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East & Southeast Asia :: Thailand
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Thailand
  • Introduction :: THAILAND

  • A unified Thai kingdom was established in the mid-14th century. Known as Siam until 1939, Thailand is the only Southeast Asian country never to have been colonized by a European power. A bloodless revolution in 1932 led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy. In alliance with Japan during World War II, Thailand became a US treaty ally in 1954 after sending troops to Korea and later fighting alongside the United States in Vietnam. Thailand since 2005 has experienced several rounds of political turmoil including a military coup in 2006 that ousted then Prime Minister THAKSIN Chinnawat, followed by large-scale street protests by competing political factions in 2008, 2009, and 2010. THAKSIN's youngest sister, YINGLAK Chinnawat, in 2011 led the Puea Thai Party to an electoral win and assumed control of the government. A blanket amnesty bill for individuals involved in street protests, altered at the last minute to include all political crimes - including all convictions against THAKSIN - triggered months of large-scale anti-government protests in Bangkok beginning in November 2013. In early May 2014 YINGLAK was removed from office by the Constitutional Court and in late May 2014 the Royal Thai Army staged a coup against the caretaker government. The head of the Royal Thai Army, Gen. PRAYUT Chan-ocha, was appointed prime minister in August 2014. The interim military government created several interim institutions to promote reform and draft a new constitution. Elections are tentatively set for early 2016. Thailand has also experienced violence associated with the ethno-nationalist insurgency in Thailand's southern Malay-Muslim majority provinces. Since January 2004, thousands have been killed and wounded in the insurgency.
  • Geography :: THAILAND

  • Southeastern Asia, bordering the Andaman Sea and the Gulf of Thailand, southeast of Burma
    15 00 N, 100 00 E
    Southeast Asia
    total: 513,120 sq km
    land: 510,890 sq km
    water: 2,230 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 51
    slightly more than twice the size of Wyoming
    total: 5,673 km
    border countries (4): Burma 2,416 km, Cambodia 817 km, Laos 1,845 km, Malaysia 595 km
    3,219 km
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation
    tropical; rainy, warm, cloudy southwest monsoon (mid-May to September); dry, cool northeast monsoon (November to mid-March); southern isthmus always hot and humid
    central plain; Khorat Plateau in the east; mountains elsewhere
    lowest point: Gulf of Thailand 0 m
    highest point: Doi Inthanon 2,576 m
    tin, rubber, natural gas, tungsten, tantalum, timber, lead, fish, gypsum, lignite, fluorite, arable land
    arable land: 32.41%
    permanent crops: 8.81%
    other: 58.78% (2012 est.)
    64,150 sq km (2007)
    438.6 cu km (2011)
    total: 57.31 cu km/yr (5%/5%/90%)
    per capita: 845.3 cu m/yr (2007)
    land subsidence in Bangkok area resulting from the depletion of the water table; droughts
    air pollution from vehicle emissions; water pollution from organic and factory wastes; deforestation; soil erosion; wildlife populations threatened by illegal hunting
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
    controls only land route from Asia to Malaysia and Singapore
  • People and Society :: THAILAND

  • noun: Thai (singular and plural)
    adjective: Thai
    Thai 95.9%, Burmese 2%, other 1.3%, unspecified 0.9% (2010 est.)
    Thai (official) 90.7%, Burmese 1.3%, other 8%
    note: English is a secondary language of the elite (2010 est.)
    Buddhist (official) 93.6%, Muslim 4.9%, Christian 1.2%, other 0.2%, none 0.1% (2010 est.)
    67,741,401
    note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 21
    0-14 years: 17.6% (male 6,117,993/female 5,827,981)
    15-24 years: 15% (male 5,194,332/female 4,999,669)
    25-54 years: 46.9% (male 15,685,882/female 16,097,245)
    55-64 years: 10.9% (male 3,468,620/female 3,893,925)
    65 years and over: 9.5% (male 2,830,418/female 3,625,336) (2014 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 38.6%
    youth dependency ratio: 24.7%
    elderly dependency ratio: 13.9%
    potential support ratio: 7.2% (2014 est.)
    total: 36.2 years
    male: 35.3 years
    female: 37.2 years (2014 est.)
