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Africa :: TUNISIA
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TUNISIA
  • Introduction :: TUNISIA

  • Rivalry between French and Italian interests in Tunisia culminated in a French invasion in 1881 and the creation of a protectorate. Agitation for independence in the decades following World War I was finally successful in convincing the French to recognize Tunisia as an independent state in 1956. The country's first president, Habib BOURGUIBA, established a strict one-party state. He dominated the country for 31 years, repressing Islamic fundamentalism and establishing rights for women unmatched by any other Arab nation. In November 1987, BOURGUIBA was removed from office and replaced by Zine el Abidine BEN ALI in a bloodless coup. Street protests that began in Tunis in December 2010 over high unemployment, corruption, widespread poverty, and high food prices escalated in January 2011, culminating in rioting that led to hundreds of deaths. On 14 January 2011, the same day BEN ALI dismissed the government, he fled the country, and by late January 2011, a "national unity government" was formed. Elections for the new Constituent Assembly were held in late October 2011, and in December, it elected human rights activist Moncef MARZOUKI as interim president. The Assembly began drafting a new constitution in February 2012 and, after several iterations and a months-long political crisis that stalled the transition, ratified the document in January 2014. Parliamentary and presidential elections for a permanent government were held at the end of 2014. Beji CAID ESSEBSI was elected as the first president under the country's new constitution.
  • Geography :: TUNISIA

  • Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Algeria and Libya
    34 00 N, 9 00 E
    Africa
    total: 163,610 sq km
    land: 155,360 sq km
    water: 8,250 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 93
    slightly larger than Georgia
    Area comparison map:
    total: 1,495 km
    border countries (2): Algeria 1,034 km, Libya 461 km
    1,148 km
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    contiguous zone: 24 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 12 nm
    temperate in north with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers; desert in south
    mountains in north; hot, dry central plain; semiarid south merges into the Sahara
    mean elevation: 246 m
    elevation extremes: lowest point: Shatt al Gharsah -17 m
    highest point: Jebel ech Chambi 1,544 m
    petroleum, phosphates, iron ore, lead, zinc, salt
    agricultural land: 64.8%
    arable land 18.3%; permanent crops 15.4%; permanent pasture 31.1%
    forest: 6.6%
    other: 28.6% (2011 est.)
    4,590 sq km (2012)
    4.6 cu km (2011)
    total: 2.85 cu km/yr (14%/4%/82%)
    per capita: 295.8 cu m/yr (2001)
    NA
    toxic and hazardous waste disposal is ineffective and poses health risks; water pollution from raw sewage; limited natural freshwater resources; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
    strategic location in central Mediterranean; Malta and Tunisia are discussing the commercial exploitation of the continental shelf between their countries, particularly for oil exploration
  • People and Society :: TUNISIA

  • noun: Tunisian(s)
    adjective: Tunisian
    Arab 98%, European 1%, Jewish and other 1%
    Arabic (official, one of the languages of commerce), French (commerce), Berber (Tamazight)
    note: despite having no official status, French plays a major role in the country and is spoken by about two-thirds of the population
    Muslim (official; Sunni) 99.1%, other (includes Christian, Jewish, Shia Muslim, and Baha'i) 1%
    religious affiliation:
    11,037,225 (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 79
    0-14 years: 23.03% (male 1,309,910/female 1,232,149)
    15-24 years: 15.53% (male 860,967/female 853,502)
    25-54 years: 44.58% (male 2,388,056/female 2,532,035)
    55-64 years: 8.82% (male 494,054/female 479,469)
    65 years and over: 8.04% (male 435,737/female 451,346) (2015 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 44.8%
    youth dependency ratio: 33.8%
    elderly dependency ratio: 11%
    potential support ratio: 9.1% (2015 est.)
    total: 31.9 years
    male: 31.5 years
    female: 32.3 years (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 97
    0.89% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 126
    16.64 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 113
    5.98 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 166
    -1.73 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 161
    urban population: 66.8% of total population (2015)
    rate of urbanization: 1.38% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    TUNIS (capital) 1.993 million (2015)
    at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.97 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2015 est.)
    62 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 104
    total: 22.35 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 25.71 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 18.76 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 79
    total population: 75.89 years
    male: 73.79 years
    female: 78.14 years (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 93
    1.99 children born/woman (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 122
    62.5% (2011/12)
    7% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 80
    1.22 physicians/1,000 population (2010)
    2.1 beds/1,000 population (2012)
    improved:
    urban: 100% of population
    rural: 93.2% of population
    total: 97.7% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 0% of population
    rural: 6.8% of population
    total: 2.3% of population (2015 est.)
    improved:
    urban: 97.4% of population
    rural: 79.8% of population
    total: 91.6% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 2.6% of population
    rural: 20.2% of population
    total: 8.4% of population (2015 est.)
    0.04% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 123
    2,700 (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 116
    100 (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 104
    27.1% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 80
    2.3% (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 118
    6.2% of GDP (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 38
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 81.8%
    male: 89.6%
    female: 74.2% (2015 est.)
    total: 15 years
    male: NA
    female: NA (2014)
    total: 37.6%
    male: 35.7%
    female: 41.8% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 10
  • Government :: TUNISIA

