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Africa :: Tunisia
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Tunisia
  • Introduction :: TUNISIA

  • Rivalry between French and Italian interests in Tunisia culminated in a French invasion in 1881 and the creation of a protectorate. Agitation for independence in the decades following World War I was finally successful in getting the French to recognize Tunisia as an independent state in 1956. The country's first president, Habib BOURGUIBA, established a strict one-party state. He dominated the country for 31 years, repressing Islamic fundamentalism and establishing rights for women unmatched by any other Arab nation. In November 1987, BOURGUIBA was removed from office and replaced by Zine el Abidine BEN ALI in a bloodless coup. Street protests that began in Tunis in December 2010 over high unemployment, corruption, widespread poverty, and high food prices escalated in January 2011, culminating in rioting that led to hundreds of deaths. On 14 January 2011, the same day BEN ALI dismissed the government, he fled the country, and by late January 2011, a "national unity government" was formed. Elections for the new Constituent Assembly were held in late October 2011, and in December, it elected human rights activist Moncef MARZOUKI as interim president. The Assembly began drafting a new constitution in February 2012 and, after several iterations and a months-long political crisis that stalled the transition, ratified the document in January 2014. Parliamentary and presidential elections for a permanent government were held at the end of 2014. Beji CAID ESSEBSI was elected as the first president under the country’s new constitution.
  • Geography :: TUNISIA

  • Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Algeria and Libya
    34 00 N, 9 00 E
    Africa
    total: 163,610 sq km
    land: 155,360 sq km
    water: 8,250 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 93
    slightly larger than Georgia
    Area comparison map:
    total: 1,495 km
    border countries (2): Algeria 1,034 km, Libya 461 km
    1,148 km
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    contiguous zone: 24 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 12 nm
    temperate in north with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers; desert in south
    mountains in north; hot, dry central plain; semiarid south merges into the Sahara
    lowest point: Shatt al Gharsah -17 m
    highest point: Jebel ech Chambi 1,544 m
    petroleum, phosphates, iron ore, lead, zinc, salt
    arable land: 18.27%
    permanent crops: 15.51%
    other: 66.21% (2012 est.)
    3,970 sq km (2003)
    4.6 cu km (2011)
    total: 2.85 cu km/yr (14%/4%/82%)
    per capita: 295.8 cu m/yr (2001)
    NA
    toxic and hazardous waste disposal is ineffective and poses health risks; water pollution from raw sewage; limited natural freshwater resources; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
    strategic location in central Mediterranean; Malta and Tunisia are discussing the commercial exploitation of the continental shelf between their countries, particularly for oil exploration
  • People and Society :: TUNISIA

  • noun: Tunisian(s)
    adjective: Tunisian
    Arab 98%, European 1%, Jewish and other 1%
    Arabic (official, one of the languages of commerce), French (commerce), Berber (Tamazight)
    Muslim (official; Sunni) 99.1%, other (includes Christian, Jewish, Shia Muslim, and Baha'i) 1%
    10,937,521 (July 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 79
    0-14 years: 23% (male 1,298,262/female 1,219,086)
    15-24 years: 16% (male 879,755/female 871,954)
    25-54 years: 44.6% (male 2,373,765/female 2,509,750)
    55-64 years: 8.4% (male 468,278/female 454,170)
    65 years and over: 7.9% (male 423,350/female 439,151) (2014 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 43.9%
    youth dependency ratio: 33.4%
    elderly dependency ratio: 10.5%
    potential support ratio: 9.5% (2014 est.)
    total: 31.4 years
    male: 31 years
    female: 31.8 years (2014 est.)
    0.92% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 126
    16.9 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 112
    5.94 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 167
    -1.74 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 161
    urban population: 66.6% of total population (2014)
    rate of urbanization: 1.38% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    TUNIS (capital) 1.978 million (2014)
    at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.96 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2014 est.)
    46 deaths/100,000 live births (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 104
    total: 23.19 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 26.63 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 19.51 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 78
    total population: 75.68 years
    male: 73.6 years
    female: 77.9 years (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 93
    2 children born/woman (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 126
    62.5% (2011/12)
    7.1% of GDP (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 80
    1.22 physicians/1,000 population (2010)
    2.1 beds/1,000 population (2012)
    improved:
    urban: 100% of population
    rural: 90.5% of population
    total: 96.8% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 0% of population
    rural: 9.5% of population
    total: 3.2% of population (2012 est.)
    improved:
    urban: 97.4% of population
    rural: 76.6% of population
    total: 90.4% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 2.6% of population
    rural: 23.4% of population
    total: 9.6% of population (2012 est.)
    0.05% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 112
    3,400 (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 109
    100 (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 119
    27.1% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 80
    2.3% (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 118
    6.2% of GDP (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 38
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 81.8%
    male: 89.6%
    female: 74.2% (2015 est.)
    total: 15 years
    male: 14 years
    female: 15 years (2010)
    total: 42.3% (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 10
  • Government :: TUNISIA

