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Europe :: Sweden
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Sweden
  • Introduction :: SWEDEN

  • A military power during the 17th century, Sweden has not participated in any war for two centuries. An armed neutrality was preserved in both world wars. Sweden's long-successful economic formula of a capitalist system intermixed with substantial welfare elements was challenged in the 1990s by high unemployment and in 2000-02 and 2009 by the global economic downturns, but fiscal discipline over the past several years has allowed the country to weather economic vagaries. Sweden joined the EU in 1995, but the public rejected the introduction of the euro in a 2003 referendum.
  • Geography :: SWEDEN

  • Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, Kattegat, and Skagerrak, between Finland and Norway
    62 00 N, 15 00 E
    Europe
    total: 450,295 sq km
    land: 410,335 sq km
    water: 39,960 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 56
    slightly larger than California
    total: 2,211 km
    border countries (2): Finland 545 km, Norway 1,666 km
    3,218 km
    territorial sea: 12 nm (adjustments made to return a portion of straits to high seas)
    exclusive economic zone: agreed boundaries or midlines
    continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation
    temperate in south with cold, cloudy winters and cool, partly cloudy summers; subarctic in north
    mostly flat or gently rolling lowlands; mountains in west
    lowest point: reclaimed bay of Lake Hammarsjon, near Kristianstad -2.4 m
    highest point: Kebnekaise 2,111 m
    iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, gold, silver, tungsten, uranium, arsenic, feldspar, timber, hydropower
    agricultural land: 7.5%
    arable land 6.4%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 1.1%
    forest: 68.7%
    other: 23.8% (2011 est.)
    1,597 sq km (2007)
    174 cu km (2011)
    total: 2.62 cu km/yr (37%/59%/4%)
    per capita: 285.6 cu m/yr (2007)
    ice floes in the surrounding waters, especially in the Gulf of Bothnia, can interfere with maritime traffic
    acid rain damage to soils and lakes; pollution of the North Sea and the Baltic Sea
    party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    strategic location along Danish Straits linking Baltic and North Seas
  • People and Society :: SWEDEN

  • noun: Swede(s)
    adjective: Swedish
    indigenous population: Swedes with Finnish and Sami minorities; foreign-born or first-generation immigrants: Finns, Yugoslavs, Danes, Norwegians, Greeks, Turks
    Swedish (official), small Sami- and Finnish-speaking minorities
    Lutheran 87%, other (includes Roman Catholic, Orthodox, Baptist, Muslim, Jewish, and Buddhist) 13%
    9,723,809 (July 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 91
    0-14 years: 16.9% (male 847,611/female 800,213)
    15-24 years: 12.3% (male 617,054/female 582,755)
    25-54 years: 39.2% (male 1,937,091/female 1,872,070)
    55-64 years: 11.7% (male 571,079/female 568,093)
    65 years and over: 19.8% (male 882,653/female 1,045,190) (2014 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 58.3%
    youth dependency ratio: 27.1%
    elderly dependency ratio: 31.1%
    potential support ratio: 3.2% (2014 est.)
    total: 41.2 years
    male: 40.2 years
    female: 42.2 years (2014 est.)
    0.79% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 140
    11.92 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 167
    9.45 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 57
    5.46 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 25
    urban population: 85.7% of total population (2014)
    rate of urbanization: 0.83% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    STOCKHOLM (capital) 1.464 million (2014)
    at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2014 est.)
    28.9 (2010 est.)
    4 deaths/100,000 live births (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 179
    total: 2.6 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 2.88 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 2.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 219
    total population: 81.89 years
    male: 80.03 years
    female: 83.87 years (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 12
    1.88 children born/woman (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 142
    9.7% of GDP (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 27
    3.93 physicians/1,000 population (2011)
    2.7 beds/1,000 population (2011)
    improved:
    urban: 100% of population
    rural: 100% of population
    total: 100% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 0% of population
    rural: 0% of population
    total: 0% of population (2012 est.)
    improved:
    urban: 100% of population
    rural: 100% of population
    total: 100% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 0% of population
    rural: 0% of population
    total: 0% of population (2012 est.)
    NA
    NA
    NA
    22% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 104
    6.8% of GDP (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 20
    total: 16 years
    male: 15 years
    female: 17 years (2012)
    total: 23.7%
    male: 25%
    female: 22.3% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 40
  • Government :: SWEDEN