    0.35% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 165
    11.26 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 175
    7.72 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 110
    0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 81
    urban population: 49.2% of total population (2014)
    rate of urbanization: 2.97% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    BANGKOK (capital) 9.098 million; Samut Prakan 1.652 million (2014)
    at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2014 est.)
    23.3 (2009 est.)
    26 deaths/100,000 live births (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 110
    total: 9.86 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 10.82 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 8.85 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 142
    total population: 74.18 years
    male: 71 years
    female: 77.54 years (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 116
    1.5 children born/woman (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 191
    79.3% (2012)
    3.9% of GDP (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 163
    0.39 physicians/1,000 population (2010)
    2.1 beds/1,000 population (2010)
    improved:
    urban: 96.7% of population
    rural: 95.3% of population
    total: 95.8% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 3.3% of population
    rural: 4.7% of population
    total: 4.2% of population (2012 est.)
    improved:
    urban: 88.7% of population
    rural: 95.9% of population
    total: 93.4% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 11.3% of population
    rural: 4.1% of population
    total: 6.6% of population (2012 est.)
    1.09% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 41
    435,300 (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 17
    18,400 (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 16
    degree of risk: very high
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea
    vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, Japanese encephalitis, and malaria
    note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2013)
    8.8% (2008)
    country comparison to the world: 135
    9.2% (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 71
    5.8% of GDP (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 47
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 96.4%
    male: 96.4%
    female: 96.4% (2010 est.)
    total: 13 years
    male: 13 years
    female: 14 years (2012)
    total number: 818,399
    percentage: 8% (2006 est.)
    total: 2.8%
    male: 2.5%
    female: 3.1% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 132
  • Government :: THAILAND

  • conventional long form: Kingdom of Thailand
    conventional short form: Thailand
    local long form: Ratcha Anachak Thai
    local short form: Prathet Thai
    former: Siam
    constitutional monarchy
    name: Bangkok
    geographic coordinates: 13 45 N, 100 31 E
    time difference: UTC+7 (12 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    76 provinces (changwat, singular and plural) and 1 municipality* (maha nakhon); Amnat Charoen, Ang Thong, Bueng Kan, Buriram, Chachoengsao, Chai Nat, Chaiyaphum, Chanthaburi, Chiang Mai, Chiang Rai, Chon Buri, Chumphon, Kalasin, Kamphaeng Phet, Kanchanaburi, Khon Kaen, Krabi, Krung Thep* (Bangkok), Lampang, Lamphun, Loei, Lop Buri, Mae Hong Son, Maha Sarakham, Mukdahan, Nakhon Nayok, Nakhon Pathom, Nakhon Phanom, Nakhon Ratchasima, Nakhon Sawan, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Nan, Narathiwat, Nong Bua Lamphu, Nong Khai, Nonthaburi, Pathum Thani, Pattani, Phangnga, Phatthalung, Phayao, Phetchabun, Phetchaburi, Phichit, Phitsanulok, Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya, Phrae, Phuket, Prachin Buri, Prachuap Khiri Khan, Ranong, Ratchaburi, Rayong, Roi Et, Sa Kaeo, Sakon Nakhon, Samut Prakan, Samut Sakhon, Samut Songkhram, Sara Buri, Satun, Sing Buri, Sisaket, Songkhla, Sukhothai, Suphan Buri, Surat Thani, Surin, Tak, Trang, Trat, Ubon Ratchathani, Udon Thani, Uthai Thani, Uttaradit, Yala, Yasothon
    1238 (traditional founding date; never colonized)
    Birthday of King PHUMIPHON (BHUMIBOL), 5 December (1927)
    many previous; interim constitution released 22 July 2014 (2015)
    civil law system with common law influences
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
    18 years of age; universal and compulsory
    chief of state: King PHUMIPHON Adunyadet, also spelled BHUMIBOL Adulyadej (since 9 June 1946)
    head of government: Interim Prime Minister Gen. PRAYUT Chan-ocha (since 25 August 2014) Deputy Prime Ministers PRAWIT Wongsuwan, Gen., PRIDIYATHON Thewakun, YONGYUT Yutthawong, THANASAK Patimaprakon, Gen., WISSANU Kruea-ngam (since 31 August 2014)