  • conventional long form: Republic of Tunisia
    conventional short form: Tunisia
    local long form: Al Jumhuriyah at Tunisiyah
    local short form: Tunis
    republic
    name: Tunis
    geographic coordinates: 36 48 N, 10 11 E
    time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    24 governorates (wilayat, singular - wilayah); Beja (Bajah), Ben Arous (Bin 'Arus), Bizerte (Banzart), Gabes (Qabis), Gafsa (Qafsah), Jendouba (Jundubah), Kairouan (Al Qayrawan), Kasserine (Al Qasrayn), Kebili (Qibili), Kef (Al Kaf), L'Ariana (Aryanah), Mahdia (Al Mahdiyah), Manouba (Manubah), Medenine (Madanin), Monastir (Al Munastir), Nabeul (Nabul), Sfax (Safaqis), Sidi Bouzid (Sidi Bu Zayd), Siliana (Silyanah), Sousse (Susah), Tataouine (Tatawin), Tozeur (Tawzar), Tunis, Zaghouan (Zaghwan)
    20 March 1956 (from France)
    Independence Day, 20 March (1956); Revolution and Youth Day, 14 January (2011)
    several previous; latest approved by Constituent Assembly 26 January 2014, signed by president on 27 January 2014 (2014)
    mixed legal system of civil law, based on the French civil code, and Islamic law; some judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court in joint session
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    18 years of age; universal except for active government security forces (including the police and the military), people with mental disabilities, people who have served more than three months in prison (criminal cases only), and people given a suspended sentence of more than six months
    chief of state: President Beji CAID ESSEBSI (since 31 December 2014)
    head of government: Prime Minister Habib ESSID (since 6 February 2015)
    cabinet: selected by the prime minister and approved by the Chamber of the People's Deputies
    elections: president directly elected by absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held in 2 rounds on 23 November and 21 December 2014 (next to be held in 2019); prime minister selected by the majority party or coalition following legislative elections and appointed by the president
    election results: Beji CAID ESSEBSI elected president; percent of vote - Beji CAID ESSEBSI (Tunisia's Call) 55.7%, Moncef MARZOUKI (CPR) 44.3%
    description: unicameral Chamber of the People's Deputies (217 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)
    elections: initial election held on 26 October 2014 (next to be held in 2019)
    election results: percent of vote by party - Tunisia's Call 39.6%, al-Nahda 31.8%, UPL 7.4%, Popular Front 6.9%, Afek Tounes 3.7%, CPR 1.8%, other 8.8%; seats by party - Tunisia's Call 86, al-Nahda 69, UPL 16, Popular Front 15, Afek Tounes 8, CPR 4, other 17, independent 2
    highest court(s): Court of Cassation or Cour de Cassation (organized into civil and criminal chambers and consists of NA judges)
    judge selection and term of office: judges nominated by the Higher Magistracy Council (also called the Superior Council of the Judiciary), a 7-member body of judges and prosecutors; judges appointed by presidential decree; judge tenure NA
    subordinate courts: Administrative Court; Courts of Appeal; Housing Court; courts of first instance; lower district courts; military courts
