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Europe :: Sweden Print
Page last updated on September 10, 2020
  • Introduction :: Sweden
  • Background field listing

    A military power during the 17th century, Sweden has not participated in any war for two centuries. An armed neutrality was preserved in both World Wars. Since then, Sweden has pursued a successful economic formula consisting of a capitalist system intermixed with substantial welfare elements. Sweden joined the EU in 1995, but the public rejected the introduction of the euro in a 2003 referendum. The share of Sweden’s population born abroad increased from 11.3% in 2000 to 19.1% in 2018.


  • Geography :: Sweden
  • Location field listing
    Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, Kattegat, and Skagerrak, between Finland and Norway
    Geographic coordinates field listing
    62 00 N, 15 00 E
    Map references field listing
    Area field listing
    total: 450,295 sq km
    land: 410,335 sq km
    water: 39,960 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 57
    Area - comparative field listing
    almost three times the size of Georgia; slightly larger than California
    Area comparison map: Area comparison map
    Land boundaries field listing
    total: 2,211 km
    border countries (2): Finland 545 km, Norway 1666 km
    Coastline field listing
    3,218 km
    Maritime claims field listing
    territorial sea: 12 nm (adjustments made to return a portion of straits to high seas)
    exclusive economic zone: agreed boundaries or midlines
    continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
    Climate field listing
    temperate in south with cold, cloudy winters and cool, partly cloudy summers; subarctic in north
    Terrain field listing
    mostly flat or gently rolling lowlands; mountains in west
    Elevation field listing
    mean elevation: 320 m
    lowest point: reclaimed bay of Lake Hammarsjon, near Kristianstad -2.4 m
    highest point: Kebnekaise 2,111 m
    Natural resources field listing
    iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, gold, silver, tungsten, uranium, arsenic, feldspar, timber, hydropower
    Land use field listing
    agricultural land: 7.5% (2011 est.)
    arable land: 6.4% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 0% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 1.1% (2011 est.)
    forest: 68.7% (2011 est.)
    other: 23.8% (2011 est.)
    Irrigated land field listing
    1,640 sq km (2012)
    Population distribution field listing
    most Swedes live in the south where the climate is milder and there is better connectivity to mainland Europe; population clusters are found all along the Baltic coast in the east; the interior areas of the north remain sparsely populated
    Natural hazards field listing
    ice floes in the surrounding waters, especially in the Gulf of Bothnia, can interfere with maritime traffic
    Environment - current issues field listing

    marine pollution (Baltic Sea and North Sea); acid rain damage to soils and lakes; air pollution; inappropriate timber harvesting practices

    Environment - international agreements field listing
    party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    Geography - note field listing
    strategic location along Danish Straits linking Baltic and North Seas; Sweden has almost 100,000 lakes, the largest of which, Vanern, is the third largest in Europe
  • People and Society :: Sweden
  • Population field listing
    10,202,491 (July 2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 91
    Nationality field listing
    noun: Swede(s)
    adjective: Swedish
    Ethnic groups field listing

    Swedish 80.9%, Syrian 1.8%, Finnish 1.4%, Iraqi 1.4%, other 14.5%

    (2018 est.)
    note: data represent the population by country of birth; the indigenous Sami people are estimated to number between 20,000 and 40,000
    Languages field listing
    Swedish (official)

    note: Finnish, Sami, Romani, Yiddish, and Meankieli are official minority languages

    Religions field listing
    Church of Sweden (Lutheran) 60.2%, other (includes Roman Catholic, Orthodox, Baptist, Muslim, Jewish, and Buddhist) 8.5%, none or unspecified 31.3% (2017 est.)

    note: estimates reflect registered members of faith communities eligible for state funding (not all religions are state-funded and not all people who identify with a particular religion are registered members); an estimated 57.7% of Sweden's population were members of the Church of Sweden in 2018