    note: Prime Minister YINGLAK Chinnawat, also spelled YINGLUCK Shinawatra, was removed from office on 7 May 2014 after the Constitutional Court ruled she illegally transferred a government official; the Thai army declared martial law on 20 May 2014 and led a coup on 22 May 2014
    cabinet: Council of Ministers
    note: a Privy Council advises the king
    elections: the monarchy is hereditary; no national elections have taken place since the May 2014 coup
    description: in transition; following the May 2014 military coup, a National Legislative Assembly or Sapha Nitibanyat of no more than 220 members replaced the bicameral National Assembly; elections for a permanent legislative body are currently unscheduled and may not occur until early 2016
    elections: Senate - last held on 30 March 2014; House of Representatives - last held on 2 February 2014, but later declared invalid by the Constitutional Court
    election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA
    highest court(s): Supreme Court of Justice (consists of court president, 6 vice-presidents, and NA judges, and organized into civil and criminal divisions); Constitutional Court (consists of court president and 8 judges); Supreme Administrative Court (number of judges determined by Judicial Commission of the Administrative Courts)
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges selected by the Judicial Commission of the Courts of Justice and approved by the monarch; judges' terms NA; Constitutional Court justices - 3 judges drawn from the Supreme Court, 2 judges drawn from the Administrative Court, and 4 judge candidates selected by the Selective Committee for Judges of the Constitutional Court and confirmed by the Senate; judges appointed by the monarch to serve single 9-year terms; Supreme Administrative Court judges selected by the Judicial Commission of the Administrative Courts and appointed by the monarch; judge tenure NA
    subordinate courts: courts of first instance and appeals courts within both the judicial and administrative systems; military courts
    Chat Pattana Party or CPN (Nation Development Party) [WANNARAT Channukul]
    Chat Thai Phattana Party or CTP (Thai Nation Development Party) [THEERA Wongsamut]
    Mahachon Party or Mass Party [APHIRAT Sirinawin]
    Matubhum Party (Motherland Party) [ Gen. SONTHI Bunyaratkalin]
    Phalang Chon Party (People Chonburi Power Party) [SONTHAYA Khunpluem]
    Phumjai (Bhumjai) Thai Party or PJT (Thai Pride) [ANUTIN Charnvirakul]
    Prachathipat Party or DP (Democrat Party) [ABHISIT Wechachiwa, also spelled ABHISIT Vejjajiva]
    Prachathipathai Mai Party (New Democracy Party) [SURATIN Phijarn]
    Puea Thai Party (For Thais Party) or PTP [acting leader VIROJ Paoin]
    Rak Prathet Thai Party (Love Thailand Party) [CHUWIT Kamonwisit]
    Rak Santi Party (Peace Conservation Party) [Pol. Lt. Gen. THAWIL Surachetphong]
    Multicolor Group
    People's Alliance for Democracy or PAD
    People's Democratic Reform Committee or PDRC
    Student and People Network for Thailand's Reform or STR
    United Front for Democracy Against Dictatorship or UDD
    ADB, APEC, ARF, ASEAN, BIMSTEC, BIS, CD, CICA, CP, EAS, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE (partner), PCA, PIF (partner), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMOGIP, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    chief of mission: Ambassador PHISAN Manawaphat (since 23 February 2015)
    chancery: 1024 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Suite 401, Washington, DC 20007
    telephone: [1] (202) 944-3600
    FAX: [1] (202) 944-3611
    consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York
    chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires W. Patrick MURPHY (November 2014)
    embassy: 120-122 Wireless Road, Bangkok 10330
    mailing address: APO AP 96546
    telephone: [66] (2) 205-4000
    FAX: [66] (2) 254-2990, 205-4131
    consulate(s) general: Chiang Mai
    five horizontal bands of red (top), white, blue (double width), white, and red; the red color symbolizes the nation and the blood of life; white represents religion and the purity of Buddhism; blue stands for the monarchy
    note: similar to the flag of Costa Rica but with the blue and red colors reversed
    garuda (mythical half-man, half-bird figure), elephant; national colors: red, white, blue
    name: "Phleng Chat Thai" (National Anthem of Thailand)
    lyrics/music: Luang SARANUPRAPAN/Phra JENDURIYANG