  • conventional long form: Kingdom of Sweden
    conventional short form: Sweden
    local long form: Konungariket Sverige
    local short form: Sverige
    constitutional monarchy
    name: Stockholm
    geographic coordinates: 59 20 N, 18 03 E
    time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
    21 counties (lan, singular and plural); Blekinge, Dalarna, Gavleborg, Gotland, Halland, Jamtland, Jonkoping, Kalmar, Kronoberg, Norrbotten, Orebro, Ostergotland, Skane, Sodermanland, Stockholm, Uppsala, Varmland, Vasterbotten, Vasternorrland, Vastmanland, Vastra Gotaland
    6 June 1523 (Gustav VASA elected king)
    National Day, 6 June (1983); note - from 1916 to 1982 this date was celebrated as Swedish Flag Day
    several previous; latest adopted 1 January 1975; amended several times, last in 2015 (2015)
    civil law system influenced by Roman-Germanic law and customary law
    accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: King CARL XVI GUSTAF (since 19 September 1973); Heir Apparent Princess VICTORIA Ingrid Alice Desiree, daughter of the monarch (born 14 July 1977)
    head of government: Prime Minister Stefan LOFVEN (since 3 October 2014); Deputy Prime Minister Asa ROMSON (since 3 October 2014)
    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister
    elections: the monarchy is hereditary; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition usually becomes the prime minister
    description: unicameral Parliament or Riksdag (349 seats; 310 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 39 members in "at-large" seats directly elected by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)
    elections: last held on 14 September 2014 (next to be held in September 2018)
    election results: percent of vote by party - SAP 31.0%, M 23.3%, SD 12.9%, MP 6.9%, C 6.1%, V 5.7%, FP 5.4%, KD 4.5%, others 4.1%; seats by party - SAP 113, M 84, SD 49, MP 25, C 22, V 21, FP 19, KD 16
    highest court(s): Supreme Court of Sweden (consists of 16 justices including the court chairman; Supreme Administrative Court (consists of 18 justices including the court president)
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court and Supreme Administrative Court justices nominated by the Board of Judges, a 9-member nominating body consisting of high-level judges, prosecutors, and members of Parliament; justices appointed by the Government; following a probationary period, justices' appointments are permanent
    subordinate courts: first instance and appellate general and administrative courts; specialized courts that handle cases such as land and environment, immigration, labor, markets, and patents
    Center Party (Centerpartiet) or C [Annie LOOF]
    Christian Democrats (Kristdemokraterna) or KD [Goran HAGGLUND]
    Green Party (Miljopartiet de Grona) or MP [spokespersons Asa ROMSON and Gustav FRIDOLIN]
    Left Party (Vansterpartiet) (formerly Communist Party) or V [Jonas SJOSTEDT]
    Liberal People's Party (Folkpartiet) or FP [Jan BJORKLUND]
    Moderate Party (Moderaterna) or M [Anna KINBERG BATRA]
    Social Democratic Party (Socialdemokraterna) or SAP [Stefan LOFVEN]
    Sweden Democrats (Sverigedemokraterna) or SD [Jimmie AKESSON]
    Swedish Confederation of Professional Associations or SACO
    Swedish Confederation of Professional Employees or TCO
    Swedish Trade Union Confederation (Landsorganisationen) or LO [Wanja LUNDBY-WEDIN]
    other: environmental groups; media
    ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CD, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EITI (implementing country), EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, G-9, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, PFP, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMISS, UNMOGIP, UNRWA, UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
    chief of mission: Ambassador Bjorn O. LYRVALL (since 12 September 2013)
    chancery: The House of Sweden, 2900 K Street NW, Washington, DC 20007
    telephone: [1] (202) 467-2600
    FAX: [1] (202) 467-2699
    chief of mission: Ambassador Mark Francis BRZEZINSKI (since 14 November 2011)
    embassy: Dag Hammarskjolds Vag 31, SE-11589 Stockholm
    mailing address: American Embassy Stockholm, US Department of State, 5750 Stockholm Place, Washington, DC 20521-5750
    telephone: [46] (08) 783 53 00
    FAX: [46] (08) 661 19 64
    blue with a golden yellow cross extending to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag); the colors reflect those of the Swedish coat of arms - three gold crowns on a blue field
    three crowns, lion; national colors: blue, yellow
    name: "Du Gamla, Du Fria" (Thou Ancient, Thou Free)
    lyrics/music: Richard DYBECK/traditional
    note: in use since 1844; also known as "Sang till Norden" (Song of the North), is based on a Swedish folk tune; it has never been officially adopted by the government; "Kungssangen" (The King's Song) serves as the royal anthem and is played in the presence of the royal family and during certain state ceremonies
  • Economy :: SWEDEN