    Age structure field listing
    0-14 years: 17.71% (male 928,413/female 878,028)
    15-24 years: 10.8% (male 569,082/female 532,492)
    25-54 years: 39.01% (male 2,016,991/female 1,962,617)
    55-64 years: 11.9% (male 610,521/female 603,795)
    65 years and over: 20.59% (male 974,410/female 1,126,142) (2020 est.)
    population pyramid: population pyramid
    Dependency ratios field listing
    total dependency ratio: 61.2
    youth dependency ratio: 28.4
    elderly dependency ratio: 32.8
    potential support ratio: 3.1 (2020 est.)
    Median age field listing
    total: 41.1 years
    male: 40.1 years
    female: 42.1 years (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 47
    Population growth rate field listing
    0.79% (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 130
    Birth rate field listing
    12.1 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 161
    Death rate field listing
    9.4 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 49
    Net migration rate field listing
    5.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 22
    Population distribution field listing
    most Swedes live in the south where the climate is milder and there is better connectivity to mainland Europe; population clusters are found all along the Baltic coast in the east; the interior areas of the north remain sparsely populated
    Urbanization field listing
    urban population: 88% of total population (2020)
    rate of urbanization: 1.05% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    Major urban areas - population field listing
    1.633 million STOCKHOLM (capital) (2020)
    Sex ratio field listing
    at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.87 male(s)/female
    total population: 1 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
    Mother's mean age at first birth field listing
    29.1 years (2015 est.)
    Maternal mortality rate field listing
    4 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 175
    Infant mortality rate field listing
    total: 2.6 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 2.9 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 2.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 220
    Life expectancy at birth field listing
    total population: 82.4 years
    male: 80.4 years
    female: 84.5 years (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 18
    Total fertility rate field listing
    1.87 children born/woman (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 138
    Drinking water source field listing
    improved: urban: 100% of population
    rural: 100% of population
    total: 100% of population
    unimproved: urban: 0% of population
    rural: 0% of population
    total: 0% of population (2017 est.)
    Current Health Expenditure field listing
    11% (2017)
    Physicians density field listing
    3.98 physicians/1,000 population (2016)
    Hospital bed density field listing
    2.2 beds/1,000 population (2017)
    Sanitation facility access field listing
    improved: urban: 99.3% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 99.6% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 99.3% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 0.7% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 0.4% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 0.7% of population (2015 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate field listing
    0.2% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 113
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS field listing
    11,000 (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 98
    HIV/AIDS - deaths field listing
    Obesity - adult prevalence rate field listing
    20.6% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 97
    Education expenditures field listing
    7.7% of GDP (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 6
    School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education) field listing
    total: 19 years
    male: 18 years
    female: 20 years (2016)
    Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 field listing
    total: 16.8%
    male: 18%
    female: 15.5% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 81
  • Government :: Sweden
  • Country name field listing
    conventional long form: Kingdom of Sweden
    conventional short form: Sweden
    local long form: Konungariket Sverige
    local short form: Sverige
    etymology: name ultimately derives from the North Germanic Svear tribe, which inhabited central Sweden and is first mentioned in the first centuries A.D.
    Government type field listing
    parliamentary constitutional monarchy
    Capital field listing
    name: Stockholm
    geographic coordinates: 59 20 N, 18 03 E
    time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
    etymology: "stock" and "holm" literally mean "log" and "islet" in Swedish, but there is no consensus as to what the words refer to
    Administrative divisions field listing
    21 counties (lan, singular and plural); Blekinge, Dalarna, Gavleborg, Gotland, Halland, Jamtland, Jonkoping, Kalmar, Kronoberg, Norrbotten, Orebro, Ostergotland, Skane, Sodermanland, Stockholm, Uppsala, Varmland, Vasterbotten, Vasternorrland, Vastmanland, Vastra Gotaland
    Independence field listing
    6 June 1523 (Gustav VASA elected king of Sweden, marking the abolishment of the Kalmar Union between Denmark, Norway, and Sweden)
