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Middle East :: Turkey Print
Page last updated on November 24, 2020
  • Introduction :: Turkey
  • Background field listing

    Modern Turkey was founded in 1923 from the remnants of the defeated Ottoman Empire by national hero Mustafa KEMAL, who was later honored with the title Ataturk or "Father of the Turks." Under his leadership, the country adopted radical social, legal, and political reforms. After a period of one-party rule, an experiment with multi-party politics led to the 1950 election victory of the opposition Democrat Party and the peaceful transfer of power. Since then, Turkish political parties have multiplied, but democracy has been fractured by periods of instability and military coups (1960, 1971, 1980), which in each case eventually resulted in a return of formal political power to civilians. In 1997, the military again helped engineer the ouster - popularly dubbed a "post-modern coup" - of the then Islamic-oriented government. An unsuccessful coup attempt was made in July 2016 by a faction of the Turkish Armed Forces.

    Turkey intervened militarily on Cyprus in 1974 to prevent a Greek takeover of the island and has since acted as patron state to the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus," which only Turkey recognizes. A separatist insurgency begun in 1984 by the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK), a US-designated terrorist organization, has long dominated the attention of Turkish security forces and claimed more than 40,000 lives. In 2013, the Turkish Government and the PKK conducted negotiations aimed at ending the violence, however intense fighting resumed in 2015. Turkey joined the UN in 1945 and in 1952 it became a member of NATO. In 1963, Turkey became an associate member of the European Community; it began accession talks with the EU in 2005. Over the past decade, economic reforms, coupled with some political reforms, have contributed to a growing economy, although economic growth slowed in recent years.

    From 2015 and continuing through 2016, Turkey witnessed an uptick in terrorist violence, including major attacks in Ankara, Istanbul, and throughout the predominantly Kurdish southeastern region of Turkey. On 15 July 2016, elements of the Turkish Armed forces attempted a coup that ultimately failed following widespread popular resistance. More than 240 people were killed and over 2,000 injured when Turkish citizens took to the streets en masse to confront the coup forces. The government accused followers of the Fethullah Gulen transnational religious and social movement ("Hizmet") for allegedly instigating the failed coup and designates the movement’s followers as terrorists. Since the attempted coup, Turkish Government authorities arrested, suspended, or dismissed more than 130,000 security personnel, journalists, judges, academics, and civil servants due to their alleged connection to Gulen's movement. Following the failed coup, the Turkish Government instituted a State of Emergency from July 2016 to July 2018. The Turkish Government conducted a referendum on 16 April 2017 in which voters approved constitutional amendments changing Turkey from a parliamentary to a presidential system. The amendments went into effect fully following the presidential and parliamentary elections in June 2018.

  • Geography :: Turkey
  • Location field listing
    Southeastern Europe and Southwestern Asia (that portion of Turkey west of the Bosporus is geographically part of Europe), bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Georgia, and bordering the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea, between Greece and Syria
    Geographic coordinates field listing
    39 00 N, 35 00 E
    Map references field listing
    Middle East
    Area field listing
    total: 783,562 sq km
    land: 769,632 sq km
    water: 13,930 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 38
    Area - comparative field listing
    slightly larger than Texas
    Area comparison map: Area comparison map
    Land boundaries field listing
    total: 2,816 km
    border countries (8): Armenia 311 km, Azerbaijan 17 km, Bulgaria 223 km, Georgia 273 km, Greece 192 km, Iran 534 km, Iraq 367 km, Syria 899 km
    Coastline field listing
    7,200 km
    Maritime claims field listing
    territorial sea: 6 nm in the Aegean Sea
    exclusive economic zone: in Black Sea only: to the maritime boundary agreed upon with the former USSR
    12 nm in Black Sea and in Mediterranean Sea
    Climate field listing
    temperate; hot, dry summers with mild, wet winters; harsher in interior
    Terrain field listing
    high central plateau (Anatolia); narrow coastal plain; several mountain ranges
    Elevation field listing
    mean elevation: 1,132 m
    lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
    highest point: Mount Ararat 5,137 m
    Natural resources field listing
    coal, iron ore, copper, chromium, antimony, mercury, gold, barite, borate, celestite (strontium), emery, feldspar, limestone, magnesite, marble, perlite, pumice, pyrites (sulfur), clay, arable land, hydropower
    Land use field listing
    agricultural land: 49.7% (2011 est.)
    arable land: 26.7% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 4% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 19% (2011 est.)
    forest: 14.9% (2011 est.)
    other: 35.4% (2011 est.)
    Irrigated land field listing
    52,150 sq km (2012)
    Population distribution field listing
    the most densely populated area is found around the Bosporus in the northwest where 20% of the population lives in Istanbul; with the exception of Ankara, urban centers remain small and scattered throughout the interior of Anatolia; an overall pattern of peripheral development exists, particularly along the Aegean Sea coast in the west, and the Tigris and Euphrates River systems in the southeast
    Natural hazards field listing