  • conventional long form: Republic of Tunisia
    conventional short form: Tunisia
    local long form: Al Jumhuriyah at Tunisiyah
    local short form: Tunis
    note: the country name derives from the capital city of Tunis
    parliamentary republic
    name: Tunis
    geographic coordinates: 36 48 N, 10 11 E
    time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    24 governorates (wilayat, singular - wilayah); Beja (Bajah), Ben Arous (Bin 'Arus), Bizerte (Banzart), Gabes (Qabis), Gafsa (Qafsah), Jendouba (Jundubah), Kairouan (Al Qayrawan), Kasserine (Al Qasrayn), Kebili (Qibili), Kef (Al Kaf), L'Ariana (Aryanah), Mahdia (Al Mahdiyah), Manouba (Manubah), Medenine (Madanin), Monastir (Al Munastir), Nabeul (Nabul), Sfax (Safaqis), Sidi Bouzid (Sidi Bu Zayd), Siliana (Silyanah), Sousse (Susah), Tataouine (Tatawin), Tozeur (Tawzar), Tunis, Zaghouan (Zaghwan)
    20 March 1956 (from France)
    Independence Day, 20 March (1956); Revolution and Youth Day, 14 January (2011)
    several previous; latest approved by Constituent Assembly 26 January 2014, signed by president on 27 January 2014 (2016)
    mixed legal system of civil law, based on the French civil code, and Islamic law; some judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court in joint session
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Tunisia
    dual citizenship recognized: yes
    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
    18 years of age; universal except for active government security forces (including the police and the military), people with mental disabilities, people who have served more than three months in prison (criminal cases only), and people given a suspended sentence of more than six months
    chief of state: President Beji CAID ESSEBSI (since 31 December 2014)
    head of government: prime minister (vacant); note - Youssef CHAHED nominated as new prime minister on 3 August 2016; nomination awaiting parliamentary vote
    cabinet: selected by the prime minister and approved by the Constituent Assembly
    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 23 November and 21 December 2014 (next to be held in 2019); following legislative elections, the prime minister is selected by the majority party or majority coalition and appointed by the president
    election results: Beji CAID ESSEBSI elected president; percent of vote in runoff - Beji CAID ESSEBSI (Tunisia's Call) 55.7%, Moncef MARZOUKI (CPR) 44.3%
    description: unicameral Chamber of the People's Deputies (217 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)
    elections: initial election held on 26 October 2014 (next to be held in 2019)
    election results: percent of vote by party - Tunisia's Call 39.6%, al-Nahda 31.8%, UPL 7.4%, Popular Front 6.9%, Afek Tounes 3.7%, CPR 1.8%, other 8.8%; seats by party - Tunisia's Call 86, al-Nahda 69, UPL 16, Popular Front 15, Afek Tounes 8, CPR 4, other 17, independent 2
    highest court(s): Court of Cassation or Cour de Cassation (organized into 1 civil and 3 criminal chambers)
    note: the new Tunisian constitution of January 2014 called for the creation of a constitutional court by the end of 2015; the court will consist of 12 members - 4 each appointed by the president, Supreme Judicial Council or SJC (an independent 4-part body consisting mainly of elected judges and the remainder legal specialists), and the Chamber of the People's Deputies (parliament); members will serve 9-year terms with one-third of the membership renewed every 3 years; in late 2015, the International Commission of Jurists called on Tunisia's parliament to revise the draft on the constitutional court to ensure compliance with international standards