    National holiday field listing
    National Day, 6 June (1983); note - from 1916 to 1982 this date was celebrated as Swedish Flag Day
    Constitution field listing
    history: several previous; latest adopted 1 January 1975
    amendments: proposed by Parliament; passage requires simple majority vote in two consecutive parliamentary terms with an intervening general election; passage also requires approval by simple majority vote in a referendum if Parliament approves a motion for a referendum by one third of its members; amended several times, last in 2014 (changes to the "Instrument of Government")
    International law organization participation field listing
    accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    Citizenship field listing
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Sweden; in the case of a child born out of wedlock, the mother must be a citizen of Sweden and the father unknown
    dual citizenship recognized: no, unless the other citizenship was acquired involuntarily
    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
    Suffrage field listing
    18 years of age; universal
    Executive branch field listing
    chief of state: King CARL XVI GUSTAF (since 15 September 1973); Heir Apparent Princess VICTORIA Ingrid Alice Desiree (daughter of the monarch, born 14 July 1977)
    head of government: Prime Minister Stefan LOFVEN (since 3 October 2014); Deputy Prime Minister Isabella LOVIN (since 25 May 2016); note - Prime Minister Stefan LOFVEN was ousted in a no-confidence vote on 25 September 2018 and headed a caretaker government until the next government was formed; LOFVEN was reelected as Prime Minister and took office on 21 January 2019
    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister
    elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually becomes the prime minister
    Legislative branch field listing
    description: unicameral Parliament or Riksdag (349 seats; 310 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by closed, party-list proportional representation vote and 39 members in "at-large" seats directly elected by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)
    elections: last held on 9 September 2018 (next to be held in 2022)
    election results: percent of vote by party - SAP 28.3%, M 19.8%, SD 17.5%, C 8.6%, V 8%, KD 6.3%, L 5.5%, MP 4.4%, other 1.6%; seats by party - SAP 100, M 70, SD 62, C 31, V 28, KD 22, L 20, MP 16; composition - men 188, women 161, percent of women 46.1%
    Judicial branch field listing
    highest courts: Supreme Court of Sweden (consists of 16 justices, including the court chairman); Supreme Administrative Court (consists of 18 justices, including the court president)
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court and Supreme Administrative Court justices nominated by the Judges Proposal Board, a 9-member nominating body consisting of high-level judges, prosecutors, and members of Parliament; justices appointed by the Government; following a probationary period, justices' appointments are permanent
    subordinate courts: first instance, appellate, general, and administrative courts; specialized courts that handle cases such as land and environment, immigration, labor, markets, and patents
    Political parties and leaders field listing
    Center Party (Centerpartiet) or C [Annie LOOF]
    Christian Democrats (Kristdemokraterna) or KD [Ebba Busch THOR]
    Green Party (Miljopartiet de Grona) or MP [Isabella LOVIN and Per BOLUND]
    Left Party (Vansterpartiet) or V [Jonas SJOSTEDT]
    Liberal Party (Liberalerna) or L [Jan BJORKLUND]
    Moderate Party (Moderaterna) or M [Ulf KRISTERSSON]
    Swedish Social Democratic Party (Socialdemokraterna) or SAP [Stefan LOFVEN]
    Sweden Democrats (Sverigedemokraterna) or SD [Jimmie AKESSON]
    International organization participation field listing
    ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CD, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EITI (implementing country), EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, G-9, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, PFP, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMISS, UNMOGIP, UNRWA, UN Security Council (temporary), UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
    Diplomatic representation in the US field listing
    Ambassador Karin Ulrika OLOFSDOTTER (since 17 September 2017)
    chancery: The House of Sweden, 2900 K Street NW, Washington, DC 20007
    telephone: [1] (202) 536-1500
    FAX: [1] (202) 536-1501
    consulate(s) general: New York, San Francisco
    Diplomatic representation from the US field listing
    chief of mission: Ambassador Kenneth A. HOWERY (since 10 October 2019) 
    telephone: [46] (08) 783 53 00
    embassy: Dag Hammarskjolds Vag 31, SE-11589 Stockholm
    mailing address: American Embassy Stockholm, US Department of State, 5750 Stockholm Place, Washington, DC 20521-5750
    FAX: [46] (08) 661 19 64
    Flag description field listing
    blue with a golden yellow cross extending to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag); the colors reflect those of the Swedish coat of arms - three gold crowns on a blue field
    National symbol(s) field listing
    three crowns, lion; national colors: blue, yellow
    National anthem field listing
    name: "Du Gamla, Du Fria" (Thou Ancient, Thou Free)
    lyrics/music: Richard DYBECK/traditional

