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Central Asia :: Tajikistan
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Tajikistan
  • Introduction :: TAJIKISTAN

  • The Tajik people came under Russian rule in the 1860s and 1870s, but Russia's hold on Central Asia weakened following the Revolution of 1917. Bands of indigenous guerrillas (called "basmachi") fiercely contested Bolshevik control of the area, which was not fully reestablished until 1925. Tajikistan was first created as an autonomous republic within Uzbekistan in 1924, but the USSR designated Tajikistan a separate republic in 1929 and transferred to it much of present-day Sughd province. Ethnic Uzbeks form a substantial minority in Tajikistan, and ethnic Tajiks an even larger minority in Uzbekistan. Tajikistan became independent in 1991 following the breakup of the Soviet Union, and experienced a civil war between regional factions from 1992 to 1997. Tajikistan has endured several domestic security incidents since 2010, including armed conflict between government forces and local strongmen in the Rasht Valley and between government forces and criminal groups in Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Oblast. The most recent incidents were a series of attacks on security personnel in September 2015 led by a former high-ranking official in the Ministry of Defense. The country remains the poorest in the former Soviet sphere. Tajikistan became a member of the World Trade Organization in March 2013. However, its economy continues to face major challenges, including dependence on remittances from Tajikistanis working in Russia, pervasive corruption, and the major role narco-trafficking plays in the country's informal economy.
  • Geography :: TAJIKISTAN

  • Central Asia, west of China, south of Kyrgyzstan
    39 00 N, 71 00 E
    Asia
    total: 144,100 sq km
    land: 141,510 sq km
    water: 2,590 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 96
    slightly smaller than Wisconsin
    total: 4,130 km
    border countries (4): Afghanistan 1,357 km, China 477 km, Kyrgyzstan 984 km, Uzbekistan 1,312 km
    0 km (landlocked)
    none (landlocked)
    mid-latitude continental, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid to polar in Pamir Mountains
    mountainous region dominated by the Trans-Alay Range in the north and the Pamirs in the southeast; western Fergana Valley in north, Kofarnihon and Vakhsh Valleys in southwest
    mean elevation: 3,186 m
    elevation extremes: lowest point: Syr Darya (Sirdaryo) 300 m
    highest point: Qullai Ismoili Somoni 7,495 m
    hydropower, some petroleum, uranium, mercury, brown coal, lead, zinc, antimony, tungsten, silver, gold
    agricultural land: 34.7%
    arable land 6.1%; permanent crops 0.9%; permanent pasture 27.7%
    forest: 2.9%
    other: 62.4% (2011 est.)
    7,420 sq km (2012)
    21.91 cu km (2011)
    total: 11.49 cu km/yr (6%/4%/91%)
    per capita: 1,740 cu m/yr (2006)
    earthquakes; floods
    inadequate sanitation facilities; increasing levels of soil salinity; industrial pollution; excessive pesticides
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Environmental Modification, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    landlocked; highest point, Qullai Ismoili Somoni (formerly Communism Peak), was the tallest mountain in the former USSR
  • People and Society :: TAJIKISTAN