    severe earthquakes, especially in northern Turkey, along an arc extending from the Sea of Marmara to Lake Van; landslides; flooding

    volcanism: limited volcanic activity; its three historically active volcanoes; Ararat, Nemrut Dagi, and Tendurek Dagi have not erupted since the 19th century or earlier

    Environment - current issues field listing
    water pollution from dumping of chemicals and detergents; air pollution, particularly in urban areas; deforestation; land degradation; concern for oil spills from increasing Bosporus ship traffic; conservation of biodiversity
    Environment - international agreements field listing
    party to: Air Pollution, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification
    Geography - note field listing
    strategic location controlling the Turkish Straits (Bosporus, Sea of Marmara, Dardanelles) that link the Black and Aegean Seas; the 3% of Turkish territory north of the Straits lies in Europe and goes by the names of European Turkey, Eastern Thrace, or Turkish Thrace; the 97% of the country in Asia is referred to as Anatolia; Istanbul, which straddles the Bosporus, is the only metropolis in the world located on two continents; Mount Ararat, the legendary landing place of Noah's ark, is in the far eastern portion of the country
  • People and Society :: Turkey
  • Population field listing
    82,017,514 (July 2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 18
    Nationality field listing
    noun: Turk(s)
    adjective: Turkish
    Ethnic groups field listing
    Turkish 70-75%, Kurdish 19%, other minorities 7-12% (2016 est.)
    Languages field listing
    Turkish (official), Kurdish, other minority languages
    Religions field listing
    Muslim 99.8% (mostly Sunni), other 0.2% (mostly Christians and Jews)
    Age structure field listing
    0-14 years: 23.41% (male 9,823,553/female 9,378,767)
    15-24 years: 15.67% (male 6,564,263/female 6,286,615)
    25-54 years: 43.31% (male 17,987,103/female 17,536,957)
    55-64 years: 9.25% (male 3,764,878/female 3,822,946)
    65 years and over: 8.35% (male 3,070,258/female 3,782,174) (2020 est.)
    population pyramid: population pyramid
    Dependency ratios field listing
    total dependency ratio: 49.1
    youth dependency ratio: 35.7
    elderly dependency ratio: 13.4
    potential support ratio: 7.5 (2020 est.)
    Median age field listing
    total: 32.2 years
    male: 31.7 years
    female: 32.8 years (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 111
    Population growth rate field listing
    0.45% (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 159
    Birth rate field listing
    14.8 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 123
    Death rate field listing
    6.1 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 161
    Net migration rate field listing
    -4.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 191
    Population distribution field listing
    the most densely populated area is found around the Bosporus in the northwest where 20% of the population lives in Istanbul; with the exception of Ankara, urban centers remain small and scattered throughout the interior of Anatolia; an overall pattern of peripheral development exists, particularly along the Aegean Sea coast in the west, and the Tigris and Euphrates River systems in the southeast
    Urbanization field listing
    urban population: 76.1% of total population (2020)
    rate of urbanization: 2.04% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030: PDF
    Major urban areas - population field listing
    15.190 million Istanbul, 5.118 million ANKARA (capital), 2.993 million Izmir, 1.986 million Bursa, 1.771 million Adana, 1.704 million Gaziantep (2020)
    Sex ratio field listing
    at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female
    total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
    Mother's mean age at first birth field listing
    22.3 years (2010 est.)
    Maternal mortality rate field listing
    17 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 133
    Infant mortality rate field listing
    total: 15.8 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 16.9 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 14.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 95
    Life expectancy at birth field listing
    total population: 75.7 years
    male: 73.3 years
    female: 78.2 years (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 110
    Total fertility rate field listing
    1.96 children born/woman (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 118
    Contraceptive prevalence rate field listing
    69.8% (2018)
    Drinking water source field listing
    improved: urban: 98.6% of population
    rural: 100% of population
    total: 98.9% of population
    unimproved: urban: 1.4% of population
    rural: 0% of population
    total: 1.1% of population (2017 est.)
    Current Health Expenditure field listing
    4.2% (2017)
    Physicians density field listing
    1.85 physicians/1,000 population (2017)
    Hospital bed density field listing
    2.8 beds/1,000 population (2017)
    Sanitation facility access field listing