    judge selection and term of office: judges nominated by the SJC; judges appointed by presidential decree; judge tenure NA
    subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; administrative courts; Court of Audit; Housing Court; courts of first instance; lower district courts; military courts
    Afek Tounes [Yassine BRAHIM]
    Congress for the Republic or CPR [Imed DAIMI]
    Current of Love [Mohamed HAMDI] (formerly the Popular Petition party)
    Democratic Alliance Party [Mohamed HAMDI]
    Democratic Current [Mohamed ABBOU]
    Democratic Patriots' Unified Party
    Ennahda Movement (The Renaissance) [Rachid GHANNOUCHI]
    Free Patriotic Union or UPL (Union patriotique libre) [Slim RIAHI]
    Green Tunisia Party [Abdelkader ZITOUNI]
    Movement of Socialist Democrats or MDS [Ahmed KHASKHOUSSI]
    National Destourian Initiative or El Moubadra [Kamel MORJANE]
    Party of the Democratic Arab Vanguard
    People's Movement [Zouheir MAGHZAOUI]
    Popular Front (a coalition of 9 parties including Democractic Patriots' Unified Party, Workers' Party, Green Tunisia, Tunisian Ba'ath Movement, and Party of the Democractic Arab Vanguard)
    Popular Petition (Aridha Chaabia) [Hachemi HAMDI]
    Republican Party [Maya JRIBI]
    The Initiative [Kamel MORJANE] (formerly the Constitutional Democratic Rally or RCD)
    Tunisian Ba'ath Movement [Omar Othman BEKHADJ, secretary general]
    Tunisia's Call (Nidaa Tounes) [Mohamed ENNACEUR]
    Workers' Party [Hamma HAMMAMI]
    18 October Group [collective leadership]
    Tunisian League for Human Rights or LTDH [Mokhtar TRIFI]
    Tunisian General Labor Union or UGTT [Hassine ABASSI]
    ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AMU, AU, BSEC (observer), CAEU, CD, EBRD, FAO, G-11, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAS, MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, OIF, OPCW, OSCE (partner), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    chief of mission: Ambassador Faycal GOUIA (since 18 May 2015)
    chancery: 1515 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20005
    telephone: [1] (202) 862-1850
    FAX: [1] (202) 862-1858
    chief of mission: Ambassador Daniel H. RUBENSTEIN (Since 22 October 2015)
    embassy: Zone Nord-Est des Berges du Lac Nord de Tunis 1053
    mailing address: Zone Nord-Est des Berges du Lac Nord de Tunis 1053
    telephone: [216] 71 107-000
    FAX: [216] 71 963-263
    red with a white disk in the center bearing a red crescent nearly encircling a red five-pointed star; resembles the Ottoman flag (red banner with white crescent and star) and recalls Tunisia's history as part of the Ottoman Empire; red represents the blood shed by martyrs in the struggle against oppression, white stands for peace; the crescent and star are traditional symbols of Islam
    note: the flag is based on that of Turkey, itself a successor state to the Ottoman Empire
    encircled red star and crescent; national colors: red, white
    name: "Humat Al Hima" (Defenders of the Homeland)
    lyrics/music: Mustafa Sadik AL-RAFII and Aboul-Qacem ECHEBBI/Mohamad Abdel WAHAB
    note: adopted 1957, replaced 1958, restored 1987; Mohamad Abdel WAHAB also composed the music for the anthem of the United Arab Emirates
  • Economy :: TUNISIA