  • noun: Tajikistani(s)
    adjective: Tajikistani
    Tajik 84.3%, Uzbek 13.8% (includes Lakai, Kongrat, Katagan, Barlos, Yuz), other 2% (includes Kyrgyz, Russian, Turkmen, Tatar, Arab) (2010 est.)
    Tajik (official), Russian widely used in government and business
    note: different ethnic groups speak Uzbek, Kyrgyz, and Pashto
    Sunni Muslim 85%, Shia Muslim 5%, other 10% (2003 est.)
    8,191,958 (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 96
    0-14 years: 32.75% (male 1,365,565/female 1,317,285)
    15-24 years: 19.7% (male 818,661/female 795,125)
    25-54 years: 39.26% (male 1,590,051/female 1,626,091)
    55-64 years: 5.1% (male 191,688/female 226,134)
    65 years and over: 3.19% (male 109,084/female 152,274) (2015 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 60.9%
    youth dependency ratio: 56%
    elderly dependency ratio: 4.8%
    potential support ratio: 20.7% (2015 est.)
    total: 23.9 years
    male: 23.4 years
    female: 24.4 years (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 159
    1.71% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 69
    24.38 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 57
    6.18 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 156
    -1.15 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 151
    urban population: 26.8% of total population (2015)
    rate of urbanization: 2.62% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    DUSHANBE (capital) 822,000 (2015)
    at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.85 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2015 est.)
    22.8
    note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2012 est.)
    32 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 93
    total: 33.93 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 38.23 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 29.42 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 63
    total population: 67.39 years
    male: 64.28 years
    female: 70.66 years (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 168
    2.71 children born/woman (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 70
    27.9% (2012)
    6.8% of GDP (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 120
    1.92 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
    5.5 beds/1,000 population (2011)
    improved:
    urban: 93.1% of population
    rural: 66.7% of population
    total: 73.8% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 6.9% of population
    rural: 33.3% of population
    total: 26.2% of population (2015 est.)
    improved:
    urban: 93.8% of population
    rural: 95.5% of population
    total: 95% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 6.2% of population
    rural: 4.5% of population
    total: 5% of population (2015 est.)
    0.35% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 79
    16,400 (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 84
    700 (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 73
    degree of risk: high
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
    vectorborne disease: malaria (2013)
    12% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 136
    13.3% (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 56
    4% of GDP (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 114
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 99.8%
    male: 99.8%
    female: 99.7% (2015 est.)
    total: 11 years
    male: 12 years
    female: 10 years (2012)
    total number: 164,432
    percentage: 10% (2005 est.)
    total: 16.7%
    male: 19.2%
    female: 13.7% (2009 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 72
  • Government :: TAJIKISTAN

