Main Content

Australia - Oceania :: Tonga Print
Page last updated on November 13, 2018
View 3 photos of
TONGA
  • Introduction :: Tonga
  • Background field listing
    Tonga - unique among Pacific nations - never completely lost its indigenous governance. The archipelagos of "The Friendly Islands" were united into a Polynesian kingdom in 1845. Tonga became a constitutional monarchy in 1875 and a British protectorate in 1900; it withdrew from the protectorate and joined the Commonwealth of Nations in 1970. Tonga remains the only monarchy in the Pacific; in 2010 it began implementing steps to conduct more representative elections. Tropical Cyclone Gita, the strongest-ever recorded storm to impact Tonga, hit the islands in February 2018 causing extensive damage.
  • Geography :: Tonga
  • Location field listing
    Oceania, archipelago in the South Pacific Ocean, about two-thirds of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand
    Geographic coordinates field listing
    20 00 S, 175 00 W
    Map references field listing
    Oceania
    Area field listing
    total: 747 sq km
    land: 717 sq km
    water: 30 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 190
    Area - comparative field listing
    four times the size of Washington, DC
    Land boundaries field listing
    0 km
    Coastline field listing
    419 km
    Maritime claims field listing
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
    Climate field listing
    tropical; modified by trade winds; warm season (December to May), cool season (May to December)
    Terrain field listing
    mostly flat islands with limestone bedrock formed from uplifted coral formation; others have limestone overlying volcanic rock
    Elevation field listing
    0 m lowest point: Pacific Ocean
    1046 highest point: Kao Volcano on Kao Island
    Natural resources field listing
    arable land, fish
    Land use field listing
    agricultural land: 43.1% (2011 est.)
    arable land: 22.2% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 15.3% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 5.6% (2011 est.)
    forest: 12.5% (2011 est.)
    other: 44.4% (2011 est.)
    Irrigated land field listing
    0 sq km (2012)
    Population distribution field listing
    over two-thirds of the population lives on the island of Tongatapu; only 45 of the nation's 171 islands are occupied
    Natural hazards field listing

    cyclones (October to April); earthquakes and volcanic activity on Fonuafo'ou

    volcanism: moderate volcanic activity; Fonualei (180 m) has shown frequent activity in recent years, while Niuafo'ou (260 m), which last erupted in 1985, has forced evacuations; other historically active volcanoes include Late and Tofua

    Environment - current issues field listing
    deforestation results from land being cleared for agriculture and settlement; soil exhaustion; water pollution due to salinization, sewage, and toxic chemicals from farming activities; coral reefs and marine populations threatened
    Environment - international agreements field listing
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    Geography - note field listing
    the western islands (making up the Tongan Volcanic Arch) are all of volcanic origin; the eastern islands are nonvolcanic and are composed of coral limestone and sand
  • People and Society :: Tonga
  • Population field listing
    106,398 (July 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 193
    Nationality field listing
    noun: Tongan(s)
    adjective: Tongan
    Ethnic groups field listing
    Tongan 97%, part-Tongan 0.8%, other 2.2%, unspecified (2016 est.)
    Languages field listing
    Tongan and English 76.8%, Tongan, English, and other language 10.6%, Tongan only (official) 8.7%, English only (official) 0.7%, other 1.7%, none 2.2% (2016 est.)

    note: data represent persons aged 5 and older who can read and write a simple sentence in Tongan, English, or another language

