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Europe :: Spain
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Spain
  • Introduction :: SPAIN

  • Spain's powerful world empire of the 16th and 17th centuries ultimately yielded command of the seas to England. Subsequent failure to embrace the mercantile and industrial revolutions caused the country to fall behind Britain, France, and Germany in economic and political power. Spain remained neutral in World War I and II but suffered through a devastating civil war (1936-39). A peaceful transition to democracy following the death of dictator Francisco FRANCO in 1975, and rapid economic modernization (Spain joined the EU in 1986) gave Spain a dynamic and rapidly growing economy and made it a global champion of freedom and human rights. More recently the government has focused on measures to reverse a severe economic recession that began in mid-2008. Austerity measures implemented to reduce a large budget deficit and reassure foreign investors have led to one of the highest unemployment rates in Europe. Spain assumed a nonpermanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2015-16 term.
  • Geography :: SPAIN

  • Southwestern Europe, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, North Atlantic Ocean, Bay of Biscay, and Pyrenees Mountains; southwest of France
    40 00 N, 4 00 W
    Europe
    total: 505,370 sq km
    land: 498,980 sq km
    water: 6,390 sq km
    note: there are two autonomous cities - Ceuta and Melilla - and 17 autonomous communities including Balearic Islands and Canary Islands, and three small Spanish possessions off the coast of Morocco - Islas Chafarinas, Penon de Alhucemas, and Penon de Velez de la Gomera
    country comparison to the world: 52
    almost five times the size of Kentucky; slightly more than twice the size of Oregon
    Area comparison map:
    total: 1,952.7 km
    border countries (5): Andorra 63 km, France 646 km, Gibraltar 1.2 km, Portugal 1,224 km, Morocco (Ceuta) 8 km, Morocco (Melilla) 10.5 km
    note: an additional 75-meter border segment exists between Morocco and the Spanish exclave of Penon de Velez de la Gomera
    4,964 km
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    contiguous zone: 24 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm (applies only to the Atlantic Ocean)
    temperate; clear, hot summers in interior, more moderate and cloudy along coast; cloudy, cold winters in interior, partly cloudy and cool along coast
    large, flat to dissected plateau surrounded by rugged hills; Pyrenees Mountains in north
    lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
    highest point: Pico de Teide (Tenerife) on Canary Islands 3,718 m
    coal, lignite, iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, uranium, tungsten, mercury, pyrites, magnesite, fluorspar, gypsum, sepiolite, kaolin, potash, hydropower, arable land
    agricultural land: 54.1%
    arable land 24.9%; permanent crops 9.1%; permanent pasture 20.1%
    forest: 36.8%
    other: 9.1% (2011 est.)
    34,700 sq km (2011)
    111.5 cu km (2011)
    total: 32.46 cu km/yr (18%/22%/61%)
    per capita: 698.7 cu m/yr (2008)
    periodic droughts, occasional flooding
    volcanism: volcanic activity in the Canary Islands, located off Africa's northwest coast; Teide (elev. 3,715 m) has been deemed a Decade Volcano by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; La Palma (elev. 2,426 m), which last erupted in 1971, is the most active of the Canary Islands volcanoes; Lanzarote is the only other historically active volcano
    pollution of the Mediterranean Sea from raw sewage and effluents from the offshore production of oil and gas; water quality and quantity nationwide; air pollution; deforestation; desertification
    party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
    signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants
    strategic location along approaches to Strait of Gibraltar; Spain controls a number of territories in northern Morocco including the enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla, and the islands of Penon de Velez de la Gomera, Penon de Alhucemas, and Islas Chafarinas
  • People and Society :: SPAIN

  • noun: Spaniard(s)
    adjective: Spanish
    composite of Mediterranean and Nordic types
    Castilian Spanish (official) 74%, Catalan 17%, Galician 7%, and Basque 2%
    note: Catalan is official in Catalonia, the Balearic Islands, and the Valencian Community (where it is known as Valencian); in the northwest corner of Catalonia (Vall d'Aran), Aranese is official along with Catalan; Galician is official in Galicia; Basque is official in the Basque Country and in the Basque-speaking area of Navarre; Aragonese, Aranese Asturian, Basque, Calo, Catalan, Galician, and Valencian are recognized as regional languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages
    Roman Catholic 94%, other 6%
    48,146,134 (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 29
    0-14 years: 15.45% (male 3,827,552/female 3,610,910)
    15-24 years: 9.56% (male 2,379,676/female 2,223,159)
    25-54 years: 45.57% (male 11,180,532/female 10,762,002)
    55-64 years: 11.67% (male 2,738,802/female 2,877,648)
    65 years and over: 17.75% (male 3,642,559/female 4,903,294) (2015 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 50.3%
    youth dependency ratio: 23.2%
    elderly dependency ratio: 27.1%
    potential support ratio: 3.7% (2014 est.)
    total: 41.6 years
    male: 40.4 years
    female: 42.9 years (2014 est.)