    improved: urban: 100% of population
    rural: 91.6% of population
    total: 97.3% of population
    unimproved: urban: 0% of population
    rural: 8.4% of population
    total: 2.7% of population (2017 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate field listing
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS field listing
    HIV/AIDS - deaths field listing
    Major infectious diseases field listing
    Covid-19 (2020)
    note: widespread ongoing transmission of a respiratory illness caused by the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) is occurring throughout Turkey; as of 10 November 2020, Turkey has reported a total of 391,739 cases of COVID-19 or 4,645 cumulative cases of COVID-19 per 1 million population with 128 cumulative deaths per 1 million population
    Obesity - adult prevalence rate field listing
    32.1% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 17
    Children under the age of 5 years underweight field listing
    1.5% (2018/19)
    country comparison to the world: 121
    Education expenditures field listing
    4.3% of GDP (2015)
    country comparison to the world: 91
    Literacy field listing
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 96.2%
    male: 98.8%
    female: 93.5% (2017)
    School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education) field listing
    total: 18 years
    male: 19 years
    female: 18 years (2018)
    Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 field listing
    total: 20.2%
    male: 17.5%
    female: 25% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 68
  • Government :: Turkey
  • Country name field listing
    conventional long form: Republic of Turkey
    conventional short form: Turkey
    local long form: Turkiye Cumhuriyeti
    local short form: Turkiye
    etymology: the name means "Land of the Turks"
    Government type field listing
    presidential republic
    Capital field listing
    name: Ankara
    geographic coordinates: 39 56 N, 32 52 E
    time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    etymology: Ankara has been linked with a second millennium B.C. Hittite cult center of Ankuwash, although this connection is uncertain; in classical and medieval times, the city was known as Ankyra (meaning "anchor" in Greek and reflecting the city's position as a junction for multiple trade and military routes); by about the 13th century the city began to be referred to as Angora; following the establishment of the Republic of Turkey in 1923, the city's name became Ankara
    Administrative divisions field listing
    81 provinces (iller, singular - ili); Adana, Adiyaman, Afyonkarahisar, Agri, Aksaray, Amasya, Ankara, Antalya, Ardahan, Artvin, Aydin, Balikesir, Bartin, Batman, Bayburt, Bilecik, Bingol, Bitlis, Bolu, Burdur, Bursa, Canakkale, Cankiri, Corum, Denizli, Diyarbakir, Duzce, Edirne, Elazig, Erzincan, Erzurum, Eskisehir, Gaziantep, Giresun, Gumushane, Hakkari, Hatay, Igdir, Isparta, Istanbul, Izmir (Smyrna), Kahramanmaras, Karabuk, Karaman, Kars, Kastamonu, Kayseri, Kilis, Kirikkale, Kirklareli, Kirsehir, Kocaeli, Konya, Kutahya, Malatya, Manisa, Mardin, Mersin, Mugla, Mus, Nevsehir, Nigde, Ordu, Osmaniye, Rize, Sakarya, Samsun, Sanliurfa, Siirt, Sinop, Sirnak, Sivas, Tekirdag, Tokat, Trabzon (Trebizond), Tunceli, Usak, Van, Yalova, Yozgat, Zonguldak
    Independence field listing
    29 October 1923 (republic proclaimed, succeeding the Ottoman Empire)
    National holiday field listing
    Republic Day, 29 October (1923)
    Constitution field listing
    history: several previous; latest ratified 9 November 1982
    amendments: proposed by written consent of at least one third of Grand National Assembly of Turkey (TBMM) members; adoption of draft amendments requires two debates in plenary TBMM session and three-fifths majority vote of all GNA members; the president of the republic can request TBMM reconsideration of the amendment and, if readopted by two-thirds majority TBMM vote, the president may submit the amendment to a referendum; passage by referendum requires absolute majority vote; amended several times, last in 2017
    International law organization participation field listing
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
    Citizenship field listing
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Turkey
    dual citizenship recognized: yes, but requires prior permission from the government
    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
    Suffrage field listing
    18 years of age; universal
    Executive branch field listing
    chief of state: President Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN (chief of state since 28 August 2014; head of government since 9 July 2019); Vice President Fuat OKTAY (since 9 July 2018); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
    head of government: President Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN (head of government since 9 July 2019; chief of state since 28 August 2014); note - a 2017 constitutional referendum eliminated the post of prime minister after the 2018 general election
    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 24 June 2018 (next scheduled for June 2023)