    note: in use since 1844; also known as "Sang till Norden" (Song of the North), is based on a Swedish folk tune; it has never been officially adopted by the government; "Kungssangen" (The King's Song) serves as the royal anthem and is played in the presence of the royal family and during certain state ceremonies

  • Economy :: Sweden
  • Economy - overview field listing

    Sweden’s small, open, and competitive economy has been thriving and Sweden has achieved an enviable standard of living with its combination of free-market capitalism and extensive welfare benefits. Sweden remains outside the euro zone largely out of concern that joining the European Economic and Monetary Union would diminish the country’s sovereignty over its welfare system.


    Timber, hydropower, and iron ore constitute the resource base of a manufacturing economy that relies heavily on foreign trade. Exports, including engines and other machines, motor vehicles, and telecommunications equipment, account for more than 44% of GDP. Sweden enjoys a current account surplus of about 5% of GDP, which is one of the highest margins in Europe.


    GDP grew an estimated 3.3% in 2016 and 2017 driven largely by investment in the construction sector. Swedish economists expect economic growth to ease slightly in the coming years as this investment subsides. Global economic growth boosted exports of Swedish manufactures further, helping drive domestic economic growth in 2017. The Central Bank is keeping an eye on deflationary pressures and bank observers expect it to maintain an expansionary monetary policy in 2018. Swedish prices and wages have grown only slightly over the past few years, helping to support the country’s competitiveness.


    In the short and medium term, Sweden’s economic challenges include providing affordable housing and successfully integrating migrants into the labor market.

    GDP (purchasing power parity) field listing
    $518 billion (2017 est.)
    $507.3 billion (2016 est.)
    $494 billion (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 40
    GDP (official exchange rate) field listing
    $535.6 billion (2017 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate field listing
    2.1% (2017 est.)
    2.7% (2016 est.)
    4.5% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 148
    GDP - per capita (PPP) field listing
    $51,200 (2017 est.)
    $50,800 (2016 est.)
    $50,100 (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 26
    Gross national saving field listing
    28.9% of GDP (2017 est.)
    28.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
    28.8% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 34
    GDP - composition, by end use field listing
    household consumption: 44.1% (2017 est.)
    government consumption: 26% (2017 est.)
    investment in fixed capital: 24.9% (2017 est.)
    investment in inventories: 0.8% (2017 est.)
    exports of goods and services: 45.3% (2017 est.)
    imports of goods and services: -41.1% (2017 est.)
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin field listing
    agriculture: 1.6% (2017 est.)
    industry: 33% (2017 est.)
    services: 65.4% (2017 est.)
    Agriculture - products field listing
    barley, wheat, sugar beets; meat, milk
    Industries field listing
    iron and steel, precision equipment (bearings, radio and telephone parts, armaments), wood pulp and paper products, processed foods, motor vehicles
    Industrial production growth rate field listing
    4.1% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 74
    Labor force field listing
    5.361 million (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 77
    Labor force - by occupation field listing
    agriculture: 2%
    industry: 12%
    services: 86% (2014 est.)
    Unemployment rate field listing
    6.7% (2017 est.)
    7% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 101
    Population below poverty line field listing
    15% (2014 est.)
    Household income or consumption by percentage share field listing
    lowest 10%: 3.4%
    highest 10%: 24% (2012)
    Budget field listing
    revenues: 271.2 billion (2017 est.)
    expenditures: 264.4 billion (2017 est.)
    Taxes and other revenues field listing
    50.6% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 16
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) field listing
    1.3% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 27
    Public debt field listing
    40.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
    42.3% of GDP (2016 est.)