    0.89% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 135
    9.64 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 197
    9.04 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 68
    8.31 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 19
    urban population: 79.6% of total population (2015)
    rate of urbanization: 0.52% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    MADRID (capital) 6.133 million; Barcelona 5.207 million; Valencia 807,000 (2014)
    at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2015 est.)
    total: 3.3 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 3.63 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 2.96 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 212
    total population: 81.57 years
    male: 78.57 years
    female: 84.77 years (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 18
    1.49 children born/woman (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 194
    65.7% (2006)
    8.9% of GDP (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 26
    4.95 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
    3.1 beds/1,000 population (2011)
    improved:
    urban: 99.9% of population
    rural: 100% of population
    total: 100% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 0.1% of population
    rural: 0% of population
    total: 0% of population (2012 est.)
    improved:
    urban: 100% of population
    rural: 100% of population
    total: 100% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 0% of population
    rural: 0% of population
    total: 0% of population (2012 est.)
    0.42% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 71
    150,400 (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 32
    800 (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 75
    26.5% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 45
    5% of GDP (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 80
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 98.1%
    male: 98.7%
    female: 97.5% (2015 est.)
    total: 17 years
    male: 17 years
    female: 18 years (2012)
    total: 53.2%
    male: 54.4%
    female: 51.8% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 5
  • Government :: SPAIN

  • conventional long form: Kingdom of Spain
    conventional short form: Spain
    local long form: Reino de Espana
    local short form: Espana
    parliamentary monarchy
    name: Madrid
    geographic coordinates: 40 24 N, 3 41 W
    time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
    note: Spain has two time zones including the Canary Islands
    17 autonomous communities (comunidades autonomas, singular - comunidad autonoma) and 2 autonomous cities* (ciudades autonomas, singular - ciudad autonoma); Andalucia; Aragon; Asturias; Canarias (Canary Islands); Cantabria; Castilla-La Mancha; Castilla-Leon; Cataluna (Castilian), Catalunya (Catalan), Catalonha (Aranese) [Catalonia]; Ceuta*; Comunidad Valenciana (Castilian), Comunitat Valenciana (Valencian) [Valencian Community]; Extremadura; Galicia; Illes Baleares (Balearic Islands); La Rioja; Madrid; Melilla*; Murcia; Navarra (Castilian), Nafarroa (Basque) [Navarre]; Pais Vasco (Castilian), Euskadi (Basque) [Basque Country]
    note: the autonomous cities of Ceuta and Melilla plus three small islands of Islas Chafarinas, Penon de Alhucemas, and Penon de Velez de la Gomera, administered directly by the Spanish central government, are all along the coast of Morocco and are collectively referred to as Places of Sovereignty (Plazas de Soberania)
    1492; the Iberian peninsula was characterized by a variety of independent kingdoms prior to the Muslim occupation that began in the early 8th century A.D. and lasted nearly seven centuries; the small Christian redoubts of the north began the reconquest almost immediately, culminating in the seizure of Granada in 1492; this event completed the unification of several kingdoms and is traditionally considered the forging of present-day Spain
    National Day, 12 October (1492); year when Columbus first set foot in the Americas
    previous 1812; latest approved by legislature 31 October 1978, passed by referendum 6 December 1978, signed by the king 27 December 1978, effective 29 December 1978; amended 1992, 2011 (2013)
    civil law system with regional variations
    accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: King FELIPE VI (since 19 June 2014); Heir Apparent Princess Leonor, daughter of the monarch, born 31 October 2005
    head of government: President of the Government (Prime Minister equivalent) Mariano RAJOY (since 20 December 2011); Vice President (and Minister of the President's Office) Soraya SAENZ DE SANTAMARIA (since 22 December 2011)
