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Africa :: Sudan Print
Page last updated on December 11, 2019
  • Introduction :: Sudan
  • Background field listing

    Military regimes favoring Islamic-oriented governments have dominated national politics since independence from Anglo-Egyptian co-rule in 1956. Sudan was embroiled in two prolonged civil wars during most of the remainder of the 20th century. These conflicts were rooted in northern economic, political, and social domination of largely non-Muslim, non-Arab southern Sudanese. The first civil war ended in 1972 but another broke out in 1983. Peace talks gained momentum in 2002-04 with the signing of several accords. The final North/South Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA), signed in January 2005, granted the southern rebels autonomy for six years followed by a referendum on independence for Southern Sudan. The referendum was held in January 2011 and indicated overwhelming support for independence. South Sudan became independent on 9 July 2011. Sudan and South Sudan have yet to fully implement security and economic agreements signed in September 2012 relating to the normalization of relations between the two countries. The final disposition of the contested Abyei region has also to be decided. The 30-year reign of President Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR ended in a coup in April 2019, and a Transitional Military Council holds power as of May 2019.

    Following South Sudan's independence, conflict broke out between the government and the Sudan People's Liberation Movement-North in Southern Kordofan and Blue Nile states (together known as the Two Areas), resulting in a humanitarian crisis affecting more than a million people. A earlier conflict that broke out in the western region of Darfur in 2003, displaced nearly 2 million people and caused thousands of deaths.  While some repatriation has taken place, about 1.83 million IDPs remain in Sudan as of May 2019. Fighting in both the Two Areas and Darfur between government forces and opposition has largely subsided, however the civilian populations are affected by low-level violence including inter-tribal conflict and banditry, largely a result of weak rule of law. The UN and the African Union have jointly commanded a Darfur peacekeeping operation (UNAMID) since 2007. Peacekeeping troops have struggled to address insecurity in Darfur and have increasingly become targets for attacks by armed groups. Sudan also has faced refugee influxes from neighboring countries, primarily Ethiopia, Eritrea, Chad, Central African Republic, and South Sudan. Armed conflict, poor transport infrastructure, and denial of access by both the government and armed opposition have impeded the provision of humanitarian assistance to affected populations.

  • Geography :: Sudan
  • Location field listing
    north-eastern Africa, bordering the Red Sea, between Egypt and Eritrea
    Geographic coordinates field listing
    15 00 N, 30 00 E
    Map references field listing
    Africa
    Area field listing
    total: 1,861,484 sq km
    land: 1,731,671 sq km
    water: 129,813 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 17
    Area - comparative field listing
    slightly less than one-fifth the size of the US
    Area comparison map: Area comparison map
    Land boundaries field listing
    total: 6,819 km
    border countries (7): Central African Republic 174 km, Chad 1403 km, Egypt 1276 km, Eritrea 682 km, Ethiopia 744 km, Libya 382 km, South Sudan 2158 km

    note: Sudan-South Sudan boundary represents 1 January 1956 alignment; final alignment pending negotiations and demarcation; final sovereignty status of Abyei region pending negotiations between Sudan and South Sudan

    Coastline field listing
    853 km
    Maritime claims field listing
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    contiguous zone: 18 nm
    continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
    Climate field listing
    hot and dry; arid desert; rainy season varies by region (April to November)
    Terrain field listing
    generally flat, featureless plain; desert dominates the north
    Elevation field listing
    mean elevation: 568 m
    lowest point: Red Sea 0 m
    highest point: Jabal Marrah 3,042 m
    Natural resources field listing
    petroleum; small reserves of iron ore, copper, chromium ore, zinc, tungsten, mica, silver, gold; hydropower
    Land use field listing
    agricultural land: 100% (2011 est.)
    arable land: 15.7% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 0.2% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 84.2% (2011 est.)
    forest: 0% (2011 est.)
    other: 0% (2011 est.)
    Irrigated land field listing
    18,900 sq km (2012)
    Population distribution field listing
    with the exception of a ribbon of settlement that corresponds to the banks of the Nile, northern Sudan, which extends into the dry Sahara, is sparsely populated; more abundant vegetation and broader access to water increases population distribution in the south extending habitable range along nearly the entire border with South Sudan; sizeable areas of population are found around Khartoum, southeast between the Blue and White Nile Rivers, and througout South Darfur
    Natural hazards field listing
    dust storms and periodic persistent droughts
    Environment - current issues field listing

    water pollution; inadequate supplies of potable water; water scarcity and periodic drought; wildlife populations threatened by excessive hunting; soil erosion; desertification; deforestation; loss of biodiversity