    election results: Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN reelected president in the first round; Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN (AKP) 52.6%, Muharrem INCE (CHP) 30.6%, Selahattin DEMIRTAS (HDP) 8.4%, Meral AKSENER (IYI) 7.3%, other 1.1%
    Legislative branch field listing
    description: unicameral Grand National Assembly of Turkey or Turkiye Buyuk Millet Meclisi (600 seats - increased from 550 seats beginning with June 2018 election; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms - increased from 4 to 5 years beginning with June 2018 election)
    elections: last held on 24 June 2018 (next to be held in June 2023)
    election results: percent of vote by party - People's Alliance 53.7% (AKP 42.6%, MHP 11.1%), Nation Alliance 33.9% (CHP 22.6%, IYI 10%, SP 1.3%), HDP 11.7%, other 0.7%; seats by party - People's Alliance 344 (AKP 295, MHP 49), National Alliance 189 (CHP 146, IYI 43), HDP 67; composition - men 496, women 104, percent of women 17.3%; note - only parties surpassing a 10% threshold can win parliamentary seats
    Judicial branch field listing
    highest courts: Constitutional Court or Anayasa Mahkemesi (consists of the president, 2 vice presidents, and 12 judges); Court of Cassation (consists of about 390 judges and is organized into civil and penal chambers); Council of State (organized into 15 divisions - 14 judicial and 1 consultative - each with a division head and at least 5 members)
    judge selection and term of office: Constitutional Court members - 3 appointed by the Grand National Assembly and 12 by the president of the republic; court president and 2 deputy court presidents appointed from among its members for 4-year terms; judges serve 12-year, nonrenewable terms with mandatory retirement at age 65; Court of Cassation judges appointed by the Board of Judges and Prosecutors, a 13-member body of judicial officials; Court of Cassation judges serve until retirement at age 65; Council of State members appointed by the Board and by the president of the republic; members serve renewable, 4-year terms
    subordinate courts: regional appeals courts; basic (first instance) courts; peace courts; aggravated crime courts; specialized courts, including administrative and audit; note - a constitutional amendment in 2017 abolished military courts unless established to investigate military personnel actions during war conditions
    Political parties and leaders field listing
    Democrat Party or DP [Gultekin UYSAL]
    Democratic Regions Party or DBP [Sebahat TUNCEL, Mehmet ARSLAN]
    Felicity Party or SP [Temel KARAMOLLAOGLU]
    Free Cause Party or HUDAPAR [Ishak SAGLAM]
    Good Party or TYIi [Meral AKSENER]
    Grand Unity Party or BBP [Mustafa DESTICI]
    Justice and Development Party or AKP [Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN]
    Nation Alliance (CHP, IYI, SP) (electoral alliance)
    Nationalist Movement Party or MHP [Devlet BAHCELI]
    People's Alliance (AKP, MHP) (electoral alliance)
    Patriotic Party or VP [Dogu PERINCEK]
    People's Democratic Party or HDP [Pervin BULDAN, Sezai TEMELLI]
    Republican People's Party or CHP [Kemal KILICDAROGLU]
    note:  as of December 2018, 83 political parties were legally registered
    International organization participation field listing
    ADB (nonregional member), Australia Group, BIS, BSEC, CBSS (observer), CD, CE, CERN (observer), CICA, CPLP (associate observer), D-8, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, EU (candidate country), FAO, FATF, G-20, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIC, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club (associate), PCA, PIF (partner), SCO (dialogue member), SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
    Diplomatic representation in the US field listing
    chief of mission: Ambassador Serdar KILIC (since 21 May 2014)
    chancery: 2525 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 612-6700
    FAX: [1] (202) 612-6744
    consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York
    Diplomatic representation from the US field listing
    chief of mission: Ambassador David M. SATTERFIELD (since 28 August 2019)
    telephone: [90] (312) 455-5555
    embassy: 110 Ataturk Boulevard, Kavaklidere, 06100 Ankara
    mailing address: PSC 93, Box 5000, APO AE 09823
    FAX: [90] (312) 467-0019
    consulate(s) general: Istanbul
    consulate(s): Adana
    Flag description field listing
    red with a vertical white crescent moon (the closed portion is toward the hoist side) and white five-pointed star centered just outside the crescent opening; the flag colors and designs closely resemble those on the banner of the Ottoman Empire, which preceded modern-day Turkey; the crescent moon and star serve as insignia for Turkic peoples; according to one interpretation, the flag represents the reflection of the moon and a star in a pool of blood of Turkish warriors
    National symbol(s) field listing
    vertical crescent moon with adjacent five-pointed star; national colors: red, white
    National anthem field listing
    name: "Istiklal Marsi" (Independence March)
    lyrics/music: Mehmet Akif ERSOY/Zeki UNGOR