    cabinet: Council of Ministers designated by the president
    note: there is also a Council of State that is the supreme consultative organ of the government, but its recommendations are non-binding
    elections: the monarchy is hereditary; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition usually proposed president by the monarch and elected by the National Assembly; election last held on 20 November 2011 (next to be held in November 2015); vice president and Council of Ministers are appointed by the president
    election results: Mariano RAJOY elected President of the Government; percent of National Assembly vote - 44.62%
    description: bicameral General Courts or Las Cortes Generales consists of the Senate or Senado (257 seats as of 2013; 208 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 49 appointed by the regional legislatures; members serve 4-year terms) and the Congress of Deputies or Congreso de los Diputados (350 seats; 348 members directly elected in 50 multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 2 directly elected from the North African Ceuta and Melilla enclaves by simple majority vote; members serve 4-year terms)
    elections: Senate - last held on 20 November 2011 (next to be held by end of 2015); Congress of Deputies - last held on 20 November 2011 (next to be held by end of 2015)
    election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PP 136, PSOE 48, CiU 9, Entesa (PSC-PSOE) 7, EAJ/PNV 4, other 4, members appointed by regional legislatures 49; Congress of Deputies - percent of vote by party - PP 44.6%, PSOE 28.8%, CiU 4.2%, IU 6.9%, Amaiur 1.4%, UPyD 4.7%, EAJ/PNV 1.3%, other 8.1%; seats by party - PP 186, PSOE 110, CiU 16, IU 11, Amaiur 7, UPyD 5, EAJ/PNV 5, other 10
    highest court(s): Supreme Court or Tribunal Supremo (consists of the court president and organized into the Civil Room with a president and 9 magistrates, the Penal Room with a president and 14 magistrates, the Administrative Room with a president and 32 magistrates, the Social Room with a president and 12 magistrates, and the Military Room with a president and 7 magistrates); Constitutional Court or Tribunal Constitucional de Espana (consists of 12 judges)
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the monarch from candidates proposed by the General Council of the Judicial Power, a 20-member governing board chaired by the monarch and includes presidential appointees, and lawyers and jurists confirmed by the National Assembly; judge tenure NA; Constitutional Court judges nominated by the General Assembly, executive branch, and the General Council of the Judiciary, and appointed by the monarch for 9-year terms
    subordinate courts: National Court; High Courts of Justice (in each of the autonomous communities); provincial courts; courts of first instance
    Amaiur [collective leadership] (a separatist political coalition that advocates Basque independence from Spain)
    Basque Nationalist Party or PNV or EAJ [Anoni ORTUZAR]
    Canarian Coalition or CC [Claudina MORALES Rodriquez] (a coalition of five parties)
    Ciutadans [Albert Rivera] (an anti-separatist Catalan party)
    Convergence and Union or CiU [Artur MAS i Gavarro] (a coalition of the Democratic Convergence of Catalonia or CDC [Artur MAS i Gavarro] and the Democratic Union of Catalonia or UDC [Josep Antoni DURAN i LLEIDA])
    Entesa Catalonia de Progress [Carles BONET i Reves] (a Senate coalition grouping four Catalan parties - PSC, ERC, ICV, EUA)
    Galician Nationalist Bloc or BNG [Xavier VENCE]
    Initiative for Catalonia Greens or ICV [Joan HERRERA i Torres and Dolors CAMATS]
    Popular Party or PP [Mariano RAJOY Brey]
    Republican Left of Catalonia or ERC [Oriol JUNQUERAS i Vies]
    Spanish Socialist Workers Party or PSOE [Pedro SANCHEZ]
    Union of People of Navarra or UPN [Yolanda BARCINA Angulo]
    Union, Progress and Democracy or UPyD [Rosa DIEZ Gonzalez]
    United Left or IU [Cayo LARA Moya] (a coalition of parties including the Communist Party of Spain or PCE and other small parties)
    Yes to the Future or Geroa Bai [Uxue BARKOS] (a coalition of four Navarran parties)
    Association for Victims of Terrorism or AVT (grassroots organization devoted primarily to supporting victims of the Basque Fatherland and Liberty (ETA) terrorist organization)
    Catholic Church
    15-M or 15 May protest movement, which is also known as the Indignados, Spanish for the "indignant ones" (a loose association of grassroots organizations that advocate for greater accountability and transparency in Spanish politics, increased social justice and job creation)
    Socialist General Union of Workers or UGT and the smaller independent Workers Syndical Union or USO
    Trade Union Confederation of Workers' Commissions or CC.OO.