    note: data cover general government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions

    country comparison to the world: 124
    Fiscal year field listing
    calendar year
    Inflation rate (consumer prices) field listing
    1.9% (2017 est.)
    1.1% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 100
    Current account balance field listing
    $17.79 billion (2017 est.)
    $21.84 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 17
    Exports field listing
    $165.6 billion (2017 est.)
    $151.4 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 31
    Exports - partners field listing
    Germany 11%, Norway 10.2%, Finland 6.9%, US 6.9%, Denmark 6.9%, UK 6.2%, Netherlands 5.5%, China 4.5%, Belgium 4.4%, France 4.2% (2017)
    Exports - commodities field listing
    machinery (26%), motor vehicles, paper products, pulp and wood, iron and steel products, chemicals (2016 est.)
    Imports field listing
    $153.2 billion (2017 est.)
    $140.2 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 30
    Imports - commodities field listing
    machinery, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, motor vehicles, iron and steel; foodstuffs, clothing
    Imports - partners field listing
    Germany 18.7%, Netherlands 8.9%, Norway 7.7%, Denmark 7.2%, China 5.5%, UK 5.1%, Finland 4.7%, Belgium 4.7% (2017)
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold field listing
    $62.22 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $59.39 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 36
    Debt - external field listing
    $939.9 billion (31 March 2016 est.)
    $929.4 billion (31 March 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 16
    Exchange rates field listing
    Swedish kronor (SEK) per US dollar -
    8.442 (2017 est.)
    8.5605 (2016 est.)
    8.5605 (2015 est.)
    8.4335 (2014 est.)
    6.8612 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: Sweden
  • Electricity access field listing
    electrification - total population: 100% (2016)
    Electricity - production field listing
    152.9 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 27
    Electricity - consumption field listing
    133.5 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 27
    Electricity - exports field listing
    26.02 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 6
    Electricity - imports field listing
    14.29 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 16
    Electricity - installed generating capacity field listing
    40.29 million kW (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 26
    Electricity - from fossil fuels field listing
    5% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 204
    Electricity - from nuclear fuels field listing
    22% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 6
    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants field listing
    42% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 50
    Electricity - from other renewable sources field listing
    32% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 16
    Crude oil - production field listing
    0 bbl/day (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 204
    Crude oil - exports field listing
    14,570 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 55
    Crude oil - imports field listing
    400,200 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 23
    Crude oil - proved reserves field listing
    0 bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 200
    Refined petroleum products - production field listing
    413,200 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 36
    Refined petroleum products - consumption field listing
    323,100 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 42
    Refined petroleum products - exports field listing
    371,100 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 23
    Refined petroleum products - imports field listing
    229,600 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 29
    Natural gas - production field listing
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 204
    Natural gas - consumption field listing
    764.5 million cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 97
    Natural gas - exports field listing
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 193
    Natural gas - imports field listing
    764.5 million cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 64
    Natural gas - proved reserves field listing
    0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 199
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy field listing
    52.31 million Mt (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 58
  • Communications :: Sweden
  • Telephones - fixed lines field listing
    total subscriptions: 2,392,386
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 24 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 55
    Telephones - mobile cellular field listing
    total subscriptions: 12,647,103
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 126 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 73
    Telecommunication systems field listing
    general assessment: highly developed telecommunications infrastructure; ranked among leading countries for fixed-line, mobile-cellular, Internet, and broadband penetration; best developed LTE infrastructures in the region; first in the world to deliver 5G services, expands service based on 5G (2020)
    domestic: fixed-line 24 per 100 and mobile-cellular 126 per 100; coaxial and multiconductor cables carry most of the voice traffic; parallel microwave radio relay systems carry some additional telephone channels (2018)