    Religions field listing
    Protestant 64.1% (includes Free Wesleyan Church 35%, Free Church of Tonga 11.9%, Church of Tonga 6.8%, Assembly of God 2.3%, Seventh Day Adventist 2.2%, Tokaikolo Christian Church 1.6%, other 4.3%), Mormon 18.6%, Roman Catholic 14.2%, other 2.4%, none 0.5%, unspecified 0.1% (2016 est.)
    Age structure field listing
    0-14 years: 33.26% (male 17,979 /female 17,404)
    15-24 years: 19.69% (male 10,725 /female 10,223)
    25-54 years: 34.69% (male 18,436 /female 18,469)
    55-64 years: 5.81% (male 3,098 /female 3,089)
    65 years and over: 6.56% (male 3,140 /female 3,835) (2018 est.)
    population pyramid: population pyramid
    Dependency ratios field listing
    total dependency ratio: 74.2 (2015 est.)
    youth dependency ratio: 63.9 (2015 est.)
    elderly dependency ratio: 10.2 (2015 est.)
    potential support ratio: 9.8 (2015 est.)
    Median age field listing
    total: 23.3 years
    male: 22.9 years
    female: 23.8 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 174
    Population growth rate field listing
    -0.1% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 204
    Birth rate field listing
    21.8 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 69
    Death rate field listing
    4.9 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 199
    Net migration rate field listing
    -17.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 218
    Population distribution field listing
    over two-thirds of the population lives on the island of Tongatapu; only 45 of the nation's 171 islands are occupied
    Urbanization field listing
    urban population: 23.1% of total population (2018)
    rate of urbanization: 0.71% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    Major urban areas - population field listing
    23,000 NUKU'ALOFA (2018)
    Sex ratio field listing
    at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    55-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    65 years and over: 0.84 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    Mother's mean age at first birth field listing
    24.9 years (2012 est.)

    note: median age at first birth among women 25-49

    Maternal mortality rate field listing
    124 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 68
    Infant mortality rate field listing
    total: 10.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    male: 11.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    female: 10.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 127
    Life expectancy at birth field listing
    total population: 76.6 years (2018 est.)
    male: 75 years (2018 est.)
    female: 78.3 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 85
    Total fertility rate field listing
    3.03 children born/woman (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 51
    Contraceptive prevalence rate field listing
    34.1% (2012)
    Health expenditures field listing
    5.2% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 136
    Physicians density field listing
    0.56 physicians/1,000 population (2010)
    Hospital bed density field listing
    2.6 beds/1,000 population (2010)
    Drinking water source field listing
    improved: urban: 99.7% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 99.6% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 99.6% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 0.3% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 0.4% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 0.4% of population (2015 est.)
    Sanitation facility access field listing
    improved: urban: 97.6% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 89% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 91% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 2.4% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 11% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 9% of population (2015 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate field listing
    NA
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS field listing
    NA
    HIV/AIDS - deaths field listing
    NA
    Major infectious diseases field listing

    note: active local transmission of Zika virus by Aedes species mosquitoes has been identified in this country (as of August 2016); it poses an important risk (a large number of cases possible) among US citizens if bitten by an infective mosquito; other less common ways to get Zika are through sex, via blood transfusion, or during pregnancy, in which the pregnant woman passes Zika virus to her fetus

    Obesity - adult prevalence rate field listing
    48.2% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 7
    Children under the age of 5 years underweight field listing
    1.9% (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 112
    Literacy field listing
    definition: can read and write Tongan and/or English (2015 est.)
    total population: 99.4% (2015 est.)
    male: 99.3% (2015 est.)
    female: 99.4% (2015 est.)
  • Government :: Tonga
  • Country name field listing
    conventional long form: Kingdom of Tonga
    conventional short form: Tonga
    local long form: Pule'anga Fakatu'i 'o Tonga
    local short form: Tonga
    former: Friendly Islands
    etymology: "tonga" means "south" in the Tongan language and refers to the country's geographic position in relation to central Polynesia
    Government type field listing
    constitutional monarchy
    Capital field listing
    name: Nuku'alofa
    geographic coordinates: 21 08 S, 175 12 W
    time difference: UTC+13 (18 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: +1hr, begins first Sunday in November; ends second Sunday in January
    Administrative divisions field listing
    5 island divisions; 'Eua, Ha'apai, Ongo Niua, Tongatapu, Vava'u
    Independence field listing
    4 June 1970 (from UK protectorate)
    National holiday field listing
    Official Birthday of King TUPOU VI, 4 July (1959); note - actual birthday of the monarch is 12 July 1959; 4 July (2015) is the day the king was crownedConstitution Day (National Day), 4 November (1875)
    Constitution field listing
    history: adopted 4 November 1875 (2018)
    amendments: proposed by the Legislative Assembly; passage requires approval by the Assembly in each of three readings, the unanimous approval of the Privy Council (a high-level advisory body to the monarch), the Cabinet, and assent to by the monarch; revised 1988; amended many times, last in 2016 (2018)
    International law organization participation field listing
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
    Citizenship field listing
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Tonga; if a child is born out of wedlock, the mother must be a citizen of Tonga
    dual citizenship recognized: yes
    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
    Suffrage field listing
    21 years of age; universal
    Executive branch field listing
    chief of state: King TUPOU VI (since 18 March 2012); Heir Apparent Crown Prince Siaosi Manumataogo 'Alaivahamama'o 'Ahoeitu Konstantin Tuku'aho, son of the king (born 17 September 1985); note - on 18 March 2012, King George TUPOU V died and his brother, Crown Prince TUPOUTO'A Lavaka, assumed the throne as TUPOU VI
    head of government: Interim Prime Minister 'Akilisi POHIVA (since 30 December 2014); note - King TUPOU VI dissolved the parliament on 26 August 2017
    cabinet: Cabinet nominated by the prime minister and appointed by the monarch
    elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; prime minister and deputy prime minister indirectly elected by the Legislative Assembly and appointed by the monarch; election last held on 18 December 2017 (next to be held in November 2021); note - King TUPOU VI's dissolution of parliament in August 2017 triggered an early election
    election results: 'Akilisi POHIVA (Democratic Party of the Friendly Islands) reelected prime minister by parliament receiving 14 of 26 votes