    Spanish Confederation of Employers' Organizations or CEOE
    other: business and landowning interests; free labor unions (authorized in April 1977); university students
    ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council (observer), Australia Group, BCIE, BIS, CAN (observer), CBSS (observer), CD, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EITI (implementing country), EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAIA (observer), MIGA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club, PCA, PIF (partner), Schengen Convention, SELEC (observer), SICA (observer), UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, Union Latina, UNOCI, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
    chief of mission: Ambassador Ramon GIL-CASARES Satrustegui (since 5 June 2012)
    chancery: 2375 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20037
    telephone: [1] (202) 452-0100, 728-2340
    FAX: [1] (202) 833-5670
    consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, San Juan (Puerto Rico)
    chief of mission: Ambassador James COSTOS (since 24 September 2013); note - also accredited to Andorra
    embassy: Serrano 75, 28006 Madrid
    mailing address: PSC 61, APO AE 09642
    telephone: [34] (91) 587-2200
    FAX: [34] (91) 587-2303
    consulate(s) general: Barcelona
    three horizontal bands of red (top), yellow (double width), and red with the national coat of arms on the hoist side of the yellow band; the coat of arms is quartered to display the emblems of the traditional kingdoms of Spain (clockwise from upper left, Castile, Leon, Navarre, and Aragon) while Granada is represented by the stylized pomegranate at the bottom of the shield; the arms are framed by two columns representing the Pillars of Hercules, which are the two promontories (Gibraltar and Ceuta) on either side of the eastern end of the Strait of Gibraltar; the red scroll across the two columns bears the imperial motto of "Plus Ultra" (further beyond) referring to Spanish lands beyond Europe; the triband arrangement with the center stripe twice the width of the outer dates to the 18th century
    note: the red and yellow colors are related to those of the oldest Spanish kingdoms: Aragon, Castile, Leon, and Navarre
    Pillars of Hercules; national colors: red, yellow
    name: "Himno Nacional Espanol" (National Anthem of Spain)
    lyrics/music: no lyrics/unknown
    note: officially in use between 1770 and 1931, restored in 1939; the Spanish anthem is the first anthem to be officially adopted, but it has no lyrics; in the years prior to 1931 it became known as "Marcha Real" (The Royal March); it first appeared in a 1761 military bugle call book and was replaced by "Himno de Riego" in the years between 1931 and 1939; the long version of the anthem is used for the king, while the short version is used for the prince, prime minister, and occasions such as sporting events
  • Economy :: SPAIN

  • After experiencing a prolonged recession in the wake of the global financial crisis, in 2014 Spain marked the first full year of economic growth in seven years, with growth of 1.4%. At the onset of the global financial crisis Spain's GDP contracted by 3.7% in 2009, ending a 16-year growth trend, and continued contracting through most of 2013. Credit contraction in the private sector, fiscal austerity, and high unemployment continue to weigh on domestic consumption and investment. Exports were resilient throughout the economic downturn and helped to bring Spain's current account into surplus in 2013 for the first time since 1986, where it remained in 2014. The unemployment rate rose from a low of about 8% in 2007 to more than 26% in 2013, closing 2014 at 23.7%. This has strained Spain's public finances as spending on social benefits increased while tax revenues fell. Spain’s budget deficit peaked at 11.4% of GDP in 2010. Spain gradually reduced the deficit to just under 7% of GDP in 2013-14, slightly above the 6.5% target negotiated between Spain and the EU. Public debt has increased substantially – from 60.1% of GDP in 2010 to more than 97% in 2014. Rising labor productivity and an internal devaluation resulting from moderating labor costs and lower inflation have helped to improve foreign investor interest in the economy and positive FDI flows have been restored.
    The government's efforts to implement labor, pension, health, tax, and education reforms, aimed at supporting investor sentiment, have become overshadowed by political activity in 2015 in anticipation of national parliamentary elections late in the year. In 2013 the government successfully shored up struggling banks - exposed to the collapse of Spain's depressed real estate and construction sectors, completing an EU-funded restructuring and recapitalization program in January 2014. Recently increased private consumption helped bring real GDP growth back into positive territory at 1.4% in 2014, and labor reforms prompted a modest reduction in the unemployment rate, from more than 26% in 2013 to 23.7% in 2014. Despite the uptic in economic activity, inflation dropped sharply, from 1.5% in 2013 to flat in 2014. Spain’s 2015 budget, published in September 2014, rolls back some recently imposed taxes in advance of national elections in November 2015 and leaves untouched the country’s value-added tax (VAT) regime, which continues to generate significantly lower revenue than the EU average. Spain’s borrowing costs are dramatically lower since their peak in mid-2012.
    $1.566 trillion (2014 est.)
    $1.545 trillion (2013 est.)
    $1.564 trillion (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2014 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 17
    $1.407 trillion (2014 est.)