    international: country code - 46; landing points for Botina, SFL, SFS-4, Baltic Sea Submarine Cable, Eastern Light, Sweden-Latvia, BCS North-Phase1, EE-S1, LV-SE1, BCS East-West Interlink, NordBalt, Baltica, Denmark-Sweden-15,-17,-18, Scandinavian Ring -North,-South, IP-Only Denmark-Sweden, Donica North, Kattegate-1,-2, Energinet Laeso-Varberg and GC2 submarine cables providing links to other Nordic countries and Europe; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Eutelsat, and 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Sweden shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, and Norway) (2019)
    the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
    Broadcast media field listing
    publicly owned TV broadcaster operates 2 terrestrial networks plus regional stations; multiple privately owned TV broadcasters operating nationally, regionally, and locally; about 50 local TV stations; widespread access to pan-Nordic and international broadcasters through multi-channel cable and satellite TV; publicly owned radio broadcaster operates 3 national stations and a network of 25 regional channels; roughly 100 privately owned local radio stations with some consolidating into near national networks; an estimated 900 community and neighborhood radio stations broadcast intermittently
    Internet country code field listing
    Internet users field listing
    total: 9,251,773
    percent of population: 92.14% (July 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 56
    Broadband - fixed subscriptions field listing
    total: 3,973,622
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 40 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 34
  • Military and Security :: Sweden
  • Military and security forces field listing
    Swedish Armed Forces (Forsvarsmakten): Army, Navy, Air Force; Home Guard (2019)
    Military expenditures field listing
    1.1% of GDP (2019)
    1% of GDP (2018)
    1% of GDP (2017)
    1.1% of GDP (2016)
    1.1% of GDP (2015)
    country comparison to the world: 114
    Military and security service personnel strengths field listing
    the Swedish Armed Forces (Forsvarsmakten) have approximately 15,000 active duty troops (6,200 Army; 2,500 Navy; 2,800 Air Force; 3,500 other, including staff, logistics, support, intelligence, etc); 22,000 Home Guard (2019 est.)
    Military equipment inventories and acquisitions field listing
    the inventory of the Swedish Armed Forces is comprised of domestically-produced and imported Western weapons systems; since 2010, the US is the leading supplier of military hardware to Sweden, followed by France and Germany; Sweden's defense industry is capable of providing most of the military's equipment requirements, including advanced aircraft and submarines (2019 est.)
    Military deployments field listing
    200 Mali (MINUSMA and EUTM; plans to send an additional 150 personnel to the Sahel/Mali in early 2021) (Aug 2020)
    Military service age and obligation field listing
    18-47 years of age for male and female voluntary military service; service obligation: 7.5 months (Army), 7-15 months (Navy), 8-12 months (Air Force); after completing initial service, soldiers have a reserve commitment until age 47; compulsory military service, abolished in 2010, was reinstated in January 2018; conscription is selective, includes both female and male (age 18), and requires 9-12 months of service (2018)
  • Transportation :: Sweden
  • National air transport system field listing
    number of registered air carriers: 8 (2015)
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 219 (2015)
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 11,623,930 (2015)
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 0 mt-km (2015)
    Civil aircraft registration country code prefix field listing
    SE (2016)
    Airports field listing
    231 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 25
    Airports - with paved runways field listing
    total: 149 (2013)
    over 3,047 m: 3 (2013)
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 12 (2013)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 75 (2013)
    914 to 1,523 m: 22 (2013)
    under 914 m: 37 (2013)
    Airports - with unpaved runways field listing
    total: 82 (2013)
    914 to 1,523 m: 5 (2013)
    under 914 m: 77 (2013)
    Heliports field listing
    2 (2013)
    Pipelines field listing
    1626 km gas (2013)
    Railways field listing
    total: 14,127 km (2016)
    standard gauge: 14,062 km 1.435-m gauge (12,322 km electrified) (2016)
    narrow gauge: 65 km 0.891-m gauge (65 km electrified) (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 20
    Roadways field listing
    total: 573,134 km (includes 2,050 km of expressways) (2016)
    paved: 140,100 km (2016)
    unpaved: 433,034 km (2016)

    note: includes 98,500 km of state roads, 433,034 km of private roads, and 41,600 km of municipal roads

    country comparison to the world: 13
    Waterways field listing
    2,052 km (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 40
    Merchant marine field listing
    total: 360
    by type: general cargo 51, oil tanker 20, other 289 (2019)
    country comparison to the world: 50
    Ports and terminals field listing
    major seaport(s): Brofjorden, Goteborg, Helsingborg, Karlshamn, Lulea, Malmo, Stockholm, Trelleborg, Visby
    LNG terminal(s) (import): Brunnsviksholme, Lysekil
  • Transnational Issues :: Sweden
  • Disputes - international field listing


    Refugees and internally displaced persons field listing
    refugees (country of origin): 109,343 (Syria), 27,653 (Eritrea), 28,204 (Afghanistan), 21,032 (Somalia), 12,693 (Iraq), 6,485 (Iran) (2018)
    stateless persons: 31,819 (2018); note - the majority of stateless people are from the Middle East and Somalia