    Afek Tounes [Emna MINF]
    Alliance for Tunisia (a coalition of Tunisia's Call [Beji CAID ESSEBSI], Republican Party [Maya JRIBI and Najib CHBBI], Democratic Path [Ahmed BRAHIM])
    al-Nahda (The Renaissance) [Rachid GHANNOUCHI]
    Congress for the Republic or CPR [Moncef MARZOUKI]
    Democratic Forum for Labor and Liberties or FDTL (Ettakatol) [Mustapha Ben JAAFAR]
    Democratic Modernist Pole or PDM (a coalition)
    Democratic Socialist Movement or MDS
    Et-Tajdid Movement [Ahmed IBRAHIM]
    Free Patriotic Union or UPL (Union patriotique libre) [Slim RIAHI]
    Green Party for Progress or PVP [Mongi KHAMASSI]
    Liberal Social Party or PSL [Mondher THABET]
    Movement of Socialist Democrats or MDS [Ismail BOULAHYA]
    Popular Front (a coalition of 9 parties including Democractic Patriots' Movement, Workers' Party, Green Tunisia, Tunisian Ba'ath Movement, and Party of the Democractic Arab Vanguard)
    Popular Petition (Aridha Chaabia) [Hachemi HAMDI]
    Popular Unity Party or PUP [Mohamed BOUCHIHA]
    Progressive Democratic Party or PDP [Maya JERIBI]
    The Initiative [Kamel MORJANE] (formerly the Constitutional Democratic Rally or RCD)
    Tunisia's Call (Nidaa Tounes) [Beji CAID ESSEBSI]
    Tunisian Workers' Communist Party or PCOT [Hamma HAMMAMI]
    Unionist Democratic Union or UDU [Ahmed INOUBLI]
    18 October Group [collective leadership]
    Tunisian League for Human Rights or LTDH [Mokhtar TRIFI]
    Tunisian General Labor Union or UGTT [Hassine ABASSI]
    ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AMU, AU, BSEC (observer), CAEU, CD, EBRD, FAO, G-11, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAS, MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, OIF, OPCW, OSCE (partner), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    chief of mission: Ambassador Faycal GOUIA (since 18 May 2015)
    chancery: 1515 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20005
    telephone: [1] (202) 862-1850
    FAX: [1] (202) 862-1858
    chief of mission: Ambassador Jacob WALLES (since 24 July 2012)
    embassy: Zone Nord-Est des Berges du Lac Nord de Tunis 1053
    mailing address: use embassy street address
    telephone: [216] 71 107-000
    FAX: [216] 71 963-263
    red with a white disk in the center bearing a red crescent nearly encircling a red five-pointed star; resembles the Ottoman flag (red banner with white crescent and star) and recalls Tunisia's history as part of the Ottoman Empire; red represents the blood shed by martyrs in the struggle against oppression, white stands for peace; the crescent and star are traditional symbols of Islam
    note: the flag is based on that of Turkey, itself a successor state to the Ottoman Empire
    encircled red star and crescent; national colors: red, white
    name: "Humat Al Hima" (Defenders of the Homeland)
    lyrics/music: Mustafa Sadik AL-RAFII and Aboul-Qacem ECHEBBI/Mohamad Abdel WAHAB
    note: adopted 1957, replaced 1958, restored 1987; Mohamad Abdel WAHAB also composed the music for the anthem of the United Arab Emirates
  • Economy :: TUNISIA