  • Aided by peace and neutrality for the whole of the 20th century, Sweden has achieved an enviable standard of living under a mixed system of high-tech capitalism and extensive welfare benefits. Sweden remains outside the Eurozone because of concerns with the impact on the country’s economy, welfare system and sovereignty. Timber, hydropower, and iron ore constitute the resource base of an economy heavily oriented toward foreign trade. Privately owned firms account for vast majority of industrial output. Agriculture accounts for less than 1% of GDP. Economic growth slowed in 2013, as a result of continued economic weakness in the EU - Sweden’s main export market; however, Sweden’s economy experienced modest growth in 2014, with an adjusted real GDP growth that averaged 2.3%. Sweden’s economy is expected to grow modestly in 2015, although the country continues to struggle with deflationary pressure.
    $434.2 billion (2014 est.)
    $425.2 billion (2013 est.)
    $418.4 billion (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2014 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 42
    $559.1 billion (2014 est.)
    2.1% (2014 est.)
    1.6% (2013 est.)
    0.9% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 147
    $44,700 (2014 est.)
    $44,100 (2013 est.)
    $43,800 (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2013 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 26
    24.9% of GDP (2014 est.)
    24.6% of GDP (2013 est.)
    24.9% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 47
    household consumption: 46.5%
    government consumption: 26.4%
    investment in fixed capital: 22.6%
    investment in inventories: 0.1%
    exports of goods and services: 44.4%
    imports of goods and services: -39.9%
    (2014 est.)
    agriculture: 1.8%
    industry: 33.4%
    services: 64.8% (2014 est.)
    barley, wheat, sugar beets; meat, milk
    iron and steel, precision equipment (bearings, radio and telephone parts, armaments), wood pulp and paper products, processed foods, motor vehicles
    2.7% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 108
    5.124 million (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 76
    agriculture: 2%
    industry: 12%
    services: 86% (2014 est.)
    7.9% (2014 est.)
    8% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 89
    14% (2011)
    lowest 10%: 3.4%
    highest 10%: 24% (2012)
    24.9 (2013)
    25 (1992)
    country comparison to the world: 141
    revenues: $291.4 billion
    expenditures: $304 billion (2014 est.)
    52.1% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 12
    -2.2% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 96
    40.2% of GDP (2014 est.)
    38.8% of GDP (2013 est.)
    note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions
    country comparison to the world: 102
    calendar year
    -0.1% (2014 est.)
    -0.1% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 19
    0% (31 December 2014)
    1% (31 December 2013)
    note:: the Discount rate was abolished in 2002, and replaced by a "Reference rate" with no bearing on monetary policy; the rate quoted here is the Reference rate
    country comparison to the world: 155
    2.8% (31 December 2014 est.)
    3.23% (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 175
    $256.9 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $287.1 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 18
    $336.8 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $371.6 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 31
    $742.4 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $811.3 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 20
    $560.5 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    $470.1 billion (31 December 2011)
    $581.2 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 21
    $32.5 billion (2014 est.)
    $34.54 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 15
    $184.1 billion (2014 est.)
    $181.3 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 28
    machinery 35%, motor vehicles, paper products, pulp and wood, iron and steel products, chemicals (2012 est.)
    Norway 10.6%, Germany 10.5%, Finland 7.4%, Denmark 7.1%, UK 6.9%, Netherlands 5.6%, US 5.5%, Belgium 5.3%, France 4.8% (2013)
    $163.8 billion (2014 est.)
    $159.6 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 30
    machinery, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, motor vehicles, iron and steel; foodstuffs, clothing
    Germany 17.6%, Norway 8.2%, Denmark 8.1%, Netherlands 7.6%, UK 6%, Finland 5.6%, China 5.1%, Russia 4.6%, France 4.1% (2013)
    $66.32 billion (2014 est.)
    $65.38 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 34
    $1.039 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)
    $992.5 billion (31 December 2011)
    country comparison to the world: 16
    $509.9 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $500.8 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 18
    $593.1 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $558.7 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 15
    Swedish kronor (SEK) per US dollar -
    6.76 (2014 est.)
    6.51 (2013 est.)
    6.77 (2012 est.)
    6.49 (2011 est.)
    7.21 (2010 est.)
  • Energy :: SWEDEN

