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Middle East :: Turkey Print
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TURKEY
  • Introduction :: Turkey
  • Background field listing

    Modern Turkey was founded in 1923 from the remnants of the defeated Ottoman Empire by national hero Mustafa KEMAL, who was later honored with the title Ataturk or "Father of the Turks." Under his leadership, the country adopted radical social, legal, and political reforms. After a period of one-party rule, an experiment with multi-party politics led to the 1950 election victory of the opposition Democrat Party and the peaceful transfer of power. Since then, Turkish political parties have multiplied, but democracy has been fractured by periods of instability and military coups (1960, 1971, 1980), which in each case eventually resulted in a return of formal political power to civilians. In 1997, the military again helped engineer the ouster - popularly dubbed a "post-modern coup" - of the then Islamic-oriented government. A coup attempt was made in July 2016 by a faction of the Turkish Armed Forces.

    Turkey intervened militarily on Cyprus in 1974 to prevent a Greek takeover of the island and has since acted as patron state to the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus," which only Turkey recognizes. A separatist insurgency begun in 1984 by the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK), a US-designated terrorist organization, has long dominated the attention of Turkish security forces and claimed more than 40,000 lives. In 2013, the Turkish Government and the PKK conducted negotiations aimed at ending the violence, however intense fighting resumed in 2015. Turkey joined the UN in 1945 and in 1952 it became a member of NATO. In 1963, Turkey became an associate member of the European Community; it began accession talks with the EU in 2005. Over the past decade, economic reforms, coupled with some political reforms, have contributed to a growing economy, although economic growth slowed in recent years.

    From 2015 and continuing through 2016, Turkey witnessed an uptick in terrorist violence, including major attacks in Ankara, Istanbul, and throughout the predominantly Kurdish southeastern region of Turkey. On 15 July 2016, elements of the Turkish Armed forces attempted a coup that ultimately failed following widespread popular resistance. More than 240 people were killed and over 2,000 injured when Turkish citizens took to the streets en masse to confront the coup forces. In response, Turkish Government authorities arrested, suspended, or dismissed more than 100,000 security personnel, journalists, judges, academics, and civil servants due to their alleged connection with the attempted coup. The government accused followers of an Islamic transnational religious and social movement for allegedly instigating the failed coup and designates the followers as terrorists. Following the failed coup, the Turkish Government instituted a State of Emergency in July 2016 that has been extended to July 2017. The Turkish Government conducted a referendum on 16 April 2017 that will, when implemented, change Turkey from a parliamentary to a presidential system.

  • Geography :: Turkey
  • Location field listing
    Southeastern Europe and Southwestern Asia (that portion of Turkey west of the Bosporus is geographically part of Europe), bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Georgia, and bordering the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea, between Greece and Syria
    Geographic coordinates field listing
    39 00 N, 35 00 E
    Map references field listing
    Middle East
    Area field listing
    total: 783,562 sq km
    land: 769,632 sq km
    water: 13,930 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 38
    Area - comparative field listing
    slightly larger than Texas
    Area comparison map: Area comparison map
    Land boundaries field listing
    total: 2,816 km
    border countries (8): Armenia 311 km, Azerbaijan 17 km, Bulgaria 223 km, Georgia 273 km, Greece 192 km, Iran 534 km, Iraq 367 km, Syria 899 km
    Coastline field listing
    7,200 km
    Maritime claims field listing
    territorial sea: 6 nm in the Aegean Sea
    exclusive economic zone: in Black Sea only: to the maritime boundary agreed upon with the former USSR
    12 nm in Black Sea and in Mediterranean Sea
    Climate field listing
    temperate; hot, dry summers with mild, wet winters; harsher in interior
    Terrain field listing
    high central plateau (Anatolia); narrow coastal plain; several mountain ranges
    Elevation field listing
    mean elevation: 1,132 m
    elevation extremes: 0 m lowest point: Mediterranean Sea
    5137 highest point: Mount Ararat
    Natural resources field listing
    coal, iron ore, copper, chromium, antimony, mercury, gold, barite, borate, celestite (strontium), emery, feldspar, limestone, magnesite, marble, perlite, pumice, pyrites (sulfur), clay, arable land, hydropower
    Land use field listing
    agricultural land: 49.7% (2011 est.)
    arable land: 26.7% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 4% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 19% (2011 est.)
    forest: 14.9% (2011 est.)
    other: 35.4% (2011 est.)
    Irrigated land field listing
    52,150 sq km (2012)
    Population distribution field listing
    the most densely populated area is found around the Bosporus in the northwest where 20% of the population lives in Istanbul; with the exception of Ankara, urban centers remain small and scattered throughout the interior of Anatolia; an overall pattern of peripheral development exists, particularly along the Aegean Sea coast in the west, and the Tigris and Euphrates River systems in the southeast
    Natural hazards field listing