     

    Environment - international agreements field listing
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    Geography - note field listing
    the Nile is Sudan's primary water source; its major tributaries, the White Nile and the Blue Nile, meet at Khartoum to form the River Nile which flows northward through Egypt to the Mediterranean Sea
  • People and Society :: Sudan
  • Population field listing
    43,120,843 (July 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 33
    Nationality field listing
    noun: Sudanese (singular and plural)
    adjective: Sudanese
    Ethnic groups field listing
    unspecified Sudanese Arab (approximately 70%), Fur, Beja, Nuba, Fallata
    Languages field listing
    Arabic (official), English (official), Nubian, Ta Bedawie, Fur
    Religions field listing
    Sunni Muslim, small Christian minority
    Age structure field listing
    0-14 years: 43.07% (male 9,434,634 /female 9,136,951)
    15-24 years: 20.22% (male 4,459,335 /female 4,259,341)
    25-54 years: 29.8% (male 6,236,954 /female 6,612,593)
    55-64 years: 3.93% (male 876,614 /female 819,048)
    65 years and over: 2.98% (male 688,391 /female 596,982) (2018 est.)
    population pyramad: population pyramad
    Dependency ratios field listing
    total dependency ratio: 81.6 (2015 est.)
    youth dependency ratio: 75.4 (2015 est.)
    elderly dependency ratio: 6.3 (2015 est.)
    potential support ratio: 15.9 (2015 est.)
    Median age field listing
    total: 17.9 years (2018 est.)
    male: 17.7 years
    female: 18.1 years
    country comparison to the world: 214
    Population growth rate field listing
    2.93% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 9
    Birth rate field listing
    34.2 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 23
    Death rate field listing
    6.7 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 139
    Net migration rate field listing
    1.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 52
    Population distribution field listing
    with the exception of a ribbon of settlement that corresponds to the banks of the Nile, northern Sudan, which extends into the dry Sahara, is sparsely populated; more abundant vegetation and broader access to water increases population distribution in the south extending habitable range along nearly the entire border with South Sudan; sizeable areas of population are found around Khartoum, southeast between the Blue and White Nile Rivers, and througout South Darfur
    Urbanization field listing
    urban population: 34.9% of total population (2019)
    rate of urbanization: 3.17% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    Major urban areas - population field listing
    5.678 million KHARTOUM (capital), 878,000 Nyala (2019)
    Sex ratio field listing
    at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 1.15 male(s)/female
    total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2018 est.)
    Maternal mortality rate field listing
    295 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 38
    Infant mortality rate field listing
    total: 44.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    male: 49.2 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 38.8 deaths/1,000 live births
    country comparison to the world: 40
    Life expectancy at birth field listing
    total population: 65.8 years (2018 est.)
    male: 63.7 years
    female: 68.1 years
    country comparison to the world: 177
    Total fertility rate field listing
    4.85 children born/woman (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 17
    Contraceptive prevalence rate field listing
    12.2% (2014)
    Drinking water source field listing
    improved: urban: 66% of population
    rural: 50.2% of population
    total: 55.5% of population
    unimproved: urban: 34% of population
    rural: 49.8% of population
    total: 44.5% of population (2012 est.)
    Current Health Expenditure field listing
    5.7% (2016)
    Physicians density field listing
    0.41 physicians/1,000 population (2015)
    Hospital bed density field listing
    0.8 beds/1,000 population (2013)
    Sanitation facility access field listing
    improved: urban: 43.9% of population (2012 est.)
    rural: 13.4% of population (2012 est.)
    total: 23.6% of population (2012 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 56.1% of population (2012 est.)
    rural: 86.6% of population (2012 est.)
    total: 76.4% of population (2012 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate field listing