  • conventional long form: Republic of Tajikistan
    conventional short form: Tajikistan
    local long form: Jumhurii Tojikiston
    local short form: Tojikiston
    former: Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic
    etymology: the Persian suffix "-stan" means "place of" or "country," so the word Tajikistan literally means "Land of the Tajik [People]"
    presidential republic
    name: Dushanbe
    geographic coordinates: 38 33 N, 68 46 E
    time difference: UTC+5 (10 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    2 provinces (viloyatho, singular - viloyat), 1 autonomous province* (viloyati mukhtor), 1 capital region** (viloyati poytakht), and 1 area referred to as Districts Under Republic Administration***; Dushanbe**, Khatlon (Qurghonteppa), Kuhistoni Badakhshon [Gorno-Badakhshan]* (Khorugh), Nohiyahoi Tobei Jumhuri***, Sughd (Khujand)
    note: the administrative center name follows in parentheses
    9 September 1991 (from the Soviet Union)
    Independence Day (or National Day), 9 September (1991)
    several previous; latest adopted 6 November 1994; amended 1999, 2003, 2014 (2016)
    civil law system
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Tajikistan
    dual citizenship recognized: no
    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years or 3 years of continuous residence prior to application
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: President Emomali RAHMON (since 6 November 1994; head of state and Supreme Assembly chairman since 19 November 1992)
    head of government: Prime Minister Qohir RASULZODA (since 23 November 2013)
    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president, approved by the Supreme Assembly
    elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 7-year term (eligible for 2 terms); election last held on 6 November 2013 (next to be held in November 2020); prime minister appointed by the president
    election results: Emomali RAHMON reelected president; percent of vote - Emomali RAHMON (PDPT) 83.9%, Ismoil TALBAKOV (CPT) 5%, other 11.1%
    description: bicameral Supreme Assembly or Majlisi Oli consists of the National Assembly or Majlisi Milli (34 seats; 25 members indirectly elected by local representative assemblies or majlisi, 8 appointed by the president, and 1 reserved for the former president; members serve 5-year terms) and the Assembly of Representatives or Majlisi Namoyandagon (63 seats; 41 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by two-round absolute majority vote and 22 directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)
    elections: National Assembly - last held on 1 March 2015 (next to be held in 2020); Assembly of Representatives - last held on 1 March 2015 (next to be held in 2020)
    election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; Assembly of Representatives - percent of vote by party - PDPT 65.4%, APT 11.7%, PERT 7.5%, SPT 5.5%, CPT 2.2%, DPT 1.7%, other 6%; seats by party - PDPT 51, APT 5, PERT 3, SPT 1, CPT 2, DPT 1
    highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chairman, deputy chairmen, and 34 judges organized into civil, criminal, and military chambers); Constitutional Court (consists of the court chairman, vice-president, and 5 judges); High Economic Court (consists 16 judicial positions)
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court, Constitutional Court, and High Economic Court judges nominated by the president of the republic and approved by the National Assembly; judges of all 3 courts appointed for 10-year renewable terms with no limit on terms, but last appointment must occur before the age of 65
    subordinate courts: regional and district courts; Dushanbe City Court; viloyat (province level) courts; Court of Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Region
    Agrarian Party of Tajikistan or APT [Rustam LATIFZODA]
    Communist Party of Tajikistan or CPT [Shodi SHABDOLOV]
    Democratic Party of Tajikistan or DPT [Saidjafar ISMONOV]
    Party of Economic Reform of Tajikistan or PERT [Olimjon BOBOEV]
    People's Democratic Party of Tajikistan or PDPT [Emomali RAHMON]
    Social Democratic Party of Tajikistan or SDPT [Rahmatullo ZOIROV]
    Socialist Party of Tajikistan or SPT [Abduhalim GHAFOROV]
    New Tajikistan Party [Zayd SAIDOV] (unregistered)
    Presidential Candidate of Union of Reformist Forces of Tajikistan Oynihol BOBONAZAROVA (unregistered)
    Vatandor (Patriot) Movement [Dodojon ATOVULLOEV]
    Youth for the Revival of Tajikistan [Maqsud IBROHIMOV]
    Youth Party of Tajikistan [Izzat AMON] (unregistered)
    Islamic Renaissance Party of Tajikistan or IRPT [Muhiddin KABIRI] (banned)
    ADB, CICA, CIS, CSTO, EAEC, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, EITI (candidate country), FAO, G-77, GCTU, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, MIGA, NAM (observer), OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SCO, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    chief of mission: Ambassador Farhod SALIM (since 21 May 2014)
    chancery: 1005 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20037
    telephone: [1] (202) 223-6090
    FAX: [1] (202) 223-6091
    chief of mission: Ambassador Elisabeth MILLARD (since November 2015)
    embassy: 109-A Ismoili Somoni Avenue, Dushanbe 734019
    mailing address: 7090 Dushanbe Place, Dulles, VA 20189
    telephone: [992] (37) 229-20-00
    FAX: [992] (37) 229-20-50
    three horizontal stripes of red (top), a wider stripe of white, and green; a gold crown surmounted by seven gold, five-pointed stars is located in the center of the white stripe; red represents the sun, victory, and the unity of the nation, white stands for purity, cotton, and mountain snows, while green is the color of Islam and the bounty of nature; the crown symbolizes the Tajik people; the seven stars signify the Tajik magic number "seven" - a symbol of perfection and the embodiment of happiness
    crown surmounted by seven, five-pointed stars; national colors: red, white, green
    name: "Surudi milli" (National Anthem)
    lyrics/music: Gulnazar KELDI/Sulaimon YUDAKOV
    note: adopted 1991; after the fall of the Soviet Union, Tajikistan kept the music of the anthem from its time as a Soviet republic but adopted new lyrics
  • Economy :: TAJIKISTAN