  • Tunisia's diverse, market-oriented economy has long been cited as a success story in Africa and the Middle East, but it faces an array of challenges during the country's ongoing political transition. Following an ill-fated experiment with socialist economic policies in the 1960s, Tunisia embarked on a successful strategy focused on bolstering exports, foreign investment, and tourism, all of which have become central to the country's economy. Key exports now include textiles and apparel, food products, petroleum products, chemicals, and phosphates, with about 80% of exports bound for Tunisia's main economic partner, the European Union. Tunisia's liberal strategy, coupled with investments in education and infrastructure, fueled decades of 4-5% annual GDP growth and improving living standards. Former President (1987-2011) Zine el Abidine BEN ALI continued these policies, but as his reign wore on cronyism and corruption stymied economic performance and unemployment rose among the country's growing ranks of university graduates. These grievances contributed to the January 2011 overthrow of BEN ALI, sending Tunisia's economy into a tailspin as tourism and investment declined sharply. During 2012 and 2013, the Tunisian Government’s focus on the political transition led to a neglect of the economy that resulted in several downgrades of Tunisia’s credit rating. As the economy recovers, Tunisia's government faces challenges reassuring businesses and investors, bringing budget and current account deficits under control, shoring up the country's financial system, bringing down high unemployment, and reducing economic disparities between the more developed coastal region and the impoverished interior.
    $125.1 billion (2014 est.)
    $121.7 billion (2013 est.)
    $119.1 billion (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2014 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 77
    $49.12 billion (2014 est.)
    2.8% (2014 est.)
    2.3% (2013 est.)
    3.7% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 117
    $11,400 (2014 est.)
    $11,200 (2013 est.)
    $11,000 (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2013 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 122
    13% of GDP (2014 est.)
    13.6% of GDP (2013 est.)
    16.1% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 129
    household consumption: 64.8%
    government consumption: 18.5%
    investment in fixed capital: 22.2%
    investment in inventories: 3.5%
    exports of goods and services: 45.6%
    imports of goods and services: -55.6%
    (2014 est.)
    agriculture: 8.7%
    industry: 29%
    services: 62.3% (2014 est.)
    olives, olive oil, grain, tomatoes, citrus fruit, sugar beets, dates, almonds; beef, dairy products
    petroleum, mining (particularly phosphate, iron ore), tourism, textiles, footwear, agribusiness, beverages
    1% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 150
    3.95 million (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 92
    agriculture: 14.8%
    industry: 33.2%
    services: 51.7% (2014 est.)
    15.2% (2014 est.)
    15.8% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 146
    3.8% (2005 est.)
    lowest 10%: 2.3%
    highest 10%: 31.5% (2000)
    40 (2005 est.)
    41.7 (1995 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 59
    revenues: $12.43 billion
    expenditures: $15.57 billion (2014 est.)
    25.3% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 117
    -6.4% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 186
    49.9% of GDP (2014 est.)
    46.2% of GDP (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 70
    calendar year
    5.7% (2014 est.)
    6.1% (2013 est.)
    5.75% (31 December 2010)
    country comparison to the world: 63
    7.31% (31 December 2014 est.)
    6.76% (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 120
    $13.22 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $13.21 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 73
    $31.32 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $30.9 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 76
    $38 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $36.94 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 69
    $8.887 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    $9.662 billion (31 December 2011)
    $10.68 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 78
    -$4.396 billion (2014 est.)
    -$3.861 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 166
    $16.61 billion (2014 est.)
    $17.03 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 78
    clothing, semi-finished goods and textiles, agricultural products, mechanical goods, phosphates and chemicals, hydrocarbons, electrical equipment
    France 25.4%, Italy 16%, Germany 9.6%, Libya 8.1%, US 4.1% (2013)
    $23.4 billion (2014 est.)
    $22.87 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 74
    textiles, machinery and equipment, hydrocarbons, chemicals, foodstuffs
    France 20.7%, Italy 18.1%, Germany 7.4%, China 5.4%, Spain 5.1%, Algeria 4.4% (2013)
    $7.198 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $7.447 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 85
    $29.56 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $26.8 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 74
    $35.47 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $34.49 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 62
    $310 million (31 December 2014 est.)
    $295 million (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 87
    Tunisian dinars (TND) per US dollar -
    1.704 (2014 est.)
    1.6247 (2013 est.)
    1.56 (2012 est.)
    1.4078 (2011 est.)
    1.4314 (2010 est.)
  • Energy :: TUNISIA