    0.2% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 112
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS field listing
    59,000 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 58
    HIV/AIDS - deaths field listing
    2,900 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 37
    Major infectious diseases field listing
    degree of risk: very high (2016)
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever (2016)
    vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and Rift Valley fever (2016)
    water contact diseases: schistosomiasis (2016)
    animal contact diseases: rabies (2016)
    respiratory diseases: meningococcal meningitis (2016)
    Obesity - adult prevalence rate field listing
    6.6% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 166
    Children under the age of 5 years underweight field listing
    33.5% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 5
    Education expenditures field listing
    2.2% of GDP (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 166
    Literacy field listing
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 75.9%
    male: 83.3%
    female: 68.6% (2015 est.)
    School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education) field listing
    total: 8 years
    male: 8 years
    female: 7 years (2015)
    Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 field listing
    total: 20%
    male: 16%
    female: 32% (2009 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 69
  • Government :: Sudan
  • Country name field listing
    conventional long form: Republic of the Sudan
    conventional short form: Sudan
    local long form: Jumhuriyat as-Sudan
    local short form: As-Sudan
    former: Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, Democratic Republic of the Sudan
    etymology: the name "Sudan" derives from the Arabic "bilad-as-sudan" meaning "Land of the Black [peoples]"
    Government type field listing
    presidential republic
    Capital field listing
    name: Khartoum
    geographic coordinates: 15 36 N, 32 32 E
    time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    etymology: several explanations of the name exist; two of the more plausible are that it is derived from Arabic "al-jartum" meaning "elephant's trunk" or "hose," and likely referring to the narrow strip of land extending between the Blue and White Niles; alternatively, the name could derive from the Dinka words "khar-tuom," indicating a "place where rivers meet"
    Administrative divisions field listing
    18 states (wilayat, singular - wilayah); Blue Nile, Central Darfur, East Darfur, Gedaref, Gezira, Kassala, Khartoum, North Darfur, North Kordofan, Northern, Red Sea, River Nile, Sennar, South Darfur, South Kordofan, West Darfur, West Kordofan, White Nile
    Independence field listing
    1 January 1956 (from Egypt and the UK)
    National holiday field listing
    Independence Day, 1 January (1956)
    Constitution field listing
    history: previous 1973, 1998; 2005 (interim constitution, which was suspended in April 2019); latest initial draft completed by Transitional Military Council in May 2019; revised draft known as the "Draft Constitutional Declaration," was signed by the Council and opposition coalition on 4 August 2019
    amendments: proposed by the National Legislature or by the president of the republic; passage requires submission of the proposal to the Legislature at least two months prior to consideration, approval by at least three-quarters majority vote in both houses of the Legislature, and assent of the president; amended 2015 (2017)
    International law organization participation field listing
    accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; withdrew acceptance of ICCt jurisdiction in 2008
    Citizenship field listing
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Sudan
    dual citizenship recognized: no
    residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years
    Suffrage field listing
    17 years of age; universal
    Executive branch field listing
    chief of state: president (vacant); note - as of August 2019, the ruling military council and civilian opposition alliance have signed a power-sharing deal as a "sovereign council," consisting of 6 civilians and 5 generals; chairmanship of the council will rotate for a period of 3 years until elections can be held. Chairman of the Sovereignty Council:  General Abd-al-Fatah al-BURHAN Abd-al-Rahman. (2019)
    head of government:

    president (vacant); note - as of August 2019, the ruling military council and civilian opposition alliance have signed a power-sharing deal as a "sovereign council," consisting of 6 civilians and 5 generals; chairmanship of the council will rotate for a period of 3 years until elections can be held. 

    (2019)
    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president; note - on 11 April 2019 as a result of a military coup, the government was dissolved (2019)
    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed; last held on 13-16 April 2015 (next to be held in 2020); prime minister appointed by the president; note - the position of prime minister was reinstated in December 2016 as a result of the 2015-16 national dialogue process, and President al-BASHIR appointed BAKRI Hassan Salih to the position on 2 March 2017
    election results: Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR reelected president; percent of vote - Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR (NCP) 94.1%, other (15 candidates) 5.9%
    Legislative branch field listing
    description: bicameral National Legislature consists of:
    Council of States or Majlis al-Wilayat (54 seats; members indirectly elected by the state legislatures; members serve 6-year tems)
    National Assembly or Majlis Watani (426 seats; 213 members directly elected in state-level, single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 128 for women only directly elected by national-level, closed party-list proportional representation vote, and 85 directly elected by national-level, party-list proportional representation vote; members serve 6-year terms)
    elections:

    Council of State - last held 1 June 2015 (next to be held NA)
    National Assembly - last held on 13-15 April 2015 (next to be held in 2021)

    election results:
    Council of State - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; composition - men 35, women 19, percent of women 35.2%
    National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NCP 323, DUP 25, Democratic Unionist Party 15, other 44, independent 19; composition - men 296 women 130, percent of women 30.5%; note - total National Legislature percent of women 31%
    Judicial branch field listing
    highest courts: National Supreme Court (consists of 70 judges organized into panels of 3 judges and includes 4 circuits that operate outside the capital); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 justices including the court president); note - the Constitutional Court resides outside the national judiciary
    judge selection and term of office: National Supreme Court and Constitutional Court judges appointed by the president of the republic upon the recommendation of the National Judicial Service Commission, an independent body, chaired by the chief justice, and  other judges and judicial and legal officials; Supreme Court judge tenure NA; Constitutional Court judges serve for 7 years
    subordinate courts: Court of Appeal; other national courts; public courts; district, town, and rural courts
    Political parties and leaders field listing
    Democratic Unionist Party or DUP [Jalal al-DIGAIR]
    Democratic Unionist Party [Muhammad Uthman al-MIRGHANI]
    Federal Umma Party [Dr. Ahmed Babikir NAHAR]
    Muslim Brotherhood or MB
    National Congress Party or NCP (in November 2019, Sudan's transitional government approved a law to "dismantle" the regime of former President Omar al-Bashir, including the dissolution of his political party, the NCP)
    National Umma Party or NUP [Saddiq al-MAHDI]
    Popular Congress Party or PCP [Hassan al-TURABI]
    Reform Movement Now [Dr. Ghazi Salahuddin al-ATABANI]Sudan National Front [Ali Mahmud HASANAYN]
    Sudanese Communist Party or SCP [Mohammed Moktar Al-KHATEEB]
    Sudanese Congress Party or SCoP [Ibrahim Al-SHEIKH]
    Umma Party for Reform and Development
    Unionist Movement Party or UMP
    International organization participation field listing
    ABEDA, ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AU, CAEU, COMESA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAS, MIGA, NAM, OIC, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
    Diplomatic representation in the US field listing
    Ambassador Mohamed ABBAS (since 2017)
    chancery: 2210 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 338-8565
    FAX: [1] (202) 667-2406
    Diplomatic representation from the US field listing
    chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Steven KOUTSIS (since November 2016)
    telephone: [249] 18702-2000
    embassy: P. O. Box 699, Kilo 10, Soba, Khartoum
    mailing address: P.O. Box 699, Kilo 10, Soba, Khartoum; APO AE 09829
    FAX: [249] 18702-2547
    Flag description field listing
    three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black with a green isosceles triangle based on the hoist side; colors and design based on the Arab Revolt flag of World War I, but the meanings of the colors are expressed as follows: red signifies the struggle for freedom, white is the color of peace, light, and love, black represents the people of Sudan (in Arabic 'Sudan' means black), green is the color of Islam, agriculture, and prosperity
    National symbol(s) field listing
    secretary bird; national colors: red, white, black, green
    National anthem field listing
    name: "Nahnu Djundulla Djundulwatan" (We Are the Army of God and of Our Land)
    lyrics/music: Sayed Ahmad Muhammad SALIH/Ahmad MURJAN

    note: adopted 1956; originally served as the anthem of the Sudanese military

  • Economy :: Sudan
  • Economy - overview field listing

    Sudan has experienced protracted social conflict, civil war, and, in July 2011, the loss of three-quarters of its oil production due to the secession of South Sudan. The oil sector had driven much of Sudan's GDP growth since 1999. For nearly a decade, the economy boomed on the back of rising oil production, high oil prices, and significant inflows of foreign direct investment. Since the economic shock of South Sudan's secession, Sudan has struggled to stabilize its economy and make up for the loss of foreign exchange earnings. The interruption of oil production in South Sudan in 2012 for over a year and the consequent loss of oil transit fees further exacerbated the fragile state of Sudan’s economy. Ongoing conflicts in Southern Kordofan, Darfur, and the Blue Nile states, lack of basic infrastructure in large areas, and reliance by much of the population on subsistence agriculture, keep close to half of the population at or below the poverty line.

    Sudan was subject to comprehensive US sanctions, which were lifted in October 2017. Sudan is attempting to develop non-oil sources of revenues, such as gold mining and agriculture, while carrying out an austerity program to reduce expenditures. The world’s largest exporter of gum Arabic, Sudan produces 75-80% of the world’s total output. Agriculture continues to employ 80% of the work force.