    severe earthquakes, especially in northern Turkey, along an arc extending from the Sea of Marmara to Lake Van; landslides; flooding

    volcanism: limited volcanic activity; its three historically active volcanoes; Ararat, Nemrut Dagi, and Tendurek Dagi have not erupted since the 19th century or earlier

    Environment - current issues field listing
    water pollution from dumping of chemicals and detergents; air pollution, particularly in urban areas; deforestation; land degradation; concern for oil spills from increasing Bosporus ship traffic; conservation of biodiversity
    Environment - international agreements field listing
    party to: Air Pollution, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification
    Geography - note field listing
    strategic location controlling the Turkish Straits (Bosporus, Sea of Marmara, Dardanelles) that link the Black and Aegean Seas; the 3% of Turkish territory north of the Straits lies in Europe and goes by the names of European Turkey, Eastern Thrace, or Turkish Thrace; the 97% of the country in Asia is referred to as Anatolia; Mount Ararat, the legendary landing place of Noah's ark, is in the far eastern portion of the country
  • People and Society :: Turkey
  • Population field listing
    81,257,239 (July 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 18
    Nationality field listing
    noun: Turk(s)
    adjective: Turkish
    Ethnic groups field listing
    Turkish 70-75%, Kurdish 19%, other minorities 7-12% (2016 est.)
    Languages field listing
    Turkish (official), Kurdish, other minority languages
    Religions field listing
    Muslim 99.8% (mostly Sunni), other 0.2% (mostly Christians and Jews)
    Age structure field listing
    0-14 years: 24.26% (male 10,085,558 /female 9,627,967)
    15-24 years: 15.88% (male 6,589,039 /female 6,311,113)
    25-54 years: 43.26% (male 17,798,864 /female 17,349,228)
    55-64 years: 8.82% (male 3,557,329 /female 3,606,120)
    65 years and over: 7.79% (male 2,825,738 /female 3,506,283) (2018 est.)
    population pyramid: population pyramid
    Dependency ratios field listing
    total dependency ratio: 50.1 (2015 est.)
    youth dependency ratio: 38.4 (2015 est.)
    elderly dependency ratio: 11.7 (2015 est.)
    potential support ratio: 8.5 (2015 est.)
    Median age field listing
    total: 31.4 years
    male: 30.9 years
    female: 31.9 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 110
    Population growth rate field listing
    0.49% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 155
    Birth rate field listing
    15.4 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 119
    Death rate field listing
    6 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 165
    Net migration rate field listing
    -4.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 185
    Population distribution field listing
    the most densely populated area is found around the Bosporus in the northwest where 20% of the population lives in Istanbul; with the exception of Ankara, urban centers remain small and scattered throughout the interior of Anatolia; an overall pattern of peripheral development exists, particularly along the Aegean Sea coast in the west, and the Tigris and Euphrates River systems in the southeast
    Urbanization field listing
    urban population: 75.1% of total population (2018)
    rate of urbanization: 2.04% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    Major urban areas - population field listing
    14.751 million Istanbul, 4.919 million ANKARA (capital), 2.937 million Izmir, 1.916 million Bursa, 1.73 million Adana, 1.632 million Gaziantep (2018)
    Sex ratio field listing
    at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    25-54 years: 1.03 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    55-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    Mother's mean age at first birth field listing
    22.3 years (2010 est.)
    Maternal mortality rate field listing
    16 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 134
    Infant mortality rate field listing
    total: 16.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    male: 18.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    female: 15.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 92
    Life expectancy at birth field listing
    total population: 75.3 years (2018 est.)
    male: 72.9 years (2018 est.)
    female: 77.7 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 109
    Total fertility rate field listing
    2 children born/woman (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 118
    Contraceptive prevalence rate field listing
    73.5% (2013)
    Health expenditures field listing
    5.4% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 131
    Physicians density field listing
    1.75 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
    Hospital bed density field listing
    2.7 beds/1,000 population (2013)
    Drinking water source field listing