  • 15.23 billion kWh (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 82
    12.94 billion kWh (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 82
    172 million kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 79
    175 million kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 90
    4.076 million kW (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 80
    97.1% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 62
    0% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 191
    1.6% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 140
    1.3% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 86
    64,150 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 54
    425 million bbl (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 52
    11,170 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 104
    90,080 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 82
    3,391 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 96
    80,980 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 56
    1.863 billion cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 58
    3.683 billion cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 67
    0 cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 193
    1.819 billion cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 52
    65.13 billion cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 58
    20.27 million Mt (2012 est.)
  • Communications :: TUNISIA

  • 1.105 million (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 71
    12.84 million (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 68
    general assessment: above the African average and continuing to be upgraded; key centers are Sfax, Sousse, Bizerte, and Tunis; telephone network is completely digitized; Internet access available throughout the country
    domestic: in an effort to jumpstart expansion of the fixed-line network, the government has awarded a concession to build and operate a VSAT network with international connectivity; rural areas are served by wireless local loops; competition between the two mobile-cellular service providers has resulted in lower activation and usage charges and a strong surge in subscribership; a third mobile, fixed, and ISP operator was licensed in 2009 and began offering services in 2010; expansion of mobile-cellular services to include multimedia messaging and e-mail and Internet to mobile phone services also leading to a surge in subscribership; overall fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity has reached about 125 telephones per 100 persons
    international: country code - 216; a landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cable system that provides links to Europe, Middle East, and Asia; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Arabsat; coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to Algeria and Libya; participant in Medarabtel; 2 international gateway digital switches (2011)
    broadcast media is mainly government-controlled; the state-run Tunisian Radio and Television Establishment (ERTT) operates 2 national TV networks, several national radio networks, and a number of regional radio stations; 1 TV and 3 radio stations are privately owned and report domestic news stories directly from the official Tunisian news agency; the state retains control of broadcast facilities and transmitters through L'Office National de la Telediffusion; Tunisians also have access to Egyptian, pan-Arab, and European satellite TV channels (2007)
    AM 7, FM 38, shortwave 2 (2007)
    26 (plus 76 repeaters) (1995)
    .tn
    576 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 180
    3.5 million (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 58
  • Transportation :: TUNISIA

  • 29 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 118
    total: 15
    over 3,047 m: 4
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 6
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
    914 to 1,523 m: 3 (2013)
    total: 14
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
    914 to 1,523 m: 5
    under 914 m:
    8 (2013)
    condensate 68 km; gas 3,111 km; oil 1,381 km; refined products 453 km (2013)
    total: 2,165 km (1,991 in use)
    standard gauge: 471 km 1.435-m gauge
    narrow gauge: 1,694 km 1.000-m gauge (65 km electrified) (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 69
    total: 19,418 km
    paved: 14,756 km (includes 357 km of expressways)
    unpaved: 4,662 km (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 112
    total: 9
    by type: bulk carrier 1, cargo 2, passenger/cargo 4, roll on/roll off 2 (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 116
    major seaport(s): Bizerte, Gabes, Rades, Sfax, Skhira
  • Military :: TUNISIA

  • Tunisian Armed Forces (Forces Armees Tunisiens, FAT): Tunisian Army (includes Tunisian Air Defense Force), Tunisian Navy, Republic of Tunisia Air Force (Al-Quwwat al-Jawwiya al-Jamahiriyah At'Tunisia) (2012)
    20-23 years of age for compulsory service, one year service obligation; 18-23 years of age for voluntary service; Tunisian nationality required (2012)
    males age 16-49: 2,846,572
    females age 16-49: 2,952,180 (2010 est.)
    males age 16-49: 2,397,716
    females age 16-49: 2,484,097 (2010 est.)
    male: 90,436
    female: 87,346 (2010 est.)
    1.55% of GDP (2012)
    1.34% of GDP (2011)
    1.55% of GDP (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 57
  • Transnational Issues :: TUNISIA

  • none
    current situation: Tunisia is a source, destination, and possible transit country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; Tunisia’s increased number of street children, children working to support their families, and migrants who have fled unrest in neighboring countries are vulnerable to human trafficking; Tunisian women have been forced into prostitution domestically and elsewhere in the region under false promises of legitimate work; East and West African women may be subjected to forced labor as domestic servants
    tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List – Tunisia does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; prior commitments to enact draft anti-trafficking legislation have not been fulfilled, but a slightly increased number of trafficking offenders were prosecuted and convicted in 2013 under existing trafficking-related laws; the government instituted victim identification procedures and developed a victim referral mechanism, although it was not utilized during the reporting period; anti-trafficking awareness campaigns continued to be implemented, and the government worked with an international organization to produce a baseline study on human trafficking in Tunisia (2014)
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