    Sudan introduced a new currency, still called the Sudanese pound, following South Sudan's secession, but the value of the currency has fallen since its introduction. Khartoum formally devalued the currency in June 2012, when it passed austerity measures that included gradually repealing fuel subsidies. Sudan also faces high inflation, which reached 47% on an annual basis in November 2012 but fell to about 35% per year in 2017.

    GDP (purchasing power parity) field listing
    $177.4 billion (2017 est.)
    $174.9 billion (2016 est.)
    $169.8 billion (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 71
    GDP (official exchange rate) field listing
    $45.82 billion (2017 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate field listing
    1.4% (2017 est.)
    3% (2016 est.)
    1.3% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 177
    GDP - per capita (PPP) field listing
    $4,300 (2017 est.)
    $4,400 (2016 est.)
    $4,400 (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 174
    Gross national saving field listing
    12.1% of GDP (2017 est.)
    13.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
    12.2% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 149
    GDP - composition, by end use field listing
    household consumption: 77.3% (2017 est.)
    government consumption: 5.8% (2017 est.)
    investment in fixed capital: 18.4% (2017 est.)
    investment in inventories: 0.6% (2017 est.)
    exports of goods and services: 9.7% (2017 est.)
    imports of goods and services: -11.8% (2017 est.)
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin field listing
    agriculture: 39.6% (2017 est.)
    industry: 2.6% (2017 est.)
    services: 57.8% (2017 est.)
    Agriculture - products field listing
    cotton, groundnuts (peanuts), sorghum, millet, wheat, gum Arabic, sugarcane, cassava (manioc, tapioca), mangoes, papaya, bananas, sweet potatoes, sesame seeds; animal feed, sheep and other livestock
    Industries field listing
    oil, cotton ginning, textiles, cement, edible oils, sugar, soap distilling, shoes, petroleum refining, pharmaceuticals, armaments, automobile/light truck assembly, milling
    Industrial production growth rate field listing
    4.5% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 66
    Labor force field listing
    11.92 million (2007 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 49
    Labor force - by occupation field listing
    agriculture: 80%
    industry: 7%
    services: 13% (1998 est.)
    Unemployment rate field listing
    19.6% (2017 est.)
    20.6% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 184
    Population below poverty line field listing
    46.5% (2009 est.)
    Household income or consumption by percentage share field listing
    lowest 10%: 2.7%
    highest 10%: 26.7% (2009 est.)
    Budget field listing
    revenues: 8.48 billion (2017 est.)
    expenditures: 13.36 billion (2017 est.)
    Taxes and other revenues field listing
    18.5% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 159
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) field listing
    -10.6% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 213
    Public debt field listing
    121.6% of GDP (2017 est.)
    99.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 10
    Fiscal year field listing
    calendar year
    Inflation rate (consumer prices) field listing
    32.4% (2017 est.)
    17.8% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 223
    Commercial bank prime lending rate field listing
    13% (31 December 2017 est.)
    12.5% (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 63
    Stock of narrow money field listing
    $18.82 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $11.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 69
    Stock of broad money field listing
    $18.82 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $11.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 70
    Stock of domestic credit field listing
    $28.7 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $20.22 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 81
    Market value of publicly traded shares field listing