    note: lyrics adopted 1921, music adopted 1932; the anthem's original music was adopted in 1924; a new composition was agreed upon in 1932

  • Economy :: Turkey
  • Economy - overview field listing

    Turkey's largely free-market economy is driven by its industry and, increasingly, service sectors, although its traditional agriculture sector still accounts for about 25% of employment. The automotive, petrochemical, and electronics industries have risen in importance and surpassed the traditional textiles and clothing sectors within Turkey's export mix. However, the recent period of political stability and economic dynamism has given way to domestic uncertainty and security concerns, which are generating financial market volatility and weighing on Turkey’s economic outlook.

    Current government policies emphasize populist spending measures and credit breaks, while implementation of structural economic reforms has slowed. The government is playing a more active role in some strategic sectors and has used economic institutions and regulators to target political opponents, undermining private sector confidence in the judicial system. Between July 2016 and March 2017, three credit ratings agencies downgraded Turkey’s sovereign credit ratings, citing concerns about the rule of law and the pace of economic reforms.

    Turkey remains highly dependent on imported oil and gas but is pursuing energy relationships with a broader set of international partners and taking steps to increase use of domestic energy sources including renewables, nuclear, and coal. The joint Turkish-Azerbaijani Trans-Anatolian Natural Gas Pipeline is moving forward to increase transport of Caspian gas to Turkey and Europe, and when completed will help diversify Turkey's sources of imported gas.

    After Turkey experienced a severe financial crisis in 2001, Ankara adopted financial and fiscal reforms as part of an IMF program. The reforms strengthened the country's economic fundamentals and ushered in an era of strong growth, averaging more than 6% annually until 2008. An aggressive privatization program also reduced state involvement in basic industry, banking, transport, power generation, and communication. Global economic conditions and tighter fiscal policy caused GDP to contract in 2009, but Turkey's well-regulated financial markets and banking system helped the country weather the global financial crisis, and GDP growth rebounded to around 9% in 2010 and 2011, as exports and investment recovered following the crisis.

    The growth of Turkish GDP since 2016 has revealed the persistent underlying imbalances in the Turkish economy. In particular, Turkey’s large current account deficit means it must rely on external investment inflows to finance growth, leaving the economy vulnerable to destabilizing shifts in investor confidence. Other troublesome trends include rising unemployment and inflation, which increased in 2017, given the Turkish lira’s continuing depreciation against the dollar. Although government debt remains low at about 30% of GDP, bank and corporate borrowing has almost tripled as a percent of GDP during the past decade, outpacing its emerging-market peers and prompting investor concerns about its long-term sustainability.

    GDP (purchasing power parity) field listing
    $2.186 trillion (2017 est.)
    $2.034 trillion (2016 est.)
    $1.972 trillion (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 13
    GDP (official exchange rate) field listing
    $851.5 billion (2017 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate field listing
    0.98% (2019 est.)
    3.04% (2018 est.)
    7.54% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 174
    GDP - per capita (PPP) field listing
    $27,000 (2017 est.)
    $25,500 (2016 est.)
    $25,000 (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 77
    Gross national saving field listing
    25.5% of GDP (2017 est.)
    24.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
    24.8% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 57
    GDP - composition, by end use field listing
    household consumption: 59.1% (2017 est.)
    government consumption: 14.5% (2017 est.)
    investment in fixed capital: 29.8% (2017 est.)
    investment in inventories: 1.1% (2017 est.)
    exports of goods and services: 24.9% (2017 est.)
    imports of goods and services: -29.4% (2017 est.)
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin field listing
    agriculture: 6.8% (2017 est.)
    industry: 32.3% (2017 est.)
    services: 60.7% (2017 est.)
    Agriculture - products field listing
    tobacco, cotton, grain, olives, sugar beets, hazelnuts, pulses, citrus; livestock
    Industries field listing
    textiles, food processing, automobiles, electronics, mining (coal, chromate, copper, boron), steel, petroleum, construction, lumber, paper
    Industrial production growth rate field listing
    9.1% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 18
    Labor force field listing
    25.677 million (2020 est.)

