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Africa :: Sudan
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Sudan
  • Introduction :: SUDAN

  • Military regimes favoring Islamic-oriented governments have dominated national politics since independence from Anglo-Egyptian co-rule in 1956. Sudan was embroiled in two prolonged civil wars during most of the remainder of the 20th century. These conflicts were rooted in northern economic, political, and social domination of largely non-Muslim, non-Arab southern Sudanese. The first civil war ended in 1972 but another broke out in 1983. Peace talks gained momentum in 2002-04 with the signing of several accords. The final North/South Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA), signed in January 2005, granted the southern rebels autonomy for six years followed by a referendum on independence for Southern Sudan. The referendum was held in January 2011 and indicated overwhelming support for independence. South Sudan became independent on 9 July 2011. Sudan and South Sudan have yet to fully implement security and economic agreements signed on September 27, 2012 relating to the normalization of relations between the two countries. The final disposition of the contested Abyei region has also to be decided. Since South Sudan's independence, conflict has broken out between the government and the Sudan People's Liberation Movement-North (SPLM-N) in Southern Kordofan and Blue Nile states, which has resulted in 1.2 million internally displaced persons or severely affected persons in need of humanitarian assistance. A separate conflict, which broke out in the western region of Darfur in 2003, has displaced nearly two million people and caused an estimated 200,000 to 400,000 deaths. Violence in Darfur in 2013 resulted in an additional estimated 6,000 civilians killed and 500,000 displaced. The UN and the African Union have jointly commanded a Darfur peacekeeping operation known as the African Union-United Nations Hybrid Mission in Darfur (UNAMID) since 2007. Peacekeeping troops have struggled to stabilize the situation and have increasingly become targets for attacks by armed groups. In 2013, 16 peacekeepers were killed, UNAMID's deadliest year so far. Sudan also has faced refugee influxes from neighboring countries, primarily Ethiopia, Eritrea, Chad, Central African Republic, and South Sudan. Armed conflict, poor transport infrastructure, and government denial of access have impeded the provision of humanitarian assistance to affected populations.
  • Geography :: SUDAN

  • north-eastern Africa, bordering the Red Sea, between Egypt and Eritrea
    15 00 N, 30 00 E
    Africa
    total: 1,861,484 sq km
    land: NA
    water: NA
    country comparison to the world: 16
    slightly less than one-fifth the size of the US
    total: 6,819 km
    border countries (7): Central African Republic 174 km, Chad 1,403 km, Egypt 1,276 km, Eritrea 682 km, Ethiopia 744 km, Libya 382 km, South Sudan 2,158 km
    note: Sudan-South Sudan boundary represents 1 January 1956 alignment; final alignment pending negotiations and demarcation; final sovereignty status of Abyei region pending negotiations between Sudan and South Sudan
    853 km
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    contiguous zone: 18 nm
    continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation
    hot and dry; arid desert; rainy season varies by region (April to November)
    generally flat, featureless plain; desert dominates the north
    lowest point: Red Sea 0 m
    highest point: Jabal Marrah 3,071 m
    petroleum; small reserves of iron ore, copper, chromium ore, zinc, tungsten, mica, silver, gold; hydropower
    arable land: 6.76%
    permanent crops: 0.07%
    other: 93.17% (2011 est.)
    18,900 sq km (2010)
    64.5 cu km (2011)
    total: 27.59 cu km/yr (4%/1%/95%)
    per capita: 683.4 cu m/yr (2005)
    dust storms and periodic persistent droughts
    inadequate supplies of potable water; wildlife populations threatened by excessive hunting; soil erosion; desertification; periodic drought
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    dominated by the Nile and its tributaries
  • People and Society :: SUDAN