    improved: urban: 100% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 100% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 100% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 0% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 0% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
    Sanitation facility access field listing
    improved: urban: 98.3% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 85.5% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 94.9% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 1.7% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 14.5% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 5.1% of population (2015 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate field listing
    NA
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS field listing
    NA
    HIV/AIDS - deaths field listing
    NA
    Obesity - adult prevalence rate field listing
    32.1% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 17
    Children under the age of 5 years underweight field listing
    1.9% (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 113
    Education expenditures field listing
    4.4% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 99
    Literacy field listing
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)
    total population: 95.6% (2015 est.)
    male: 98.6% (2015 est.)
    female: 92.6% (2015 est.)
    School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education) field listing
    total: 16 years (2013)
    male: 17 years (2013)
    female: 16 years (2013)
    Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 field listing
    total: 20.5% (2017 est.)
    male: 17.7% (2017 est.)
    female: 25.6% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 63
  • Government :: Turkey
  • Country name field listing
    conventional long form: Republic of Turkey
    conventional short form: Turkey
    local long form: Turkiye Cumhuriyeti
    local short form: Turkiye
    etymology: the name means "Land of the Turks"
    Government type field listing
    parliamentary republic
    Capital field listing
    name: Ankara
    geographic coordinates: 39 56 N, 32 52 E
    time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    Administrative divisions field listing
    81 provinces (iller, singular - ili); Adana, Adiyaman, Afyonkarahisar, Agri, Aksaray, Amasya, Ankara, Antalya, Ardahan, Artvin, Aydin, Balikesir, Bartin, Batman, Bayburt, Bilecik, Bingol, Bitlis, Bolu, Burdur, Bursa, Canakkale, Cankiri, Corum, Denizli, Diyarbakir, Duzce, Edirne, Elazig, Erzincan, Erzurum, Eskisehir, Gaziantep, Giresun, Gumushane, Hakkari, Hatay, Igdir, Isparta, Istanbul, Izmir (Smyrna), Kahramanmaras, Karabuk, Karaman, Kars, Kastamonu, Kayseri, Kilis, Kirikkale, Kirklareli, Kirsehir, Kocaeli, Konya, Kutahya, Malatya, Manisa, Mardin, Mersin, Mugla, Mus, Nevsehir, Nigde, Ordu, Osmaniye, Rize, Sakarya, Samsun, Sanliurfa, Siirt, Sinop, Sirnak, Sivas, Tekirdag, Tokat, Trabzon (Trebizond), Tunceli, Usak, Van, Yalova, Yozgat, Zonguldak
    Independence field listing
    29 October 1923 (republic proclaimed succeeding the Ottoman Empire)
    National holiday field listing
    Republic Day, 29 October (1923)
    Constitution field listing
    history: several previous; latest ratified 9 November 1982 (2018)
    amendments: proposed by written consent of at least one-third of Grand National Assembly (GNA) members; adoption of draft amendments requires two debates in plenary GNA session and three-fifths majority vote of all GNA members; the president of the republic can request GNA reconsideration of the amendment and, if readopted by two-thirds majority GNA vote, the president may submit the amendment to a referendum; passage by referendum requires absolute majority vote; amended several times, last in 2017 (2018)
    International law organization participation field listing
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
    Citizenship field listing
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Turkey
    dual citizenship recognized: yes, but requires prior permission from the government
    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
    Suffrage field listing
    18 years of age; universal
    Executive branch field listing
    chief of state: President Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN (since 10 August 2014); Vice President Fuat OKTAY (since 9 July 2018)
    head of government: President Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN (since 10 August 2014); note - a 2017 constitutional referendum eliminated the post of prime minister after the 2018 general election
    cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister, appointed by the president (until the next parliamentary or presidential election following the April 2017 referendum)
    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); prime minister appointed by the president from among members of parliament; note - a 2007 constitutional amendment changed the presidential electoral process to direct popular vote; prime minister appointed by the president from among members of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey; election last held on 24 June 2018 (next to be held in June 2022)