    NA

    Current account balance field listing
    -$4.811 billion (2017 est.)
    -$4.213 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 182
    Exports field listing
    $4.1 billion (2017 est.)
    $3.094 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 117
    Exports - partners field listing
    UAE 55.5%, Egypt 14.7%, Saudi Arabia 8.8% (2017)
    Exports - commodities field listing
    gold; oil and petroleum products; cotton, sesame, livestock, peanuts, gum Arabic, sugar
    Imports field listing
    $8.22 billion (2017 est.)
    $7.48 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 110
    Imports - commodities field listing
    foodstuffs, manufactured goods, refinery and transport equipment, medicines, chemicals, textiles, wheat
    Imports - partners field listing
    UAE 12.7%, Egypt 10.6%, India 10.5%, Turkey 10.2%, Japan 7.6%, Saudi Arabia 6%, Germany 4.6% (2017)
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold field listing
    $198 million (31 December 2017 est.)
    $168.3 million (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 177
    Debt - external field listing
    $56.05 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $51.26 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 62
    Stock of direct foreign investment - at home field listing
    $25.47 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 75
    Exchange rates field listing
    Sudanese pounds (SDG) per US dollar -
    6.72 (2017 est.)
    6.14 (2016 est.)
    6.14 (2015 est.)
    6.03 (2014 est.)
    5.74 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: Sudan
  • Electricity access field listing
    population without electricity: 22 million (2017)
    electrification - total population: 45% (2017)
    electrification - urban areas: 71% (2017)
    electrification - rural areas: 31% (2017)
    Electricity - production field listing
    13.99 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 89
    Electricity - consumption field listing
    12.12 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 88
    Electricity - exports field listing
    0 kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 203
    Electricity - imports field listing
    0 kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 205
    Electricity - installed generating capacity field listing
    3.437 million kW (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 96
    Electricity - from fossil fuels field listing
    44% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 162
    Electricity - from nuclear fuels field listing
    0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 188
    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants field listing
    51% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 39
    Electricity - from other renewable sources field listing
    6% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 104
    Crude oil - production field listing
    95,000 bbl/day (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 43
    Crude oil - exports field listing
    19,540 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 50
    Crude oil - imports field listing
    9,440 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 73
    Crude oil - proved reserves field listing
    5 billion bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 22
    Refined petroleum products - production field listing
    94,830 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 68
    Refined petroleum products - consumption field listing
    112,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 75
    Refined petroleum products - exports field listing
    8,541 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 85
    Refined petroleum products - imports field listing
    24,340 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 108
    Natural gas - production field listing
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 201
    Natural gas - consumption field listing
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 202
    Natural gas - exports field listing
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 190
    Natural gas - imports field listing
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 193
    Natural gas - proved reserves field listing
    84.95 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 55
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy field listing
    16.03 million Mt (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 92
  • Communications :: Sudan
  • Telephones - fixed lines field listing
    total subscriptions: 143,280
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 130
    Telephones - mobile cellular field listing
    total subscriptions: 28,644,139
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 77 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 45
    Telephone system field listing
    general assessment: well-equipped system by regional standards and being upgraded; cellular communications started in 1996 and have expanded substantially with wide coverage of most major cities; economic climate has not encouraged growth in telecoms, but some investment has been made to build mobile towers and expand LTE services (2018)
    domestic: consists of microwave radio relay, cable, fiber optic, radiotelephone communications, tropospheric scatter, and a domestic satellite system with 14 earth stations; teledensity fixed-line less than 1 per 100 and mobile-cellular 77 telephones per 100 persons (2018)
    international: country code - 249; linked to the EASSy and FLAG fiber-optic submarine cable systems; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Arabsat; Govt plans to build fibre network to connect submarine cables via Uganda (2017)
    Broadcast media field listing
    the Sudanese Government directly controls TV and radio, requiring that both media reflect government policies; TV has a permanent military censor; a private radio station is in operation (2019)
    Internet country code field listing
    .sd
    Internet users field listing
    total: 10,284,260
    percent of population: 28% (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 47
    Broadband - fixed subscriptions field listing
    total: 31,082
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 140
  • Military and Security :: Sudan
  • Military expenditures field listing
    2.28% of GDP (2018)
    3.91% of GDP (2017)
    2.96% of GDP (2016)
    2.8% of GDP (2015)
    country comparison to the world: 40
    Military and security forces field listing
    Sudanese Armed Forces (SAF): Ground Force, Navy, Sudanese Air Force; Rapid Support Forces (paramilitary); Popular Defense Forces (paramilitary) (2019)
    Military service age and obligation field listing
    18-33 years of age for male and female compulsory or voluntary military service; 1-2 year service obligation (2013)
    Military - note field listing
    United Nations Interim Security Force for Abyei (UNISFA) has operated in the disputed Abyei region along the border between Sudan and South Sudan since 2011; UNISFA's mission includes ensuring security, protecting civilians, strengthening the capacity of the Abyei Police Service, de-mining, monitoring/verifying the redeployment of armed forces from the area, and facilitating the flow of humanitarian aid; UNISFA had about 4,400 personnel deployed as of July 2019

    In addition, the United Nations African Union Hybrid Operation in Darfur (UNAMID) has operated in the war-torn Darfur region since 2007; UNAMID is a joint African Union-UN peacekeeping force with the mission of bringing stability to Darfur, including protecting civilians, facilitating humanitarian assistance, and promoting mediation efforts, while peace talks on a final settlement continue; as of October 2019, UNAMID had about 7,800 personnel deployed