  • Tajikistan is a poor, mountainous country with an economy dominated by minerals extraction, metals processing, agriculture, and reliance on remittances from citizens working abroad. The 1992-97 civil war severely damaged an already weak economic infrastructure and caused a sharp decline in industrial and agricultural production, and today, Tajikistan has one of the lowest per capita GDPs among the 15 former Soviet republics. Less than 7% of the land area is arable and cotton is the most important crop. Tajikistan imports approximately 60% of its food. Mineral resources include silver, gold, uranium, antimony, and tungsten. Industry consists mainly of small obsolete factories in food processing and light industry, substantial hydropower facilities, and a large aluminum plant - currently operating well below its capacity.
    Because of a lack of employment opportunities in Tajikistan, more than one million Tajik citizens work abroad - roughly 90% in Russia - supporting families back home through remittances that have been equivalent to nearly 50% of GDP. Some experts estimate the value of narcotics transiting Tajikistan is equivalent to 30-50% of GDP.
    Since the end of the devastating, five-year civil war, the country has pursued half-hearted reforms and privatizations, but the poor business climate remains a hurdle to attracting investment. Tajikistan has sought to develop its substantial hydroelectricity potential through partnership with Russian and Iranian investors, and is pursuing completion of the Roghun dam - which, if built according to plan, would be the tallest dam in the world. However, the project will take at least 8 to 11 years to construct, and faces financing shortfalls and opposition from downstream Uzbekistan.
    Recent slowdowns in the Russian and Chinese economies, low commodity prices, and currency fluctuations are hampering economic growth in Tajikistan. By some estimates, the dollar value of remittances from Russia to Tajikistan dropped by more than 65% in 2015. The government faces challenges financing the public debt, which is equivalent to 35% of GDP, and the National Bank of Tajikistan has aggressively spent down reserves to bolster the weakening somoni, leaving little space for fiscal or monetary measures to counter any additional economic shocks.
    $23.3 billion (2015 est.)
    $22.62 billion (2014 est.)
    $21.2 billion (2013 est.)
    note: data are in 2015 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 139
    $8.045 billion (2015 est.)
    3% (2015 est.)
    6.7% (2014 est.)
    7.4% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 101
    $2,800 (2015 est.)
    $2,700 (2014 est.)
    $2,600 (2013 est.)
    note: data are in 2015 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 192
    5.5% of GDP (2015 est.)
    5.3% of GDP (2014 est.)
    12.2% of GDP (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 164
    household consumption: 116.9%
    government consumption: 12.6%
    investment in fixed capital: 13.9%
    investment in inventories: 3.4%
    exports of goods and services: 17.2%
    imports of goods and services: -64% (2015 est.)
    agriculture: 25.7%
    industry: 17.3%
    services: 57% (2015 est.)
    cotton, grain, fruits, grapes, vegetables; cattle, sheep, goats
    aluminum, cement, vegetable oil
    2% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 115
    2.209 million (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 120
    agriculture: 46.5%
    industry: 10.7%
    services: 42.8% (2013 est.)
    2.5% (2013 est.)
    2.5% (2012 est.)
    note: official rates; actual unemployment is much higher
    country comparison to the world: 16
    35.6% (2013 est.)
    lowest 10%: NA%
    highest 10%: NA% (2009 est.)
    32.6 (2006)
    34.7 (1998)
    country comparison to the world: 107
    revenues: $2.432 billion
    expenditures: $2.481 billion (2015 est.)
    30.2% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 81
    -0.6% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 49
    6.5% of GDP (2013 est.)
    NA%
    country comparison to the world: 177
    calendar year
    8.9% (2015 est.)
    6.1% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 201
    4.8% (31 December 2013)
    6.5% (31 December 2012)
    country comparison to the world: 80
    22% (31 December 2015 est.)
    21.62% (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 10
    $1.28 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $1.42 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 146
    $2.085 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $1.778 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 152
    $1.135 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $1.338 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 156
    $NA
    $NA
    $NA
    -$604 million (2015 est.)
    -$853 million (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 102
    $555.6 million (2015 est.)
    $526.8 million (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 170
    aluminum, electricity, cotton, fruits, vegetable oil, textiles
    Turkey 23.2%, Iran 13%, Afghanistan 10.7%, Kazakhstan 10.5%, Italy 8.5%, Bangladesh 7.4%, China 6.9%, Russia 5.4% (2014)
    $3.162 billion (2015 est.)
    $4.509 billion (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 143
    petroleum products, aluminum oxide, machinery and equipment, foodstuffs
    China 46.6%, Russia 16.8%, Kazakhstan 10.5%, Turkey 5.2% (2014)
    $430.3 million (31 December 2015 est.)
    $502.8 million (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 153
    $3.612 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $3.538 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 139
    $2.272 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 107
    $NA
    $16.3 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
    Tajikistani somoni (TJS) per US dollar -
    6.208 (2015 est.)
    4.9348 (2014 est.)
    4.9348 (2013 est.)
    4.76 (2012 est.)
    4.6103 (2011 est.)
  • Energy :: TAJIKISTAN