    1.4% (2014 est.)
    -1.2% (2013 est.)
    -2.1% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 174
    $33,700 (2014 est.)
    $33,200 (2013 est.)
    $33,700 (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2013 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 51
    19.6% of GDP (2014 est.)
    20.4% of GDP (2013 est.)
    19.9% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 92
    household consumption: 59.1%
    government consumption: 19.4%
    investment in fixed capital: 18%
    investment in inventories: 0.3%
    exports of goods and services: 31.8%
    imports of goods and services: -28.7%
    (2014 est.)
    agriculture: 3.2%
    industry: 25.4%
    services: 71.4% (2014 est.)
    grain, vegetables, olives, wine grapes, sugar beets, citrus; beef, pork, poultry, dairy products; fish
    textiles and apparel (including footwear), food and beverages, metals and metal manufactures, chemicals, shipbuilding, automobiles, machine tools, tourism, clay and refractory products, footwear, pharmaceuticals, medical equipment
    -0.3% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 173
    23.03 million (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 29
    agriculture: 2.9%
    industry: 15%
    services: 58.4% (2014 est.)
    24.5% (2014 est.)
    26.1% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 172
    21.1% (2012 est.)
    lowest 10%: 2.5%
    highest 10%: 24% (2011)
    34 (2011)
    32 (2005)
    country comparison to the world: 96
    revenues: $529.7 billion
    expenditures: $608.8 billion (2014 est.)
    37.8% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 48
    -5.6% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 178
    97.7% of GDP (2014 est.)
    91.6% of GDP (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 15
    calendar year
    -0.2% (2014 est.)
    1.5% (2013 est.)
    0.05% (10 September 2014)
    0.25% (13 November 2013)
    note: this is the European Central Bank's rate on the marginal lending facility, which offers overnight credit to banks in the euro area
    country comparison to the world: 152
    9.4% (31 December 2014 est.)
    9.34% (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 91
    $876.9 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $854 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    note: see entry for the European Union for money supply for the entire euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 18 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money circulating within their own borders
    country comparison to the world: 8
    $2.01 trillion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $2.13 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 9
    $2.611 trillion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $2.902 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 10
    $995.1 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    $1.031 trillion (31 December 2011)
    $1.172 trillion (31 December 2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 16
    $1.598 billion (2014 est.)
    $10.67 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 24
    $317.3 billion (2014 est.)
    $311.4 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 22
    machinery, motor vehicles; foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals, medicines, other consumer goods
    France 16.7%, Germany 10.5%, Portugal 7.8%, Italy 7.3%, UK 7% (2013)
    $337.9 billion (2014 est.)
    $326.5 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 17
    machinery and equipment, fuels, chemicals, semi-finished goods, foodstuffs, consumer goods, measuring and medical control instruments
    Germany 12.2%, France 11.8%, Italy 6.3%, China 5.7%, Netherlands 5%, Portugal 4.1%, UK 4.1% (2013)
    $46.31 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 44
    $2.278 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)
    $2.269 trillion (31 December 2011)
    country comparison to the world: 10
    $851.2 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $801.8 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 11
    $770.8 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $729.3 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 13
    euros (EUR) per US dollar -
    0.7489 (2014 est.)
    0.7634 (2013 est.)
    0.78 (2012 est.)
    0.7185 (2011 est.)
    0.755 (2010 est.)
