic submarine cable system linking East Africa with Europe and North America (2010)
    2 private TV stations rebroadcast Al-Jazeera and CNN; Somaliland has 1 government-operated TV station and Puntland has 1 private TV station; the transitional government operates Radio Mogadishu; 1 SW and roughly 10 private FM radio stations broadcast in Mogadishu; several radio stations operate in central and southern regions; Somaliland has 1 government-operated radio station; Puntland has roughly a half dozen private radio stations; transmissions of at least 2 international broadcasters are available (2007)
    AM 0, FM 11 (also 1 station each in Puntland and Somaliland), shortwave 1 (in Mogadishu) (2001)
    4 (2 in Mogadishu and 2 in Hargeisa) (2001)
    .so
    186 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 202
    106,000 (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 155
  • Transportation :: SOMALIA

  • 61 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 81
    total: 6
    over 3,047 m: 4
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)
    total: 55
    over 3,047 m: 1
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 20
    914 to 1,523 m: 23
    under 914 m:
    6 (2013)
    total: 22,100 km
    paved: 2,608 km
    unpaved: 19,492 km (2000)
    country comparison to the world: 105
    total: 1
    by type: cargo 1 (2008)
    country comparison to the world: 155
    major seaport(s): Berbera, Kismaayo
    despite a dramatic drop in the number of attacks in 2012, the International Maritime Bureau continues to report the territorial and offshore waters in the Gulf of Aden and Indian Ocean as a region of significant risk for piracy and armed robbery against ships accounting for 25% of all attacks in 2012; 75 vessels, including commercial shipping and pleasure craft, were attacked or hijacked both at anchor and while underway compared with 237 in 2011; the number of hijackings off the coast of Somalia was reduced to 14 in 2012, down from 28 in 2011; as of April 2013, 77 vessels and 7 hostages were being held for ransom by Somali pirates; the presence of several naval task forces in the Gulf of Aden and additional anti-piracy measures on the part of ship operators, including the use of on-board armed security teams, have reduced piracy incidents in that body of water; in response Somali-based pirates, using hijacked fishing trawlers as "mother ships" to extend their range, shifted operations as far south as the Mozambique Channel, eastward to the vicinity of the Maldives, and northeastward to the Strait of Hormuz
  • Military :: SOMALIA

  • National Security Force (NSF): Somali Army (2011)
    18 is the legal minimum age for compulsory and voluntary military service (2012)
    males age 16-49: 2,260,175
    females age 16-49: 2,159,293 (2010 est.)
    males age 16-49: 1,331,894
    females age 16-49: 1,357,051 (2010 est.)
    male: 101,634
    female: 101,072 (2010 est.)
  • Transnational Issues :: SOMALIA

  • Ethiopian forces invaded southern Somalia and routed Islamist Courts from Mogadishu in January 2007; "Somaliland" secessionists provide port facilities in Berbera to landlocked Ethiopia and have established commercial ties with other regional states; "Puntland" and "Somaliland" "governments" seek international support in their secessionist aspirations and overlapping border claims; the undemarcated former British administrative line has little meaning as a political separation to rival clans within Ethiopia's Ogaden and southern Somalia's Oromo region; Kenya works hard to prevent the clan and militia fighting in Somalia from spreading south across the border, which has long been open to nomadic pastoralists
    IDPs: 1.106 million (civil war since 1988, clan-based competition for resources; 2011 famine; insecurity because of fighting between al-Shabaab and TFG allied forces) (2015)
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