    note: this number is for the domestic labor force only; number does not include about 1.2 million Turks working abroad, nor refugees

    country comparison to the world: 20
    Labor force - by occupation field listing
    agriculture: 18.4%
    industry: 26.6%
    services: 54.9% (2016)
    Unemployment rate field listing
    13.68% (2019 est.)
    11% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 169
    Population below poverty line field listing
    21.9% (2015 est.)
    Household income or consumption by percentage share field listing
    lowest 10%: 2.1%
    highest 10%: 30.3% (2008)
    Budget field listing
    revenues: 172.8 billion (2017 est.)
    expenditures: 185.8 billion (2017 est.)
    Taxes and other revenues field listing
    20.3% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 151
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) field listing
    -1.5% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 91
    Public debt field listing
    28.3% of GDP (2017 est.)
    28.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 169
    Fiscal year field listing
    calendar year
    Inflation rate (consumer prices) field listing
    11.1% (2017 est.)
    7.8% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 204
    Current account balance field listing
    $8.561 billion (2019 est.)
    -$20.745 billion (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 26
    Exports field listing
    $166.2 billion (2017 est.)
    $150.2 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 30
    Exports - partners field listing
    Germany 9.6%, UK 6.1%, UAE 5.9%, Iraq 5.8%, US 5.5%, Italy 5.4%, France 4.2%, Spain 4% (2017)
    Exports - commodities field listing
    apparel, foodstuffs, textiles, metal manufactures, transport equipment
    Imports field listing
    $225.1 billion (2017 est.)
    $191.1 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 22
    Imports - commodities field listing
    machinery, chemicals, semi-finished goods, fuels, transport equipment
    Imports - partners field listing
    China 10%, Germany 9.1%, Russia 8.4%, US 5.1%, Italy 4.8% (2017)
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold field listing
    $107.7 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $106.1 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 24
    Debt - external field listing
    $452.4 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $404.9 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 26
    Exchange rates field listing
    Turkish liras (TRY) per US dollar -
    3.628 (2017 est.)
    3.0201 (2016 est.)
    3.0201 (2015 est.)
    2.72 (2014 est.)
    2.1885 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: Turkey
  • Electricity access field listing
    electrification - total population: 100% (2020)
    Electricity - production field listing
    261.9 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 16
    Electricity - consumption field listing
    231.1 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 18
    Electricity - exports field listing
    1.442 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 49
    Electricity - imports field listing
    6.33 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 31
    Electricity - installed generating capacity field listing
    78.5 million kW (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 15
    Electricity - from fossil fuels field listing
    53% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 144
    Electricity - from nuclear fuels field listing
    0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 199
    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants field listing
    33% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 64
    Electricity - from other renewable sources field listing
    14% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 64
    Crude oil - production field listing
    55,000 bbl/day (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 51
    Crude oil - exports field listing
    0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 208
    Crude oil - imports field listing
    521,500 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 17
    Crude oil - proved reserves field listing
    341.6 million bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 51
    Refined petroleum products - production field listing
    657,900 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 27
    Refined petroleum products - consumption field listing
    989,900 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 21
    Refined petroleum products - exports field listing
    141,600 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 37
    Refined petroleum products - imports field listing
    560,000 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 16
    Natural gas - production field listing
    368.1 million cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 75
    Natural gas - consumption field listing
    53.6 billion cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 15
    Natural gas - exports field listing
    622.9 million cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 42
    Natural gas - imports field listing
    55.13 billion cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 6
    Natural gas - proved reserves field listing
    5.097 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 92
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy field listing
    379.5 million Mt (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 17
  • Communications :: Turkey
  • Telephones - fixed lines field listing
    total subscriptions: 11,283,768
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 13.82 (2019 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 17
    Telephones - mobile cellular field listing
    total subscriptions: 79,068,023
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 96.84 (2019 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 20
    Telecommunication systems field listing
    general assessment: comprehensive telecommunications network undergoing rapid modernization and expansion, especially in mobile-cellular services; rise in subscribers and increase in bundled packages; while mobile broadband becoming increasingly popular DSL has largest share of fixed broadband technologies, but fiber-optic is growing with significant investment; 4G LTE networks well incorporated in Turkey, 93% coverage of the population; strides made with 5G trials with help from Chinese company Huawei (2020)
    domestic: additional digital exchanges are permitting a rapid increase in subscribers; the construction of a network of technologically advanced intercity trunk lines, using both fiber-optic cable and digital microwave radio relay, is facilitating communication between urban centers; remote areas are reached by a domestic satellite system; fixed-line 14 per 100 and mobile-cellular teledensity is 97 telephones per 100 persons (2019)
    international: country code - 90; landing points for the SeaMeWe-3 & -5, MedNautilus Submarine System, Turcyos-1 & -2 submarine cables providing connectivity to Europe, Africa, the Middle East, Asia, Southeast Asia and Australia ; satellite earth stations - 12 Intelsat; mobile satellite terminals - 328 in the Inmarsat and Eutelsat systems (2020)
    note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
    Broadcast media field listing