  • noun: Sudanese (singular and plural)
    adjective: Sudanese
    Sudanese Arab (approximately 70%), Fur, Beja, Nuba, Fallata
    Arabic (official), English (official), Nubian, Ta Bedawie, Fur
    note: program of "Arabization" in process
    Sunni Muslim, small Christian minority
    35,482,233 (July 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 37
    0-14 years: 40.8% (male 7,356,059/female 7,131,497)
    15-24 years: 20.2% (male 3,704,700/female 3,476,847)
    25-54 years: 31.8% (male 5,465,816/female 5,800,619)
    55-64 years: 3.9% (male 737,831/female 652,428)
    65 years and over: 3.3% (male 633,083/female 523,353) (2014 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 79%
    youth dependency ratio: 73.1%
    elderly dependency ratio: 5.9%
    potential support ratio: 17.1% (2014 est.)
    total: 19.1 years
    male: 18.9 years
    female: 19.4 years (2014 est.)
    1.78% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 68
    30.01 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 42
    7.87 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 104
    -4.36 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 192
    urban population: 33.6% of total population (2014)
    rate of urbanization: 2.54% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    KHARTOUM (capital) 5 million (2014)
    at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 1.24 male(s)/female
    total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2014 est.)
    360 deaths/100,000 live births (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 9
    total: 52.86 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 58.29 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 47.15 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 34
    total population: 63.32 years
    male: 61.27 years
    female: 65.46 years (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 186
    3.92 children born/woman (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 40
    9% (2010)
    6.5% of GDP (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 75
    0.28 physicians/1,000 population (2008)
    0.8 beds/1,000 population (2012)
    improved:
    urban: 66% of population
    rural: 50.2% of population
    total: 55.5% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 34% of population
    rural: 49.8% of population
    total: 44.5% of population (2012 est.)
    improved:
    urban: 43.9% of population
    rural: 13.4% of population
    total: 23.6% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 56.1% of population
    rural: 86.6% of population
    total: 76.4% of population (2012 est.)
    0.24% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 89
    49,300 (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 56
    3,100 (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 46
    degree of risk: very high
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
    vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and Rift Valley fever
    water contact disease: schistosomiasis
    respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
    animal contact disease: rabies
    note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2013)
    6.6% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 150
    27% (2006)
    country comparison to the world: 21
    2.2% of GDP (2009)
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 75.9%
    male: 83.3%
    female: 68.6% (2015 est.)
    total: 7 years
    male: 7 years
    female: 7 years (2012)
  • Government :: SUDAN