        (2019)
  • Transportation :: Sudan
  • National air transport system field listing
    number of registered air carriers: 6 (2015)
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 25 (2015)
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 496,178 (2015)
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 13,161,592 mt-km (2015)
    Civil aircraft registration country code prefix field listing
    ST (2016)
    Airports field listing
    74 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 71
    Airports - with paved runways field listing
    total: 16 (2013)
    over 3,047 m: 2 (2013)
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 10 (2013)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (2013)
    under 914 m: 2 (2013)
    Airports - with unpaved runways field listing
    total: 58 (2013)
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 17 (2013)
    914 to 1,523 m: 28 (2013)
    under 914 m: 12 (2013)
    Heliports field listing
    6 (2013)
    Pipelines field listing
    156 km gas, 4070 km oil, 1613 km refined products (2013)
    Railways field listing
    total: 7,251 km (2014)
    narrow gauge: 5,851 km 1.067-m gauge (2014)
    1,400 km 0.600-m gauge for cotton plantations
    country comparison to the world: 31
    Roadways field listing
    Waterways field listing
    4,068 km (1,723 km open year-round on White and Blue Nile Rivers) (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 24
    Merchant marine field listing
    total: 18
    by type: general cargo 1, other 17 (2018)
    country comparison to the world: 140
    Ports and terminals field listing
    major seaport(s): Port Sudan
  • Transnational Issues :: Sudan
  • Disputes - international field listing

    the effects of Sudan's ethnic and rebel militia fighting since the mid-20th century have penetrated all of the neighboring states; Chad wishes to be a helpful mediator in resolving the Darfur conflict, and in 2010 established a joint border monitoring force with Sudan, which has helped to reduce cross-border banditry and violence; as of early 2019, more than 590,000 Sudanese refugees are being hosted in the Central African Republic, Chad, Egypt, Ethiopia, Kenya, and South Sudan; Sudan, in turn, is hosting more than 975,000 refugees and asylum seekers, including more than 845,000 from South Sudan; Sudan accuses South Sudan of supporting Sudanese rebel groups; Sudan claims but Egypt de facto administers security and economic development of the Halaib region north of the 22nd parallel boundary; periodic violent skirmishes with Sudanese residents over water and grazing rights persist among related pastoral populations along the border with the Central African Republic; South Sudan-Sudan boundary represents 1 January 1956 alignment, final alignment pending negotiations and demarcation; final sovereignty status of Abyei Area pending negotiations between South Sudan and Sudan

    Refugees and internally displaced persons field listing
    refugees (country of origin): 810,155 (South Sudan) (refugees and asylum seekers), 121,156 (Eritrea) (refugees and asylum seekers), 93,502 (Syria) (refugees and asylum seekers), 14,272 (Ethiopia) (refugees and asylum seekers), 9,289 (Central African Republic) (2019)
    IDPs: 2.072 million (civil war 1983-2005; ongoing conflict in Darfur region; government and rebel fighting along South Sudan border; inter-tribal clashes) (2018)
    Trafficking in persons field listing
    current situation: Sudan is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children who are subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; Sudanese women and girls, particularly those from rural areas or who are internally displaced, or refugees are vulnerable to domestic servitude in country, as well as domestic servitude and sex trafficking abroad; migrants from East and West Africa, South Sudan, Syria, and Nigeria smuggled into or through Sudan are vulnerable to exploitation; Ethiopian, Eritrean, and Filipino women are subjected to domestic servitude in Sudanese homes, and East African and possibly Thai women are forced into prostitution in Sudan; Sudanese children continue to be recruited and used as combatants by government forces and armed groups
    tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Sudan does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; the government increased its efforts to publically address and prevent trafficking, established a national anti-trafficking council, and began drafting a national action plan against trafficking; the government acknowledges cross-border trafficking but still denies the existence of forced labor, sex trafficking, and the recruitment of child soldiers domestically; law enforcement and judicial officials struggled to apply the national anti-trafficking law, often relying on other statutes with lesser penalties; authorities did not use systematic procedure to identify victims or refer them to care and relied on international organizations and domestic groups to provide protective services; some foreign victims were penalized for unlawful acts committed as a direct result of being trafficked, such as immigration or prostitution violations (2015)