    Turkish Radio and Television Corporation (TRT) operates multiple TV and radio networks and stations; multiple privately owned national television stations and 567 private regional and local television stations; multi-channel cable TV subscriptions available; 1,007 private radio broadcast stations

    Internet country code field listing
    Internet users field listing
    total: 57,725,143
    percent of population: 71.04% (July 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 15
    Broadband - fixed subscriptions field listing
    total: 13,407,226
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 16 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 15
  • Transportation :: Turkey
  • National air transport system field listing
    number of registered air carriers: 11 (2020)
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 618
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 115,595,495 (2018)
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 5,949,210,000 mt-km (2018)
    Civil aircraft registration country code prefix field listing
    TC (2016)
    Airports field listing
    98 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 58
    Airports - with paved runways field listing
    total: 91 (2013)
    over 3,047 m: 16 (2013)
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 38 (2013)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 17 (2013)
    914 to 1,523 m: 16 (2013)
    under 914 m: 4 (2013)
    Airports - with unpaved runways field listing
    total: 7 (2013)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)
    914 to 1,523 m: 4 (2013)
    under 914 m: 2 (2013)
    Heliports field listing
    20 (2013)
    Pipelines field listing
    14,666 km gas, 3,293 km oil (2017)
    Railways field listing
    total: 12,710 km (2018)
    standard gauge: 11,497 km 1.435-m gauge (1.435 km high speed train) (2018)
    country comparison to the world: 21
    Roadways field listing
    total: 67,333 km (2018)
    paved: 24,082 km (includes 2,159 km of expressways) (2018)
    unpaved: 43,251 km (2018)
    country comparison to the world: 73
    Waterways field listing
    1,200 km (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 60
    Merchant marine field listing
    total: 1,234
    by type: bulk carrier 57, container ship 54, general cargo 363, oil tanker 124, other 636 (2019)
    country comparison to the world: 23
    Ports and terminals field listing
    major seaport(s): Aliaga, Ambarli, Diliskelesi, Eregli, Izmir, Kocaeli (Izmit), Mersin (Icel), Limani, Yarimca
    container port(s) (TEUs): Ambarli (3,131,621), Mersin (Icel) (1,592,000) (2017)
    LNG terminal(s) (import): Izmir Aliaga, Marmara Ereglisi
  • Military and Security :: Turkey
  • Military and security forces field listing
    Turkish Armed Forces (TSK): Turkish Land Forces (Turk Kara Kuvvetleri), Turkish Naval Forces (Turk Deniz Kuvvetleri; includes naval air and naval infantry), Turkish Air Forces (Turk Hava Kuvvetleri); Ministry of Interior: Gendarmerie of the Turkish Republic, Turkish Coast Guard Command (2019)
    Military expenditures field listing
    1.89% of GDP (2019 est.)
    1.85% of GDP (2018)
    1.52% of GDP (2017)
    1.46% of GDP (2016)
    1.39% of GDP (2015)
    country comparison to the world: 57
    Military and security service personnel strengths field listing
    size assessments for the Turkish Armed Forces (TSK) vary; approximately 375,000 total active duty personnel (280,000 Army; 45,000 Navy; 50,000 Air Force); approximately 150,000 Gendarmerie (2020 est.)
    Military equipment inventories and acquisitions field listing
    the Turkish Armed Forces inventory is mostly comprised of a mix of domestically-produced and Western weapons systems, although in recent years, Turkey has also acquired some Chinese, Russian, and South Korean equipment; since 2010, the US is the leading provider of armaments to Turkey, followed by Italy, South Korea, and Spain (2019 est.)
    Military deployments field listing
    600 Afghanistan (NATO); 250 Bosnia-Herzegovina (EUFOR); est. 25-35,000 Cyprus; 300 Kosovo (NATO); 170 Lebanon (UNIFIL); est. 200 Qatar; est. 200 Somalia; est. 5-10,000 Syria (2020)
    note: Turkey has deployed troops into northern Iraq on numerous occasions to combat the Kurdistan Worker's Party (PKK), including operations involving thousands of troops in 2007, 2011, and 2018; its most recent incursion was in June 2020; in 2020, Turkey deployed Turkish troops and an estimated 3,500 Syrian civil war veterans to Libya to support the Libyan Government of National Accord (GNA)
    Military service age and obligation field listing
    President Erdoğan on 25 June 2019 signed a new law cutting the men’s mandatory military service period in half, as well as making paid military service permanent; with the new system, the period of conscription was reduced from 12 months to six months for private and non-commissioned soldiers (the service term for reserve officers chosen among university or college graduates will remain 12 months); after completing six months of service, if a conscripted soldier wants to and is suitable for extending his military service, he may do so for an additional six months in return for a monthly salary; under the new law, all male Turkish citizens over the age of 20 will be required to undergo a one month military training period, but they can obtain an exemption from the remaining five months of their mandatory service by paying 31,000 Turkish Liras (2019)
    Military - note field listing
    the ruling Justice and Development Party (AKP) has actively pursued the goal of asserting civilian control over the military since first taking power in 2002; the Turkish Armed Forces (TSK) role in internal security has been significantly reduced; the TSK leadership continues to be an influential institution within Turkey, but plays a much smaller role in politics; the Turkish military remains focused on the threats emanating from the Syrian civil war, Russia's actions in Ukraine, and the PKK insurgency; primary domestic threats are listed as fundamentalism (with the definition in some dispute with the civilian government), separatism (Kurdish discontent), and the extreme left wing; Ankara strongly opposed establishment of an autonomous Kurdish region in Iraq; an overhaul of the Turkish Land Forces Command (TLFC) taking place under the "Force 2014" program is to produce 20-30% smaller, more highly trained forces characterized by greater mobility and firepower and capable of joint and combined operations; the TLFC has taken on increasing international peacekeeping responsibilities including in Afghanistan; the Turkish Navy is a regional naval power that wants to develop the capability to project power beyond Turkey's coastal waters; the Navy is heavily involved in NATO, multinational, and UN operations; its roles include control of territorial waters and security for sea lines of communications; the Turkish Air Force adopted an "Aerospace and Missile Defense Concept" in 2002 and has initiated project work on an integrated missile defense system; in a controversial move, it purchased the Russian S-400 air defense system for an estimated $2.5 billion in July 2019; Air Force priorities include attaining a modern deployable, survivable, and sustainable force structure, and establishing a sustainable command and control system; Turkey is a NATO ally and hosts NATO's Land Forces Command in Izmir, as well as the AN/TPY-2 radar as part of NATO Missile Defense (2019)
  • Terrorism :: Turkey
  • Terrorist group(s) field listing
    Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham – Turkey; Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan; Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps/Qods Force; Kurdistan Workers' Party; al-Qa'ida; Revolutionary People's Liberation Party/Front (2019)
    note: details about the history, aims, leadership, organization, areas of operation, tactics, targets, weapons, size, and sources of support of the group(s) appear(s) in Appendix-T
  • Transnational Issues :: Turkey
  • Disputes - international field listing