    election results: Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN reelected president in the first round; Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN (AKP) 52.6%, Muharrem INCE (CHP) 30.6%, Salahattin DIMIRTAS (HDP) 8.4%, Meral AKSENER (IYI) 7.3%, other 1.1%
    Legislative branch field listing
    description: unicameral Grand National Assembly of Turkey or Turkiye Buyuk Millet Meclisi (600 seats - increased from 560 seats beginning with June 2018 election; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms - increased from 4 to 5 years beginning with June 2018 election)
    elections: last held on 24 June 2018 (next to be held on June 2023)
    election results: percent of vote by party - People's Alliance (AKP and MHP) 53.7%, National Alliance (CHP, SP, IVI) 33.9%, HDP 11.7%, other 0.7%; seats by party - People's Alliance 344, National Alliance 189, HDP 67; composition - men 496, women 104, percent of women 17.3%; note - only parties surpassing a 10% threshold can win parliamentary seats
    Judicial branch field listing
    highest courts: Constitutional Court or Anayasa Mahkemesi (consists of 17 members - a constitutional referendum held in 2017 approved an amendment to reduce to 15 from 17 the number of Constitutional Court judges); Court of Cassation (consists of about 390 judges and is organized into civil and penal chambers); Council of State (organized into 15 divisions - 14 judicial and 1 consultative - each with a division head and at least 5 members)
    judge selection and term of office: Constitutional Court members - 3 appointed by the Grand National Assembly and 12 by the president of the republic; court president and 2 deputy presidents appointed from among its members for 4-year terms; judges appointed for 12-year, nonrenewable terms with mandatory retirement at age 65; Court of Cassation judges appointed by the Board of Judges and Prosecutors, a 13-member body of judicial officials; Court of Cassation judges appointed until retirement at age 65; Council of State members appointed by the Board and by the president of the republic; members appointed for renewable, 4-year terms
    subordinate courts: regional appeals courts; basic (first instance) courts, peace courts; military courts; state security courts; specialized courts, including administrative and audit; note - a constitutional amendment in 2017 abolished military courts unless established to investigate military personnel actions during war conditions
    Political parties and leaders field listing
    Democrat Party or DP [Gultekin UYSAL]
    Democratic Left Party or DSP [Onder AKSAKAL]
    Felicity Party or SP [Temel KARAMOLLAOGLU]
    Good Party or IYI [Meral AKSENER]
    Grand Unity Party or BBP [Mustafa DESTICI]
    Justice and Development Party or AKP [Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN]
    Nationalist Movement Party or MHP [Devlet BAHCELI]
    Patriotic Party or VP [Dogu PERINCEK]
    People's Democratic Party or HDP [Selahattin DEMIRTAS and Serpil KEMALBAY]; note - DEMIRTAS was detained by Turkish authorities in November 2016 over his alleged links to the PKK
    Republican People's Party or CHP [Kemal KILICDAROGLU]
    True Path Party or DYP [Cetin OZACIRGOZ]
    International organization participation field listing
    ADB (nonregional member), Australia Group, BIS, BSEC, CBSS (observer), CD, CE, CERN (observer), CICA, CPLP (associate observer), D-8, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, EU (candidate country), FAO, FATF, G-20, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIC, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club (associate), PCA, PIF (partner), SCO (dialogue member), SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
    Diplomatic representation in the US field listing
    chief of mission: Ambassador Serdar KILIC (since 21 May 2014)
    chancery: 2525 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 612-6700
    FAX: [1] (202) 612-6744
    consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York
    Diplomatic representation from the US field listing
    chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affairs Philip KOSNETT (since 16 October 2017)
    embassy: 110 Ataturk Boulevard, Kavaklidere, 06100 Ankara
    mailing address: PSC 93, Box 5000, APO AE 09823
    telephone: [90] (312) 455-5555
    FAX: [90] (312) 467-0019
    consulate(s) general: Istanbul
    consulate(s): Adana
    Flag description field listing
    red with a vertical white crescent moon (the closed portion is toward the hoist side) and white five-pointed star centered just outside the crescent opening; the flag colors and designs closely resemble those on the banner of the Ottoman Empire, which preceded modern-day Turkey; the crescent moon and star serve as insignia for Turkic peoples; according to one interpretation, the flag represents the reflection of the moon and a star in a pool of blood of Turkish warriors
    National symbol(s) field listing
    star and crescent; national colors: red, white
    National anthem field listing
    name: "Istiklal Marsi" (Independence March)
    lyrics/music: Mehmet Akif ERSOY/Zeki UNGOR