  • conventional long form: Republic of the Sudan
    conventional short form: Sudan
    local long form: Jumhuriyat as-Sudan
    local short form: As-Sudan
    former: Anglo-Egyptian Sudan
    federal republic ruled by the National Congress Party (NCP), which seized power by military coup in 1989; the CPA-mandated Government of National Unity, which between 2005 and 2011 provided a percentage of leadership posts to the southern Sudan-based Sudan People's Liberation Movement (SPLM), was disbanded following the secession of South Sudan
    name: Khartoum
    geographic coordinates: 15 36 N, 32 32 E
    time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    18 states (wilayat, singular - wilayah); Al Bahr al Ahmar (Red Sea), Al Jazira (Gezira), Al Khartoum (Khartoum), Al Qadarif (Gedaref), An Nil al Abyad (White Nile), An Nil al Azraq (Blue Nile), Ash Shimaliyya (Northern), Gharb Darfur (West Darfur), Gharb Kurdufan (West Korodfan), Janub Darfur (South Darfur), Janub Kurdufan (South Kordofan), Kassala, Nahr an Nil (River Nile), Sharq Darfur (East Darfur), Shimal Darfur (North Darfur), Shimal Kurdufan (North Kordofan), Sinnar, Wasat Darfur (Central Darfur)
    1 January 1956 (from Egypt and the UK)
    Independence Day, 1 January (1956)
    previous 1998; latest (interim) adopted 6 July 2005, effective 9 July 2005; note - in 2011, the Government of Sudan initiated a process for drafting a new constitution (2013)
    mixed legal system of Islamic law and English common law
    accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; withdrew acceptance of ICCt jurisdiction in 2008
    17 years of age; universal
    chief of state: President Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR (since 16 October 1993); First Vice President BAKRI Hassan Salih (since 3 December 2013), Second Vice President Hasabu Mohamed ABDEL RAHMIN (since 3 December 2013); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
    head of government: President Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR (since 16 October 1993); First Vice President BAKRI Hassan Salih; Second Vice President Hasabu Mohamed ABDEL RAHMAN (both since 9 December 2013)
    cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by the president; note - the NCP (formerly the National Islamic Front or NIF) dominates al-BASHIR's cabinet
    elections: last held on 13-15 April 2010 (next to be held in 2020)
    election results: Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR reelected president; percent of vote - Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR 94.05%, other (15 candidates) 5.95%
    note: al-BASHIR assumed power as chairman of Sudan's Revolutionary Command Council for National Salvation (RCC) in June 1989 and served concurrently as chief of state, chairman of the RCC, prime minister, and minister of defense until mid-October 1993 when he was appointed president by the RCC; he was elected president by popular vote for the first time in March 1996
    description: bicameral National Legislature consists of the Council of States or Majlis Weleyat (50 seats; members indirectly elected - 2 each by the 25 state legislatures to serve 6-year terms) and the National Assembly or Majlis Watani (450 seats; 270 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 112 for women only directly elected by proportional representation vote, and 68 directly elected by proportional representation vote; members serve 6-year terms)
    elections: last held on 13-15 April 2015 (next to be held in 2021)
    election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NCP 323, other NA (preliminary)
    note: the mandate of the members from the south was terminated upon independence by the Republic of South Sudan effective 9 July 2011 and membership in Sudan's National Assembly was reduced to 354; it is unclear whether this total will be retained for the next election or whether the previous total of 450 will be reconstituted
    highest court(s): National Supreme Court (consists of 70 judges organized into panels of 3 judges; court includes 4 circuits that operate outside the capital); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 justices including the court president); note - the Constitutional Court resides outside the national judiciary
    judge selection and term of office: National Supreme Court and Constitutional Court judges appointed by the president of the republic upon the recommendation of the National Judicial Service Commission, an independent body chaired by the chief justice of the republic and members including other judges and judicial and legal officials; Supreme Court judge tenure NA; Constitutional Court judges appointed for 7 years
    subordinate courts: National Court of Appeals; other national courts (not specified in the 2005 Interim National Constitution as to national or local authority); township and rural (peoples') courts
    Democratic Unionist Party or DUP [Muhammad Uthman al-MIRGHANI]
    Muslim Brotherhood or MB
    National Congress Party or NCP [Umar Hassan al-BASHIR]
    National Umma Party or UP [Siddiq al-MAHDI]
    Popular Congress Party or PCP [Hassan al-TURABI]
    Reform Now Party or RNP [Dr. Ghazi Salah ADDEEN]
    Sudanese Communist Party (SCP) [Mohammed Moktar Al-KHATEEB]
    Sudanese Congress Party [Ibrahim Al Shiek ABDULRAHMAN]
    Unionist Movement Party or UMP [Nagla AL-AZHARI]
    Darfur rebel groups including the Justice and Equality Movement or JEM [Gibril Fidail IBRAHIM], the Sudan Liberation Movement or SLM-AW [Abdel Wahid NUR] [various factional leaders], Sudan Liberation or SLM-MM /[Minni Arkou MINAWI]
    National Consensus Front (NCF) [Farouq ABU ISSA]
    Sudan People's Liberation Movement-North (SPLM-N) [Malik AGAR]
    Sudan Revolutionary Front (SRF) [Malik AGAR]
    ABEDA, ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AU, CAEU, COMESA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAS, MIGA, NAM, OIC, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
    chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires FATAHELRAMAN Ali Mohamed (since mid-2014)
    chancery: 2210 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 338-8565
    FAX: [1] (202) 667-2406
    chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Ambassador Jerry P. LANIER
    embassy: Sharia Ali Abdul Latif Street, Khartoum
    mailing address: P.O. Box 699, Kilo 10, Soba, Khartoum; APO AE 09829
    telephone: [249] (187)-0-(22000)
    FAX: [249] (183) 774-137
    three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black with a green isosceles triangle based on the hoist side; colors and design based on the Arab Revolt flag of World War I, but the meanings of the colors are expressed as follows: red signifies the struggle for freedom, white is the color of peace, light, and love, black represents Sudan itself (in Arabic 'Sudan' means black), green is the color of Islam, agriculture, and prosperity
    secretary bird; national colors: red, white, black, green
    name: "Nahnu Djundulla Djundulwatan" (We Are the Army of God and of Our Land)
    lyrics/music: Sayed Ahmad Muhammad SALIH/Ahmad MURJAN
    note: adopted 1956; originally served as the anthem of the Sudanese military
  • Economy :: SUDAN