  • Tunisia's diverse, market-oriented economy has long been cited as a success story in Africa and the Middle East, but it faces an array of challenges following the 2011 Arab Spring revolution. Following an ill-fated experiment with socialist economic policies in the 1960s, Tunisia embarked on a successful strategy focused on bolstering exports, foreign investment, and tourism, all of which have become central to the country's economy. Key exports now include textiles and apparel, food products, petroleum products, chemicals, and phosphates, with about 80% of exports bound for Tunisia's main economic partner, the EU.
    Tunisia's liberal strategy, coupled with investments in education and infrastructure, fueled decades of 4-5% annual GDP growth and improving living standards. Former President Zine el Abidine BEN ALI (1987-2011) continued these policies, but as his reign wore on cronyism and corruption stymied economic performance, and unemployment rose among the country's growing ranks of university graduates. These grievances contributed to the January 2011 overthrow of BEN ALI, sending Tunisia's economy into a tailspin as tourism and investment declined sharply.
    Since its establishment in late 2014, Tunisia’s new government has faced challenges reassuring businesses and investors, bringing budget and current account deficits under control, shoring up the country's financial system, lowering high unemployment, and reducing economic disparities between the more developed coastal region and the impoverished interior. In 2015, successive terrorist attacks against the tourism sector and worker strikes in the phosphate sector, which combined account for nearly 15% of GDP, slowed growth to less than 1% of GDP.
    $127 billion (2015 est.)
    $126 billion (2014 est.)
    $123.2 billion (2013 est.)
    note: data are in 2015 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 80
    $43.58 billion (2015 est.)
    0.8% (2015 est.)
    2.3% (2014 est.)
    2.4% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 183
    $11,400 (2015 est.)
    $11,500 (2014 est.)
    $11,300 (2013 est.)
    note: data are in 2015 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 129
    12.9% of GDP (2015 est.)
    14% of GDP (2014 est.)
    14.4% of GDP (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 130
    household consumption: 69.2%
    government consumption: 19.3%
    investment in fixed capital: 18.7%
    investment in inventories: 1.7%
    exports of goods and services: 40.9%
    imports of goods and services: -49.8% (2015 est.)
    agriculture: 9.9%
    industry: 29%
    services: 61.2% (2015 est.)
    olives, olive oil, grain, tomatoes, citrus fruit, sugar beets, dates, almonds; beef, dairy products
    petroleum, mining (particularly phosphate, iron ore), tourism, textiles, footwear, agribusiness, beverages
    -0.8% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 170
    4.044 million (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 92
    agriculture: 14.8%
    industry: 33.2%
    services: 51.7% (2014 est.)
    15.4% (2015 est.)
    14.9% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 154
    15.5% (2010 est.)
    lowest 10%: 2.6%
    highest 10%: 27% (2010 est.)
    40 (2005 est.)
    41.7 (1995 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 63
    revenues: $10.87 billion
    expenditures: $12.78 billion (2015 est.)
    24.6% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 125
    -4.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 153
    52.6% of GDP (2015 est.)
    50.5% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 74
    calendar year
    4.9% (2015 est.)
    4.9% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 172
    5.75% (31 December 2010)
    country comparison to the world: 68
    7.31% (31 December 2014 est.)
    6.76% (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 118
    $12.32 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $12.68 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 72
    $31.32 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $30.9 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 77
    $34.93 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $35.82 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 71
    $8.887 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    $9.662 billion (31 December 2011)
    $10.68 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 76
    -$3.875 billion (2015 est.)
    -$4.341 billion (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 163
    $14.74 billion (2015 est.)
    $16.84 billion (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 76
    clothing, semi-finished goods and textiles, agricultural products, mechanical goods, phosphates and chemicals, hydrocarbons, electrical equipment
    France 28.5%, Italy 17.2%, Germany 10.9%, Libya 6.1%, Spain 4.2% (2015)
    $19.42 billion (2015 est.)
    $23.4 billion (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 75
    textiles, machinery and equipment, hydrocarbons, chemicals, foodstuffs
    France 19.4%, Italy 16.4%, Algeria 8.2%, Germany 7.4%, China 6% (2015)
    $7.225 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $7.395 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 85
    $27.66 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $26.83 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 76
    $36.39 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $35.46 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 64
    $285 million (31 December 2015 est.)
    $285 million (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 90
    Tunisian dinars (TND) per US dollar -
    1.954 (2015 est.)
    1.6976 (2014 est.)
    1.6976 (2013 est.)
    1.56 (2012 est.)
    1.4078 (2011 est.)
  • Energy :: TUNISIA