    note: a Privy Council advises the monarch

    Legislative branch field listing
    description: unicameral Legislative Assembly or Fale Alea (up to 30 seats - currently 28; 17 people's representatives directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 9 indirectly elected by hereditary leaders, and 2 non-elected; members serve 3-year terms)
    elections: last held on 16 November 2017 (next to be held in 2020)
    election results: percent of vote - NA; seats by party - Democratic Party 14, nobles' representatives 9, independent 3
    Judicial branch field listing
    highest courts: Court of Appeal (consists of the court president and a number of judges determined by the monarch); note - appeals beyond the Court of Appeal are brought before the King in Privy Council, the monarch's advisory organ that has both judicial and legislative powers
    judge selection and term of office: judge appointments and tenures made by the King in Privy Council, judge appointments subject to consent of the Legislative Assembly
    subordinate courts: Supreme Court; Magistrate's Courts; Land Courts
    Political parties and leaders field listing
    Democratic Party of the Friendly Islands [Samuela 'Akilisi POHIVA]
    People's Democratic Party or PDP [Tesina FUKO]
    Sustainable Nation-Building Party [Sione FONUA]
    Tonga Democratic Labor Party
    Tonga Human Rights and Democracy Movement or THRDM
    International organization participation field listing
    ACP, ADB, AOSIS, C, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), OPCW, PIF, Sparteca, SPC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    Diplomatic representation in the US field listing
    chief of mission: Ambassador Mahe'uli'uli Sandhurst TUPOUNIUA (since 17 September 2013)
    chancery: 250 E. 51st Street, New York, NY, 10022
    telephone: [1] (917) 369-1025
    FAX: [1] (917) 369-1024
    consulate(s) general: San Francisco
    Diplomatic representation from the US field listing
    the US does not have an embassy in Tonga; the US Ambassador to Fiji is accredited to Tonga
    Flag description field listing
    red with a bold red cross on a white rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner; the cross reflects the deep-rooted Christianity in Tonga, red represents the blood of Christ and his sacrifice, and white signifies purity
    National symbol(s) field listing
    red cross on white field, arms equal length; national colors: red, white
    National anthem field listing
    name: "Ko e fasi `o e tu"i `o e `Otu Tonga" (Song of the King of the Tonga Islands)
    lyrics/music: Uelingatoni Ngu TUPOUMALOHI/Karl Gustavus SCHMITT

    note: in use since 1875; more commonly known as "Fasi Fakafonua" (National Song)

  • Economy :: Tonga
  • Economy - overview field listing

    Tonga has a small, open island economy and is the last constitutional monarchy among the Pacific Island countries. It has a narrow export base in agricultural goods. Squash, vanilla beans, and yams are the main crops. Agricultural exports, including fish, make up two-thirds of total exports. Tourism is the second-largest source of hard currency earnings following remittances. Tonga had 53,800 visitors in 2015. The country must import a high proportion of its food, mainly from New Zealand.