    note: lyrics adopted 1921, music adopted 1932; the anthem's original music was adopted in 1924; a new composition was agreed upon in 1932

  • Economy :: Turkey
  • Economy - overview field listing

    Turkey's largely free-market economy is driven by its industry and, increasingly, service sectors, although its traditional agriculture sector still accounts for about 25% of employment. The automotive, petrochemical, and electronics industries have risen in importance and surpassed the traditional textiles and clothing sectors within Turkey's export mix. However, the recent period of political stability and economic dynamism has given way to domestic uncertainty and security concerns, which are generating financial market volatility and weighing on Turkey’s economic outlook.

    Current government policies emphasize populist spending measures and credit breaks, while implementation of structural economic reforms has slowed. The government is playing a more active role in some strategic sectors and has used economic institutions and regulators to target political opponents, undermining private sector confidence in the judicial system. Between July 2016 and March 2017, three credit ratings agencies downgraded Turkey’s sovereign credit ratings, citing concerns about the rule of law and the pace of economic reforms.

    Turkey remains highly dependent on imported oil and gas but is pursuing energy relationships with a broader set of international partners and taking steps to increase use of domestic energy sources including renewables, nuclear, and coal. The joint Turkish-Azerbaijani Trans-Anatolian Natural Gas Pipeline is moving forward to increase transport of Caspian gas to Turkey and Europe, and when completed will help diversify Turkey's sources of imported gas.

    After Turkey experienced a severe financial crisis in 2001, Ankara adopted financial and fiscal reforms as part of an IMF program. The reforms strengthened the country's economic fundamentals and ushered in an era of strong growth, averaging more than 6% annually until 2008. An aggressive privatization program also reduced state involvement in basic industry, banking, transport, power generation, and communication. Global economic conditions and tighter fiscal policy caused GDP to contract in 2009, but Turkey's well-regulated financial markets and banking system helped the country weather the global financial crisis, and GDP growth rebounded to around 9% in 2010 and 2011, as exports and investment recovered following the crisis.

    The growth of Turkish GDP since 2016 has revealed the persistent underlying imbalances in the Turkish economy. In particular, Turkey’s large current account deficit means it must rely on external investment inflows to finance growth, leaving the economy vulnerable to destabilizing shifts in investor confidence. Other troublesome trends include rising unemployment and inflation, which increased in 2017, given the Turkish lira’s continuing depreciation against the dollar. Although government debt remains low at about 30% of GDP, bank and corporate borrowing has almost tripled as a percent of GDP during the past decade, outpacing its emerging-market peers and prompting investor concerns about its long-term sustainability.