    note: music adopted 1932, lyrics adopted 1939; by law, people are required to stand for the national anthem at 0800 and 1800 every day; the anthem is played in schools, offices, theaters, and on television and radio during this time; "Phleng Sansasoen Phra Barami" (A Salute to the Monarch) serves as the royal anthem and is played in the presence of the royal family and during certain state ceremonies
  • Economy :: THAILAND

  • With a well-developed infrastructure, a free-enterprise economy, generally pro-investment policies, and strong export industries, Thailand has had a strong economy due in part to industrial and agriculture exports - mostly electronics, agricultural commodities, automobiles and parts, and processed foods. Thailand attracts nearly 2.5 million migrant workers from neighboring countries. The Thai government in 2013 implemented a nation-wide 300 baht ($10) per day minimum wage policy and deployed new tax reforms designed to lower rates on middle-income earners. The Thai economy has weathered both internal and external economic shocks in recent years. The global economic recession severely cut Thailand's exports, with most sectors experiencing double-digit drops. In late 2011 Thailand's recovery was interrupted by historic flooding in the industrial areas in Bangkok and its five surrounding provinces, crippling the manufacturing sector. Government approved flood mitigation projects, worth $11.7 billion, were started in 2012 to prevent a repeat. Thai growth slowed in 2013 and has remained low since, as the country faced political uncertainty and a coup in May 2014. The interim government is implementing a special $11 billion short-term stimulus package and has approved a budget of more than $80 billion to aid an economic rebound.
    $990.1 billion (2014 est.)
    $980.7 billion (2013 est.)
    $953.1 billion (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2014 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 23
    $380.5 billion (2014 est.)
    1% (2014 est.)
    2.9% (2013 est.)
    6.5% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 183
    $14,400 (2014 est.)
    $14,400 (2013 est.)
    $14,000 (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2013 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 106
    29.9% of GDP (2014 est.)
    28.6% of GDP (2013 est.)
    29.3% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 31
    household consumption: 53.4%
    government consumption: 13.7%
    investment in fixed capital: 25.4%
    investment in inventories: 0.9%
    exports of goods and services: 76.8%
    imports of goods and services: -70.2%
    (2014 est.)
    agriculture: 12.2%
    industry: 43.3%
    services: 44.5% (2014 est.)
    rice, cassava (manioc, tapioca), rubber, corn, sugarcane, coconuts, soybeans
    tourism, textiles and garments, agricultural processing, beverages, tobacco, cement, light manufacturing such as jewelry and electric appliances, computers and parts, integrated circuits, furniture, plastics, automobiles and automotive parts; world's second-largest tungsten producer and third-largest tin producer
    2.2% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 123
    39.51 million (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 17
    agriculture: 38.2%
    industry: 13.6%
    services: 48.2% (2011 est.)
    1% (2014 est.)
    0.7% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 4
    13.2% (2011 est.)
    lowest 10%: 2.8%
    highest 10%: 31.5% (2009 est.)
    39.4 (2010)
    42 (2002)
    country comparison to the world: 64
    revenues: $76.43 billion
    expenditures: $84.75 billion (2014 est.)
    20.1% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 162
    -2.2% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 89
    48.6% of GDP (2014 est.)
    45.8% of GDP (2013 est.)
    note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are sold at public auctions
    country comparison to the world: 71
    1 October - 30 September
    2.1% (2014 est.)
    2.2% (2013 est.)
    2.25% (31 December 2013)
    3.25% (31 December 2011)
    country comparison to the world: 116
    6.8% (31 December 2014 est.)
    6.96% (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 124
    $53.71 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $50.63 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 48
    $520.8 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $489.5 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 22
    $515.2 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $484.2 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 26
    $348.5 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    $383 billion (31 December 2012)
    $268.5 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 27
    $10.17 billion (2014 est.)
    -$2.678 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 28
    $232 billion (2014 est.)