  • Sudan is an extremely poor country that has experienced protracted social conflict, civil war, and, in July 2011, the loss of three-quarters of its oil production due to the secession of South Sudan. The oil sector had driven much of Sudan's GDP growth since 1999. For nearly a decade, the economy boomed on the back of rising oil production, high oil prices, and significant inflows of foreign direct investment. Since the economic shock of South Sudan's secession, Sudan has struggled to stabilize its economy and make up for the loss of foreign exchange earnings. The interruption of oil production in South Sudan in 2012 for over a year and the consequent loss of oil transit fees further exacerbated the fragile state of Sudan’s economy. Sudan is also subject to comprehensive US sanctions. Sudan is attempting to develop non-oil sources of revenues, such as gold mining, while carrying out an austerity program to reduce expenditures. The world’s largest exporter of gum Arabic, Sudan produces 75-80% of the world’s total output. Agriculture continues to employ 80% of the work force. Sudan introduced a new currency, still called the Sudanese pound, following South Sudan's secession, but the value of the currency has fallen since its introduction. Khartoum formally devalued the currency in June 2012, when it passed austerity measures that included gradually repealing fuel subsidies. Sudan also faces rising inflation, which reached 47% on an annual basis in November 2012, but subsided to 37% in 2014. Ongoing conflicts in Southern Kordofan, Darfur, and the Blue Nile states, lack of basic infrastructure in large areas, and reliance by much of the population on subsistence agriculture keep close to half of the population at or below the poverty line.
    $159.5 billion (2014 est.)
    $154.8 billion (2013 est.)
    $149.9 billion (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2014 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 70
    $70.03 billion (2014 est.)
    3% (2014 est.)
    3.3% (2013 est.)
    -2.7% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 109
    $4,500 (2014 est.)
    $4,500 (2013 est.)
    $4,500 (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2013 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 175
    11.1% of GDP (2014 est.)
    11.4% of GDP (2013 est.)
    9.5% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 143
    household consumption: 81.1%
    government consumption: 11.7%
    investment in fixed capital: 21.3%
    investment in inventories: 2%
    exports of goods and services: 5.4%
    imports of goods and services: -21.6%
    (2014 est.)
    agriculture: 26.8%
    industry: 35.6%
    services: 37.7% (2014 est.)
    cotton, groundnuts (peanuts), sorghum, millet, wheat, gum arabic, sugarcane, cassava (manioc, tapioca), mangoes, papaya, bananas, sweet potatoes, sesame seeds; sheep and other livestock
    oil, cotton ginning, textiles, cement, edible oils, sugar, soap distilling, shoes, petroleum refining, pharmaceuticals, armaments, automobile/light truck assembly
    2.9% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 102
    11.92 million (2007 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 48
    agriculture: 80%
    industry: 7%
    services: 13% (1998 est.)
    20% (2012 est.)
    18.7% (2002 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 161
    46.5% (2009 est.)
    lowest 10%: 2.7%
    highest 10%: 26.7% (2009 est.)
    revenues: $7.313 billion
    expenditures: $9.119 billion (2014 est.)
    10.4% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 205
    -2.6% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 98
    71.3% of GDP (2014 est.)
    78.1% of GDP (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 38
    calendar year
    40.6% (2014 est.)
    37.1% (2013 est.)
    $8.459 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $7.055 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 83
    $13.7 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $11.65 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 97
    $15.41 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $13.29 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 92
    $NA
    -$5.762 billion (2014 est.)
    -$4.481 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 171
    $7.185 billion (2014 est.)
    $7.086 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 105
    gold; oil and petroleum products; cotton, sesame, livestock, peanuts, gum arabic, sugar
    UAE 33.6%, China 31.5%, Japan 6.5%, Saudi Arabia 4.9%, India 4.6% (2013)
    $9.247 billion (2014 est.)
    $8.728 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 107
    foodstuffs, manufactured goods, refinery and transport equipment, medicines, chemicals, textiles, wheat
    China 25.9%, India 8.5%, Saudi Arabia 7.3%, Egypt 6.6%, UAE 4.8% (2013)
    $1.197 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $193 million (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 130
    $47.45 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $44.76 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 65
    $32.43 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    $27.45 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 63
    Sudanese pounds (SDG) per US dollar -
    5.79 (2014 est.)
    4.76 (2013 est.)
    3.57 (2012 est.)
    2.68 (2011 est.)
    2.31 (2010 est.)
  • Energy :: SUDAN

  • 7.193 billion kWh (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 107
    5.665 billion kWh (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 108
    0 kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 200
    0 kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 204
    2.083 million kW (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 106
    30.7% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 180
    0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 182
    66.3% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 30
    3% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 68
    28,830 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 65
    1.25 billion bbl (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 40
    124,900 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 70
    95,450 bbl/day (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 78
    14,950 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 76
    4,349 bbl/day (2008 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 160
    0 cu m (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 194
    0 cu m (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 196
    0 cu m (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 183
    0 cu m (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 133
    21.24 billion cu m (1 January 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 74
    16.45 million Mt (2011 est.)
  • Communications :: SUDAN

  • 425,000 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 101
    27.659 million (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 38
    general assessment: well-equipped system by regional standards and being upgraded; cellular communications started in 1996 and have expanded substantially with wide coverage of most major cities
    domestic: consists of microwave radio relay, cable, fiber optic, radiotelephone communications, tropospheric scatter, and a domestic satellite system with 14 earth stations
    international: country code - 249; linked to the EASSy and FLAG fiber-optic submarine cable systems; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Arabsat (2010)
    the Sudanese Government directly controls TV and radio, requiring that both media reflect government policies; TV has a permanent military censor; a private radio station is in operation (2007)
    AM 12, FM 1, shortwave 1 (1998)
    3 (1997)
    .sd
    99 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 210
    4.2 million (2008)
    country comparison to the world: 54
  • Transportation :: SUDAN