    GDP (purchasing power parity) field listing
    $2.186 trillion (2017 est.)
    $2.034 trillion (2016 est.)
    $1.972 trillion (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 13
    GDP (official exchange rate) field listing
    $851.5 billion (2017 est.) (2017 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate field listing
    7.4% (2017 est.)
    3.2% (2016 est.)
    6.1% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 16
    GDP - per capita (PPP) field listing
    $27,000 (2017 est.)
    $25,500 (2016 est.)
    $25,000 (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 77
    Gross national saving field listing
    25.5% of GDP (2017 est.)
    24.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
    24.8% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 57
    GDP - composition, by end use field listing
    household consumption: 59.1% (2017 est.)
    government consumption: 14.5% (2017 est.)
    investment in fixed capital: 29.8% (2017 est.)
    investment in inventories: 1.1% (2017 est.)
    exports of goods and services: 24.9% (2017 est.)
    imports of goods and services: -29.4% (2017 est.)
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin field listing
    agriculture: 6.8% (2017 est.)
    industry: 32.3% (2017 est.)
    services: 60.7% (2017 est.)
    Agriculture - products field listing
    tobacco, cotton, grain, olives, sugar beets, hazelnuts, pulses, citrus; livestock
    Industries field listing
    textiles, food processing, automobiles, electronics, mining (coal, chromate, copper, boron), steel, petroleum, construction, lumber, paper
    Industrial production growth rate field listing
    9.1% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 18
    Labor force field listing
    31.3 million (2017 est.)

    note: this number is for the domestic labor force only; number does not include about 1.2 million Turks working abroad, nor refugees