    $225.4 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 25
    electronics, computer parts, automobiles and parts, electrical appliances, machinery and equipment, textiles and footwear, fishery products, rice, rubber
    China 11.9%, US 10.1%, Japan 9.7%, Hong Kong 5.8%, Malaysia 5.7%, Singapore 4.9%, Indonesia 4.8%, Australia 4.5% (2013)
    $218.5 billion (2014 est.)
    $219 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 25
    capital goods, intermediate goods and raw materials, consumer goods, fuels
    Japan 16.4%, China 15%, UAE 6.9%, US 5.9%, Malaysia 5.3% (2013)
    $164 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $167.3 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 16
    $150.8 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $143.8 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 40
    $208.3 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $198.3 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 27
    $70.88 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $62.88 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 34
    baht per US dollar -
    32.24 (2014 est.)
    30.726 (2013 est.)
    31.08 (2012 est.)
    30.492 (2011 est.)
    31.686 (2010 est.)
  • Energy :: THAILAND

  • 173.3 billion kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 23
    169.4 billion kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 23
    1.375 billion kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 52
    12.57 billion kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 14
    32.6 million kW (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 27
    89% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 79
    0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 185
    10.9% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 113
    0.2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 99
    453,800 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 30
    448.8 million bbl (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 51
    913,600 bbl/day (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 24
    1.005 million bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 21
    192,400 bbl/day (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 31
    41,700 bbl/day (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 79
    41.29 billion cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 22
    50.86 billion cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 19
    0 cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 187
    9.574 billion cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 24
    255.9 billion cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 43
    290.7 million Mt (2012 est.)
  • Communications :: THAILAND

  • 6.391 million (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 26
    84.075 million (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 17
    general assessment: high quality system, especially in urban areas like Bangkok
    domestic: fixed line system provided by both a government-owned and commercial provider; wireless service expanding rapidly
    international: country code - 66; connected to major submarine cable systems providing links throughout Asia, Australia, Middle East, Europe, and US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean, 1 Pacific Ocean) (2011)
    6 terrestrial TV stations in Bangkok broadcast nationally via relay stations - 2 of the networks are owned by the military, the other 4 are government-owned or controlled, leased to private enterprise, and all are required to broadcast government-produced news programs twice a day; multi-channel satellite and cable TV subscription services are available; radio frequencies have been allotted for more than 500 government and commercial radio stations; many small community radio stations operate with low-power transmitters (2008)
    AM 238, FM 351, shortwave 6 (2007)
    111 (2006)
    .th
    3.399 million (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 31
    17.483 million (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 22
  • Transportation :: THAILAND

  • 101 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 56
    total: 63
    over 3,047 m: 8
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 12
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 23
    914 to 1,523 m: 14
    under 914 m: 6 (2013)
    total: 38
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
    914 to 1,523 m: 10
    under 914 m:
    26 (2013)
    7 (2013)
    condensate 2 km; gas 5,900 km; liquid petroleum gas 85 km; oil 1 km; refined products 1,097 km (2013)
    total: 4,071 km
    standard gauge: 29 km 1.435-m gauge (29 km electrified)
    narrow gauge: 4,042 km 1.000-m gauge (2008)
    country comparison to the world: 43
    total: 180,053 km (includes 450 km of expressways) (2006)
    country comparison to the world: 28
    4,000 km (3,701 km navigable by boats with drafts up to 0.9 m) (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 26
    total: 363
    by type: bulk carrier 31, cargo 99, chemical tanker 28, container 18, liquefied gas 36, passenger 1, passenger/cargo 10, petroleum tanker 114, refrigerated cargo 24, roll on/roll off 1, vehicle carrier 1
    foreign-owned: 13 (China 1, Hong Kong 1, Malaysia 3, Singapore 1, Taiwan 1, UK 6)
    registered in other countries: 46 (Bahamas 4, Belize 1, Honduras 2, Panama 6, Singapore 33) (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 28
    major seaport(s): Bangkok, Laem Chabang, Map Ta Phut, Prachuap Port, Si Racha
    container port(s) TEUs): Bangkok (1,305,229), Laem Chabang (5,731,063)
  • Military :: THAILAND

  • Royal Thai Army (Kongthap Bok Thai, RTA), Royal Thai Navy (Kongthap Ruea Thai, RTN, includes Royal Thai Marine Corps), Royal Thai Air Force (Kongthap Agard Thai, RTAF) (2013)
    21 years of age for compulsory military service; 18 years of age for voluntary military service; males register at 18 years of age; 2-year conscript service obligation (2012)
    males age 16-49: 17,689,921
    females age 16-49: 17,754,795 (2010 est.)
    males age 16-49: 13,308,372
    females age 16-49: 14,182,567 (2010 est.)
    male: 533,424
    female: 509,780 (2010 est.)