    complex maritime, air, and territorial disputes with Greece in the Aegean Sea; status of north Cyprus question remains; Turkey has expressed concern over the status of Kurds in Iraq; in 2009, Swiss mediators facilitated an accord reestablishing diplomatic ties between Armenia and Turkey, but neither side has ratified the agreement and the rapprochement effort has faltered; Turkish authorities have complained that blasting from quarries in Armenia might be damaging the medieval ruins of Ani, on the other side of the Arpacay valley

    Refugees and internally displaced persons field listing
    refugees (country of origin): 3,630,702 (Syria), 170,000 (Afghanistan), 142,000 (Iraq), 39,000 (Iran), 5,700 (Somalia) (2020)
    IDPs: 1.099 million (displaced from 1984-2005 because of fighting between the Kurdish PKK and Turkish military; most IDPs are Kurds from eastern and southeastern provinces; no information available on persons displaced by development projects) (2018)
    stateless persons: 117 (2018)
    Illicit drugs field listing
    key transit route for Southwest Asian heroin to Western Europe and, to a lesser extent, the US - via air, land, and sea routes; major Turkish and other international trafficking organizations operate out of Istanbul; laboratories to convert imported morphine base into heroin exist in remote regions of Turkey and near Istanbul; government maintains strict controls over areas of legal opium poppy cultivation and over output of poppy straw concentrate; lax enforcement of money-laundering controls