  • 74 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 71
    total: 16
    over 3,047 m: 2
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 10
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
    under 914 m: 2 (2013)
    total: 58
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 17
    914 to 1,523 m: 28
    under 914 m:
    12 (2013)
    6 (2013)
    gas 156 km; oil 4,070 km; refined products 1,613 km (2013)
    total: 5,978 km
    narrow gauge: 4,578 km 1.067-m gauge; 1,400 km 0.600-m gauge for cotton plantations (2008)
    country comparison to the world: 30
    total: 11,900 km
    paved: 4,320 km
    unpaved: 7,580 km (2000)
    country comparison to the world: 128
    4,068 km (1,723 km open year round on White and Blue Nile rivers) (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 24
    total: 2
    by type: cargo 2 (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 143
    major seaport(s): Port Sudan
  • Military :: SUDAN

  • Sudanese Armed Forces (SAF): Land Forces, Navy (includes Marines), Sudanese Air Force (Sikakh al-Jawwiya as-Sudaniya), Popular Defense Forces (2011)
    18-33 years of age for male and female compulsory or voluntary military service; 1-2 year service obligation; a requirement that completion of national service was mandatory before entering public or private sector employment has been cancelled (2012)
    males age 16-49: 10,433,973
    females age 16-49: 10,411,443 (2010 est.)
    males age 16-49: 6,475,530
    females age 16-49: 6,840,885 (2010 est.)
    male: 532,030
    female: 512,476 (2010 est.)
  • Transnational Issues :: SUDAN

  • the effects of Sudan's almost constant ethnic and rebel militia fighting since the mid-20th century have penetrated all of the neighboring states; Chad wishes to be a helpful mediator in resolving the Darfur conflict, and in 2010 established a joint border monitoring force with Sudan, which has helped to reduce cross-border banditry and violence; as of mid-2013, Chad, Egypt, Ethiopia, Israel, the Central African Republic, and South Sudan provided shelter for more than 600,000 Sudanese refugees; during the same period, Sudan, in turn, hosted about 115,000 Eritreans, 32,000 Chadians, and smaller numbers of Ethiopians and Central Africans; Sudan accuses Eritrea of supporting Sudanese rebel groups; efforts to demarcate the porous boundary with Ethiopia proceed slowly due to civil and ethnic fighting in eastern Sudan; Sudan claims but Egypt de facto administers security and economic development of the Halaib region north of the 22nd parallel boundary; periodic violent skirmishes with Sudanese residents over water and grazing rights persist among related pastoral populations along the border with the Central African Republic; South Sudan-Sudan boundary represents 1 January 1956 alignment, final alignment pending negotiations and demarcation; final sovereignty status of Abyei Area pending negotiations between South Sudan and Sudan
    refugees (country of origin): 109,594 (Eritrea); 42,062 (Chad) (2014); 143,363 (South Sudan) (2015)
    IDPs: 3.1 million (civil war 1983-2005; ongoing conflict in Darfur region; government and rebel fighting along South Sudan border; inter-tribal clashes) (2015)
    current situation: Sudan is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children who are subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; Sudanese women and girls, particularly those from rural areas or who are internally displaced, are vulnerable to forced labor as domestic workers in homes throughout the country; Sudanese women and girls are subjected to domestic servitude in Middle Eastern countries and to forced sex trafficking in Europe; some Sudanese men who voluntarily migrate to the Middle East as low-skilled laborers face conditions indicative of forced labor; Sudanese children in Darfur are forcibly conscripted, at times through abduction, and used by armed groups and government security forces, while Sudanese children in Saudi Arabia are used in forced begging and street vending; Sudan is a transit and destination country for Ethiopian, Eritrean, and Filipina women subjected to domestic servitude in Sudan and Middle Eastern countries, as well as a destination country for women sex trafficked from East African countries and possibly Thailand
    tier rating: Tier 3 - Sudan does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and is not making significant efforts to do so; in 2013, the government enacted an anti-trafficking law, raised the age of military recruitment to 18, rescued and assisted an increased number of trafficking victims, and made efforts to bring traffickers to justice; however, its law enforcement, protection, or prevention measures to address human trafficking remained ad hoc; the government did not employ a system for proactively identifying trafficking victims among vulnerable population or a referral process for transferring victims to organizations providing care; in 2013, Sudan’s armed forces and proxy militia continued to recruit child soldiers and did not conclude a proposed joint action plan with the UN to address the issue (2014)
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