  • 162.9 billion kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 25
    130.5 billion kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 26
    22.68 billion kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 8
    12.67 billion kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 14
    37.94 million kW (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 24
    9.5% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 198
    24.8% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 6
    43% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 55
    22.7% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 9
    8,400 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 84
    12,590 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 57
    352,300 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 26
    0 bbl (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 193
    434,400 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 37
    298,800 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 44
    192,900 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 31
    152,700 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 36
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 132
    1.086 billion cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 87
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 184
    1.086 billion cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 58
    0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 196
    51.08 million Mt (2012 est.)
  • Communications :: SWEDEN

  • 4.321 million (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 41
    11.643 million (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 71
    general assessment: highly developed telecommunications infrastructure; ranked among leading countries for fixed-line, mobile-cellular, Internet and broadband penetration
    domestic: coaxial and multiconductor cables carry most of the voice traffic; parallel microwave radio relay systems carry some additional telephone channels
    international: country code - 46; submarine cables provide links to other Nordic countries and Europe; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Eutelsat, and 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Sweden shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, and Norway) (2011)
    publicly owned TV broadcaster operates 2 terrestrial networks plus regional stations; multiple privately owned TV broadcasters operating nationally, regionally, and locally; about 50 local TV stations; widespread access to pan-Nordic and international broadcasters through multi-channel cable and satellite TV; publicly owned radio broadcaster operates 3 national stations and a network of 25 regional channels; roughly 100 privately owned local radio stations with some consolidating into near national networks; an estimated 900 community and neighborhood radio stations broadcast intermittently (2008)
    AM 1, FM 124, shortwave 0 (2008)
    252 (2008)
    .se
    5.978 million (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 19
    8.398 million (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 32
  • Transportation :: SWEDEN

  • 231 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 25
    total: 149
    over 3,047 m: 3
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 12
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 75
    914 to 1,523 m: 22
    under 914 m: 37 (2013)
    total: 82
    914 to 1,523 m: 5
    under 914 m:
    77 (2013)
    2 (2013)
    gas 1,626 km (2013)
    total: 11,633 km
    standard gauge: 11,568 km 1.435-m gauge (7,567 km electrified)
    narrow gauge: 65 km 1.000-m gauge (65 km electrified) (2008)
    country comparison to the world: 21
    total: 579,564 km (includes 1,913 km of expressways)
    paved: 135,444 km
    unpaved: 444,412 km
    note: includes 104,705 km of state roads, 433,034 km of private roads, and 41,825 km of municipal roads (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 13
    2,052 km (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 40
    total: 135
    by type: bulk carrier 4, cargo 16, carrier 1, chemical tanker 15, passenger 5, passenger/cargo 36, petroleum tanker 11, roll on/roll off 30, vehicle carrier 17
    foreign-owned: 35 (Denmark 4, Estonia 3, Finland 16, Germany 3, Ireland 1, Italy 5, Norway 3)
    registered in other countries: 189 (Bahamas 11, Barbados 4, Bermuda 14, Canada 2, Cook Islands 3, Cyprus 5, Denmark 15, Faroe Islands 11, Finland 1, France 4, Gibraltar 11, Italy 1, Liberia 12, Malta 1, Marshall Islands 1, Netherlands 12, Norway 27, Panama 2, Portugal 3, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 10, Singapore 11, UK 28) (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 42
    major seaport(s): Brofjorden, Goteborg, Helsingborg, Karlshamn, Lulea, Malmo, Stockholm, Trelleborg, Visby
    LNG terminal(s) (import): Brunnsviksholme, Lysekil
  • Military :: SWEDEN

  • Swedish Armed Forces (Forsvarsmakten): Army (Armen), Royal Swedish Navy (Marinen), Swedish Air Force (Svenska Flygvapnet) (2010)
    18-47 years of age for male and female voluntary military service; Swedish citizenship required; service obligation: 7.5 months (Army), 7-15 months (Navy), 8-12 months (Air Force); the Swedish Parliament has abolished compulsory military service, with exclusively voluntary recruitment as of July 2010; conscription remains an option in emergencies; after completing initial service, soldiers have a reserve commitment until age 47 (2013)
    males age 16-49: 2,065,691
    females age 16-49: 1,996,764 (2010 est.)
    males age 16-49: 1,709,055
    females age 16-49: 1,650,432 (2010 est.)
    male: 54,960
    female: 52,275 (2010 est.)
    1.18% of GDP (2012)
    1.17% of GDP (2011)
    1.18% of GDP (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 84
  • Transnational Issues :: SWEDEN

  • none
    refugees (country of origin): 24,006 (Iraq); 20,613 (Somalia); 17,984 (Syria); 10,499 (Afghanistan); 8,954 (Eritrea) (2014)
    stateless persons: 27,167 (2014); note - the majority of stateless people come from the Middle East and Somalia
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