    The country remains dependent on external aid and remittances from overseas Tongans to offset its trade deficit. The government is emphasizing the development of the private sector, encouraging investment, and is committing increased funds for health care and education. Tonga's English-speaking and educated workforce offers a viable labor market, and the tropical climate provides fertile soil. Renewable energy and deep-sea mining also offer opportunities for investment.

    Tonga has a reasonably sound basic infrastructure and well developed social services. But the government faces high unemployment among the young, moderate inflation, pressures for democratic reform, and rising civil service expenditures.

    GDP (purchasing power parity) field listing
    $591 million (2017 est.)
    $576.6 million (2016 est.)
    $553.6 million (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 211
    GDP (official exchange rate) field listing
    $455 million (2017 est.) (2017 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate field listing
    2.5% (2017 est.)
    4.2% (2016 est.)
    3.5% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 134
    GDP - per capita (PPP) field listing
    $5,900 (2017 est.)
    $5,700 (2016 est.)
    $5,400 (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 167
    GDP - composition, by end use field listing
    household consumption: 99.4% (2017 est.)
    government consumption: 21.9% (2017 est.)
    investment in fixed capital: 24.1% (2017 est.)
    investment in inventories: 0% (2017 est.)
    exports of goods and services: 22.8% (2017 est.)
    imports of goods and services: -68.5% (2017 est.)
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin field listing
    agriculture: 19.9% (2017 est.)
    industry: 20.3% (2017 est.)
    services: 59.8% (2017 est.)
    Agriculture - products field listing
    squash, coconuts, copra, bananas, vanilla beans, cocoa, coffee, sweet potatoes, cassava, taro, and kava
    Industries field listing
    tourism, construction, fishing
    Industrial production growth rate field listing
    5% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 59
    Labor force field listing
    33,800 (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 201
    Labor force - by occupation field listing
    agriculture: 2,006% (2006 est.)
    industry: 27.5% (2006 est.)
    services: 2,006% (2006 est.)
    Unemployment rate field listing
    1.1% (2011 est.)
    1.1% (2006)
    country comparison to the world: 12
    Population below poverty line field listing
    22.5% (2010 est.)
    Household income or consumption by percentage share field listing
    lowest 10%: NA
    highest 10%: NA
    Budget field listing
    revenues: 181.2 million (2017 est.)
    expenditures: 181.2 million (2017 est.)
    Taxes and other revenues field listing
    39.8% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 42
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) field listing
    0% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 47
    Public debt field listing
    48% of GDP (FY2017 est.)
    51.8% of GDP (FY2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 109
    Fiscal year field listing
    1 July - 30 June
    Inflation rate (consumer prices) field listing
    7.4% (2017 est.)
    2.6% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 195
    Commercial bank prime lending rate field listing
    8% (31 December 2017 est.)
    7.9% (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 110
    Stock of narrow money field listing
    $130.8 million (31 December 2017 est.)
    $112.7 million (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 187
    Stock of broad money field listing
    $130.8 million (31 December 2017 est.)
    $112.7 million (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 192
    Stock of domestic credit field listing
    $139.2 million (31 December 2017 est.)
    $135.2 million (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 187
    Market value of publicly traded shares field listing