    1.5% of GDP (2013)
    1.47% of GDP (2012)
    1.6% of GDP (2011)
    1.47% of GDP (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 63
  • Transnational Issues :: THAILAND

  • separatist violence in Thailand's predominantly Malay-Muslim southern provinces prompt border closures and controls with Malaysia to stem insurgent activities; Southeast Asian states have enhanced border surveillance to check the spread of avian flu; talks continue on completion of demarcation with Laos but disputes remain over several islands in the Mekong River; despite continuing border committee talks, Thailand must deal with Karen and other ethnic rebels, refugees, and illegal cross-border activities; Cambodia and Thailand dispute sections of boundary; in 2011 Thailand and Cambodia resorted to arms in the dispute over the location of the boundary on the precipice surmounted by Preah Vihear temple ruins, awarded to Cambodia by ICJ decision in 1962 and part of a planned UN World Heritage site; Thailand is studying the feasibility of jointly constructing the Hatgyi Dam on the Salween river near the border with Burma; in 2004, international environmentalist pressure prompted China to halt construction of 13 dams on the Salween River that flows through China, Burma, and Thailand; 140,000 mostly Karen refugees fleeing civil strife, political upheaval and economic stagnation in Burma live in remote camps in Thailand near the border
    refugees (country of origin): 131,665 (Burma) (2014)
    IDPs: up to 35,000 (resurgence in ethno-nationalist violence in south of country since 2004) (2015)
    stateless persons: 506,197 (2013); note - about half of Thailand's northern hill tribe people do not have citizenship and make up the bulk of Thailand's stateless population; most lack documentation showing they or one of their parents were born in Thailand; children born to Burmese refugees are not eligible for Burmese or Thai citizenship and are stateless; most Chao Lay, maritime nomadic peoples, who travel from island to island in the Andaman Sea west of Thailand are also stateless; stateless Rohingya refugees from Burma are considered illegal migrants by Thai authorities and are detained in inhumane conditions or expelled; stateless persons are denied access to voting, property, education, employment, healthcare, and driving
    current situation: Thailand is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; victims, who are most often from neighboring countries (especially Burma) but also China, Vietnam, Russia, Uzbekistan, India, and Fiji, migrate to Thailand in search of economic opportunities but are forced, coerced, or defrauded into labor in fishing, low-end garment production, factories, domestic work, street begging, or the sex trade; men from Burma, Cambodia, and Thailand who are forced to work on fishing boats have reportedly been kept at sea for years; migrants, members of ethnic minorities, and stateless persons are most vulnerable to forced labor and debt bondage; sex trafficking of Thai and migrant children and sex tourism remain significant problems; Thailand is a transit country for victims from North Korea, China, Vietnam, Pakistan, and Burma destined for exploitation in third countries, including Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, Russia, South Korea, the US, and Western European countries
    tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List – Thailand does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; anti-trafficking efforts remain insufficient compared with the size of Thailand’s human trafficking problem, which is compounded by widespread corruption among law enforcement personnel; few efforts were made in 2013 to address frequent reports of forced labor and debt bondage among migrants in Thailand’s fishing and other commercial sectors; authorities systematically failed to investigate, prosecute, and convict owners, captains, or complicit officials for involvement in forced labor; government labor inspections did not result in the identification of any suspected cases of labor trafficking (2014)
    a minor producer of opium, heroin, and marijuana; transit point for illicit heroin en route to the international drug market from Burma and Laos; eradication efforts have reduced the area of cannabis cultivation and shifted some production to neighboring countries; opium poppy cultivation has been reduced by eradication efforts; also a drug money-laundering center; minor role in methamphetamine production for regional consumption; major consumer of methamphetamine since the 1990s despite a series of government crackdowns
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