  • 16.09 billion kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 82
    13.31 billion kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 81
    426 million kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 70
    384 million kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 80
    4.203 million kW (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 81
    95.9% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 66
    0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 193
    1.6% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 141
    2.6% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 77
    55,050 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 54
    56,060 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 43
    22,120 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 68
    425 million bbl (1 January 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 53
    35,860 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 85
    86,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 81
    18,740 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 74
    65,450 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 67
    1.879 billion cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 56
    4.079 billion cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 64
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 195
    2.2 billion cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 47
    65.13 billion cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 59
    20.27 million Mt (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 83
  • Communications :: TUNISIA

  • total subscriptions: 943,508
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 9 (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 78
    total: 14.598 million
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 132 (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 68
    general assessment: above the African average and continuing to be upgraded; key centers are Sfax, Sousse, Bizerte, and Tunis; telephone network is completely digitized; Internet access available throughout the country
    domestic: in an effort to jumpstart expansion of the fixed-line network, the government has awarded a concession to build and operate a VSAT network with international connectivity; rural areas are served by wireless local loops; competition between the two mobile-cellular service providers has resulted in lower activation and usage charges and a strong surge in subscribership; a third mobile, fixed, and ISP operator was licensed in 2009 and began offering services in 2010; expansion of mobile-cellular services to include multimedia messaging and e-mail and Internet to mobile phone services has also lead to a surge in subscribership; overall fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity has reached about 125 telephones per 100 persons
    international: country code - 216; a landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cable system that provides links to Europe, Middle East, and Asia; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Arabsat; coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to Algeria and Libya; participant in Medarabtel; 2 international gateway digital switches (2011)
    broadcast media is mainly government-controlled; the state-run Tunisian Radio and Television Establishment (ERTT) operates 2 national TV networks, several national radio networks, and a number of regional radio stations; 1 TV and 3 radio stations are privately owned and report domestic news stories directly from the official Tunisian news agency; the state retains control of broadcast facilities and transmitters through L'Office National de la Telediffusion; Tunisians also have access to Egyptian, pan-Arab, and European satellite TV channels (2007)
    AM 7, FM 38, shortwave 2 (2007)
    26 (plus 76 repeaters) (1995)
    .tn
    576 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 180
    total: 5.355 million
    percent of population: 48.5% (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 65
  • Transportation :: TUNISIA

  • 29 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 118
    total: 15
    over 3,047 m: 4
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 6
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
    914 to 1,523 m: 3 (2013)
    total: 14
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
    914 to 1,523 m: 5
    under 914 m: 8 (2013)
    condensate 68 km; gas 3,111 km; oil 1,381 km; refined products 453 km (2013)
    total: 2,173 km (1,991 in use)
    standard gauge: 471 km 1.435-m gauge
    dual gauge: 8 km 1.435-1.000-m gauge
    narrow gauge: 1,694 km 1.000-m gauge (65 km electrified) (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 69
    total: 19,418 km
    paved: 14,756 km (includes 357 km of expressways)
    unpaved: 4,662 km (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 112
    total: 9
    by type: bulk carrier 1, cargo 2, passenger/cargo 4, roll on/roll off 2 (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 116
    major seaport(s): Bizerte, Gabes, Rades, Sfax, Skhira
  • Military and Security :: TUNISIA

  • Tunisian Armed Forces (Forces Armees Tunisiens, FAT): Tunisian Army (includes Tunisian Air Defense Force), Tunisian Navy, Republic of Tunisia Air Force (Al-Quwwat al-Jawwiya al-Jamahiriyah At'Tunisia) (2012)
    20-23 years of age for compulsory service, 1-year service obligation; 18-23 years of age for voluntary service; Tunisian nationality required (2012)
    1.55% of GDP (2012)
    1.34% of GDP (2011)
    1.55% of GDP (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 57
  • Transnational Issues :: TUNISIA

  • none
    current situation: Tunisia is a source, destination, and possible transit country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; Tunisia’s increased number of street children, rural children working to support their families, and migrants who have fled unrest in neighboring countries are vulnerable to human trafficking; organized gangs force street children to serve as thieves, beggars, and drug transporters; Tunisian women have been forced into prostitution domestically and elsewhere in the region under false promises of legitimate work; East and West African women may be subjected to forced labor as domestic workers
    tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List – Tunisia does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; in 2014, Tunisia was granted a waiver from an otherwise required downgrade to Tier 3 because its government has a written plan that, if implemented would constitute making significant efforts to bring itself into compliance with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; in early 2015, the government drafted a national anti-trafficking action plan outlining proposals to raise awareness and enact draft anti-trafficking legislation; authorities did not provide data on the prosecution and conviction of offenders but reportedly identified 24 victims, as opposed to none in 2013, and operated facilities specifically dedicated to trafficking victims, regardless of nationality and gender; the government did not fully implement its national victim referral mechanism; some unidentified victims were not protected from punishment for unlawful acts directly resulting from being trafficked (2015)