    NA

    Current account balance field listing
    -$53 million (2017 est.)
    -$30 million (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 80
    Exports field listing
    $18.4 million (2017 est.)
    $19.4 million (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 213
    Exports - commodities field listing
    squash, fish, vanilla beans, root crops, kava
    Exports - partners field listing
    Hong Kong 25.1%, NZ 22.6%, US 14.3%, Japan 12.8%, Australia 10.5% (2017)
    Imports field listing
    $376.9 million (2017 est.)
    $266.6 million (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 198
    Imports - commodities field listing
    foodstuffs, machinery and transport equipment, fuels, chemicals
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold field listing
    $198.5 million (31 December 2017 est.)
    $176.5 million (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 176
    Imports - partners field listing
    NZ 33.3%, Fiji 11.7%, US 9.8%, Singapore 9%, Australia 8.9%, China 7.9%, Japan 5.9% (2017)
    Debt - external field listing
    $189.9 million (31 December 2017 est.)
    $198.2 million (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 190
    Stock of direct foreign investment - at home field listing
    $127.2 million (31 December 2017 est.)
    $117.2 million (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 137
    Exchange rates field listing
    pa'anga (TOP) per US dollar -
    2.228 (2017 est.)
    2.216 (2016 est.)
    2.216 (2015 est.)
    2.106 (2014 est.)
    1.847 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: Tonga
  • Electricity access field listing
    population without electricity: 5,325 (2012)
    electrification - total population: 96% (2012)
    electrification - urban areas: 100% (2012)
    electrification - rural areas: 83% (2012)
    Electricity - production field listing
    50 million kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 205
    Electricity - consumption field listing
    46.5 million kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 204
    Electricity - exports field listing
    0 kWh (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 208
    Electricity - imports field listing
    0 kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 209
    Electricity - installed generating capacity field listing
    17,000 kW (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 206
    Electricity - from fossil fuels field listing
    82.4% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 82
    Electricity - from nuclear fuels field listing
    0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 195
    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants field listing
    0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 204
    Electricity - from other renewable sources field listing
    17.6% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 34
    Crude oil - production field listing
    0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 206
    Crude oil - exports field listing
    0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 205
    Crude oil - imports field listing
    0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 204
    Crude oil - proved reserves field listing
    0 bbl (1 January 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 207
    Refined petroleum products - production field listing
    0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 208
    Refined petroleum products - consumption field listing
    1,500 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 198
    Refined petroleum products - exports field listing
    0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 208
    Refined petroleum products - imports field listing
    1,457 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 194
    Natural gas - production field listing
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 206
    Natural gas - consumption field listing
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 206
    Natural gas - exports field listing
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 201
    Natural gas - imports field listing
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 201
    Natural gas - proved reserves field listing
    0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 203
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy field listing
    200,000 Mt (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 203
  • Communications :: Tonga
  • Telephones - fixed lines field listing
    total subscriptions: 11,000 (July 2016 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 10 (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 192
    Telephones - mobile cellular field listing
    total subscriptions: 80,000 (July 2016 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 75 (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 194
    Telephone system field listing
    general assessment: competition between Tonga Telecommunications Corporation (TCC) and Digicel Tonga Limited is accelerating expansion of telecommunications; both parties provide high speed Internet, mobile telephone networks, and international telecom services; Digicel also holds a telecommunication license after its acquisition of TonFon (a subsidiary of former Shoreline Communications Tonga); submarine cable infrastructure, managed by Tonga Cable Limited, has also been brought to the country by Asian Development Bank and World Bank aid (2016)
    domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity about 85 telephones per 100 persons; fully automatic switched network (2016)
    international: country code - 676; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean) (2016)
    Broadcast media field listing
    1 state-owned TV station and 3 privately owned TV stations; satellite and cable TV services are available; 1 state-owned and 3 privately owned radio stations; Radio Australia broadcasts available via satellite (2015)
    Internet country code field listing
    .to
    Internet users field listing
    total: 42,552 (July 2016 est.)
    percent of population: 40% (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 198
    Broadband - fixed subscriptions field listing
    total: 3,000 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 3 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 183
  • Transportation :: Tonga
  • National air transport system field listing
    number of registered air carriers: 1 (2015)
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 1 (2015)
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 75,416 (2015)
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 0 mt-km (2015)
    Civil aircraft registration country code prefix field listing
    A3 (2016)
    Airports field listing
    6 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 177
    Airports - with paved runways field listing
    total: 1 (2013)
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
    Airports - with unpaved runways field listing
    total: 5 (2013)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)
    914 to 1,523 m: 3 (2013)
    under 914 m: 1 (2013)
    Roadways field listing
    total: 680 km (2011)
    paved: 184 km (2011)
    unpaved: 496 km (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 191
    Merchant marine field listing
    total: 34 (2017)
    by type: bulk carrier 1, container ship 1, general cargo 14, oil tanker 1, other 17 (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 124
    Ports and terminals field listing
    major seaport(s): Nuku'alofa, Neiafu, Pangai
  • Military and Security :: Tonga
  • Military branches field listing
    Tonga Defense Services (TDS): Land Force (Royal Guard), Maritime Force (includes Royal Marines, Air Wing) (2013)
    Military service age and obligation field listing
    16 years of age for voluntary enlistment (with parental consent); no conscription; the king retains the right to call up "all those capable of bearing arms" in wartime (2012)
  • Transnational Issues :: Tonga
  • Disputes - international field listing
    none