  • Energy :: SPAIN

  • 276.5 billion kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 15
    243.9 billion kWh (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 14
    17 billion kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 11
    10.21 billion kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 23
    102.3 million kW (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 12
    43% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 167
    7.7% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 21
    19.6% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 94
    30% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 6
    7,340 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 85
    0 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 185
    1.178 million bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 8
    150 million bbl (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 65
    1.261 million bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 18
    1.205 million bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 19
    404,200 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 17
    390,200 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 16
    56 million cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 85
    29.98 billion cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 32
    5.426 billion cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 30
    34.99 billion cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 10
    2.548 billion cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 97
    312.4 million Mt (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 20
  • Communications :: SPAIN

  • 19.22 million (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 15
    50.663 million (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 28
    general assessment: well-developed, modern facilities; fixed-line teledensity exceeds 40 per 100 persons
    domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity exceeds 150 telephones per 100 persons
    international: country code - 34; submarine cables provide connectivity to Europe, Middle East, Asia, and US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), NA Eutelsat; tropospheric scatter to adjacent countries (2011)
    a mixture of both publicly operated and privately owned TV and radio stations; overall, hundreds of TV channels are available including national, regional, local, public, and international channels; satellite and cable TV systems available; multiple national radio networks, a large number of regional radio networks, and a larger number of local radio stations; overall, hundreds of radio stations (2008)
    AM 18, FM 250, shortwave 2 (2008)
    379 (2008)
    .es
    4.228 million (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 26
    28.119 million (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 13
  • Transportation :: SPAIN

  • 150 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 38
    total: 99
    over 3,047 m: 18
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 14
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 19
    914 to 1,523 m: 24
    under 914 m: 24 (2013)
    total: 51
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
    914 to 1,523 m: 13
    under 914 m:
    36 (2013)
    10 (2013)
    gas 10,481 km; oil 616 km; refined products 3,461 km (2013)
    total: 15,293 km
    broad gauge: 11,919 km 1.668-m gauge (6,950 km electrified)
    standard gauge: 1,392 km 1.435-m gauge (1,054 km electrified)
    narrow gauge: 1,954 km 1.000-m gauge (815 km electrified); 28 km 0.914-m gauge (2008)
    country comparison to the world: 19
    total: 683,175 km
    paved: 683,175 km (includes 16,205 km of expressways) (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 11
    1,000 km (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 63
    total: 132
    by type: bulk carrier 7, cargo 19, chemical tanker 8, container 5, liquefied gas 12, passenger/cargo 43, petroleum tanker 18, refrigerated cargo 4, roll on/roll off 9, vehicle carrier 7
    foreign-owned: 27 (Canada 4, Germany 4, Italy 1, Mexico 1, Norway 10, Russia 6, Switzerland 1)
    registered in other countries: 103 (Angola 1, Argentina 3, Bahamas 6, Brazil 12, Cabo Verde 1, Cyprus 6, Ireland 1, Malta 8, Morocco 9, Panama 30, Peru 1, Portugal 18, Uruguay 5, Venezuela 1, unknown 1) (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 44
    major seaport(s): Algeciras, Barcelona, Bilbao, Cartagena, Huelva, Tarragona, Valencia (all in Spain); Las Palmas, Santa Cruz de Tenerife (in the Canary Islands)
    container port(s) (TEUs): Algeciras (3,608,301), Barcelona (2,033,747), Valencia (4,327,371); Las Palmas (1,287,389)
    LNG terminal(s) (import): Barcelona, Bilbao, Cartagena, Huelva, Mugardos, Sagunto
  • Military :: SPAIN

  • Spanish Armed Forces: Army (Ejercito de Tierra), Spanish Navy (Armada Espanola, AE; includes Marine Corps), Spanish Air Force (Ejercito del Aire Espanola, EdA) (2013)
    18-26 years of age for voluntary military service by a Spanish citizen or legal immigrant, 2-3 year obligation; women allowed to serve in all SAF branches, including combat units; no conscription, but Spanish Government retains right to mobilize citizens 19-25 years of age in a national emergency; mandatory retirement of non-NCO enlisted personnel at age 45 or 58, depending on service length (2013)
    males age 16-49: 11,759,557
    females age 16-49: 11,204,688 (2010 est.)
    males age 16-49: 9,603,939
    females age 16-49: 9,116,928 (2010 est.)
    male: 217,244
    female: 205,278 (2010 est.)
    0.86% of GDP (2012)
    0.95% of GDP (2011)
    0.86% of GDP (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 110
  • Transnational Issues :: SPAIN

  • in 2002, Gibraltar residents voted overwhelmingly by referendum to reject any "shared sovereignty" arrangement; the Government of Gibraltar insists on equal participation in talks between the UK and Spain; Spain disapproves of UK plans to grant Gibraltar greater autonomy; Morocco protests Spain's control over the coastal enclaves of Ceuta, Melilla, and the islands of Penon de Velez de la Gomera, Penon de Alhucemas, and Islas Chafarinas, and surrounding waters; both countries claim Isla Perejil (Leila Island); Morocco serves as the primary launching site of illegal migration into Spain from North Africa; Portugal does not recognize Spanish sovereignty over the territory of Olivenza based on a difference of interpretation of the 1815 Congress of Vienna and the 1801 Treaty of Badajoz
    stateless persons: 270 (2014)
    despite rigorous law enforcement efforts, North African, Latin American, Galician, and other European traffickers take advantage of Spain's long coastline to land large shipments of cocaine and hashish for distribution to the European market; consumer for Latin American cocaine and North African hashish; destination and minor transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin; money-laundering site for Colombian narcotics trafficking organizations and organized crime
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