  • 17.09 billion kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 80
    14.42 billion kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 80
    1 billion kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 56
    114 million kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 92
    4.476 million kW (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 76
    9% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 200
    0% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 188
    91% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 12
    0% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 130
    206 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 97
    0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 194
    0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 131
    12 million bbl (29 February 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 91
    400 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 111
    12,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 151
    500 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 115
    20,090 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 111
    13 million cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 91
    211 million cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 104
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 190
    198 million cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 70
    5.663 billion cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 94
    2.618 million Mt (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 143
  • Communications :: TAJIKISTAN

  • total subscriptions: 440,000
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 5 (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 98
    total: 8 million
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 99 (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 96
    general assessment: foreign investment in the telephone system has resulted in major improvements; conversion of the existing fixed network from analogue to digital was completed in 2012
    domestic: fixed line availability has not changed significantly since 1998, while mobile cellular subscribership, aided by competition among multiple operators, has expanded rapidly; coverage now extends to all major cities and towns
    international: country code - 992; linked by cable and microwave radio relay to other CIS republics and by leased connections to the Moscow international gateway switch; Dushanbe linked by Intelsat to international gateway switch in Ankara (Turkey); satellite earth stations - 3 (2 Intelsat and 1 Orbita); established a single gateway for Internet traffic in December 2015, which is expected to limit the connectivity of nonstate-owned telecom, Internet, and mobile companies (2016)
    state-run TV broadcasters transmit nationally on 9 TV and 10 radio stations, and regionally on 4 stations; 31 independent TV and 20 radio stations broadcast locally and regionally; many households are able to receive Russian and other foreign stations via cable and satellite (2016)
    16 (number of licensed stations with only about 10 broadcasting) (2009)
    24 (number of licensed stations with only about 15 active) (2009)
    .tj
    6,258 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 142
    total: 1.3 million
    percent of population: 16.1% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 118
  • Transportation :: TAJIKISTAN

  • 24 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 131
    total: 17
    over 3,047 m: 2
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
    914 to 1,523 m: 3
    under 914 m: 3 (2013)
    total: 7
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
    914 to 1,523 m: 1
    under 914 m: 5 (2013)
    gas 549 km; oil 38 km (2013)
    total: 680 km
    broad gauge: 680 km 1.520-m gauge (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 103
    total: 27,767 km (2000)
    country comparison to the world: 98
    200 km (along Vakhsh River) (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 98
  • Military and Security :: TAJIKISTAN

  • Ground Forces, Air and Air Defense Forces, Mobile Forces (2013)
    18-27 years of age for compulsory or voluntary military service; 2-year conscript service obligation; males required to undergo compulsory military training between ages 16 and 55; males can enroll in military schools from at least age 15 (2012)
    1.1% of GDP (2014)
    1% of GDP (2008)
  • Transnational Issues :: TAJIKISTAN

  • in 2006, China and Tajikistan pledged to commence demarcation of the revised boundary agreed to in the delimitation of 2002; talks continue with Uzbekistan to delimit border and remove minefields; disputes in Isfara Valley delay delimitation with Kyrgyzstan
    stateless persons: 1,364 (2014)
    major transit country for Afghan narcotics bound for Russian and, to a lesser extent, Western European markets; limited illicit cultivation of opium poppy for domestic consumption; Tajikistan seizes roughly 80% of all drugs captured in Central Asia and stands third worldwide in seizures of opiates (heroin and raw opium); significant consumer of opiates
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