    country comparison to the world: 19
    Labor force - by occupation field listing
    agriculture: 54.9% (2016)
    industry: 26.6% (2016)
    services: 54.9% (2016)
    Unemployment rate field listing
    10.9% (2017 est.)
    10.9% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 147
    Population below poverty line field listing
    21.9% (2015 est.)
    Household income or consumption by percentage share field listing
    lowest 10%: 30.3% (2008)
    highest 10%: 30.3% (2008)
    Distribution of family income - Gini index field listing
    40.2 (2010)
    43.6 (2003)
    country comparison to the world: 65
    Budget field listing
    revenues: 172.8 billion (2017 est.)
    expenditures: 185.8 billion (2017 est.)
    Taxes and other revenues field listing
    20.3% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 151
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) field listing
    -1.5% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 91
    Public debt field listing
    28.3% of GDP (2017 est.)
    28.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 169
    Fiscal year field listing
    calendar year
    Inflation rate (consumer prices) field listing
    11.1% (2017 est.)
    7.8% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 204
    Central bank discount rate field listing
    5.25% (31 December 2011)
    15% (22 December 2009)
    country comparison to the world: 79
    Commercial bank prime lending rate field listing
    15.77% (31 December 2017 est.)
    14.74% (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 33
    Stock of narrow money field listing
    $119.4 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $108.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 33
    Stock of broad money field listing
    $119.4 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $108.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 33
    Stock of domestic credit field listing
    $610.4 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $549.9 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 23
    Market value of publicly traded shares field listing
    $188.9 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $219.8 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $195.7 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 36
    Current account balance field listing
    -$47.44 billion (2017 est.)
    -$33.14 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 202
    Exports field listing
    $166.2 billion (2017 est.)
    $150.2 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 30
    Exports - commodities field listing
    apparel, foodstuffs, textiles, metal manufactures, transport equipment
    Exports - partners field listing
    Germany 9.6%, UK 6.1%, UAE 5.9%, Iraq 5.8%, US 5.5%, Italy 5.4%, France 4.2%, Spain 4% (2017)
    Imports field listing
    $250.2 million (2017 est.)
    $191 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 206
    Imports - commodities field listing
    machinery, chemicals, semi-finished goods, fuels, transport equipment
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold field listing
    $107.7 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $106.1 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 24
    Imports - partners field listing
    China 10%, Germany 9.1%, Russia 8.4%, US 5.1%, Italy 4.8% (2017)
    Debt - external field listing
    $452.4 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $404.9 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 26
    Stock of direct foreign investment - at home field listing
    $180.3 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $133.2 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 35
    Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad field listing
    $47.44 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $38.31 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 45
    Exchange rates field listing
    Turkish liras (TRY) per US dollar -
    3.628 (2017 est.)
    3.0201 (2016 est.)
    3.0201 (2015 est.)
    2.72 (2014 est.)
    2.1885 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: Turkey
  • Electricity access field listing
    electrification - total population: 100% (2016)
    Electricity - production field listing
    245.8 billion kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 18
    Electricity - consumption field listing
    213.2 billion kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 20
    Electricity - exports field listing
    1.442 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 49
    Electricity - imports field listing
    6.4 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 32
    Electricity - installed generating capacity field listing
    73.15 million kW (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 14
    Electricity - from fossil fuels field listing
    56.8% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 138
    Electricity - from nuclear fuels field listing
    0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 198
    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants field listing
    35.4% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 60
    Electricity - from other renewable sources field listing
    11.2% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 65
    Crude oil - production field listing
    49,500 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 52
    Crude oil - exports field listing
    0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 206
    Crude oil - imports field listing
    506,300 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 18
    Crude oil - proved reserves field listing
    388.5 million bbl (1 January 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 54
    Refined petroleum products - production field listing
    618,300 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 27
    Refined petroleum products - consumption field listing
    943,700 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 23
    Refined petroleum products - exports field listing
    134,900 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 38
    Refined petroleum products - imports field listing
    527,700 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 16
    Natural gas - production field listing
    381 million cu m (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 73
    Natural gas - consumption field listing
    48.06 billion cu m (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 16
    Natural gas - exports field listing
    624 million cu m (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 40
    Natural gas - imports field listing
    48.43 billion cu m (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 6
    Natural gas - proved reserves field listing
    18.49 billion cu m (1 January 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 75
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy field listing
    319 million Mt (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 18
  • Communications :: Turkey
  • Telephones - fixed lines field listing
    total subscriptions: 11,308,444 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 14 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 17
    Telephones - mobile cellular field listing
    total subscriptions: 77,800,170 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 96 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 21
    Telephone system field listing
    general assessment: comprehensive telecommunications network undergoing rapid modernization and expansion, especially in mobile-cellular services (2016)
    domestic: additional digital exchanges are permitting a rapid increase in subscribers; the construction of a network of technologically advanced intercity trunk lines, using both fiber-optic cable and digital microwave radio relay, is facilitating communication between urban centers; remote areas are reached by a domestic satellite system; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity is roughly 105 telephones per 100 persons (2016)
    international: country code - 90; international service is provided by the SEA-ME-WE-3 submarine cable and by submarine fiber-optic cables in the Mediterranean and Black Seas that link Turkey with Italy, Greece, Israel, Bulgaria, Romania, and Russia; satellite earth stations - 12 Intelsat; mobile satellite terminals - 328 in the Inmarsat and Eutelsat systems (2016)
    Broadcast media field listing
    Turkish Radio and Television Corporation (TRT) operates multiple TV and radio networks and stations; multiple privately owned national television stations and up to 300 private regional and local television stations; multi-channel cable TV subscriptions available; more than 1,000 private radio broadcast stations (2009)
    Internet country code field listing
    .tr
    Internet users field listing
    total: 46,838,412 (July 2016 est.)
    percent of population: 58.3% (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 15
    Broadband - fixed subscriptions field listing
    total: 11,924,905 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 15 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 15
  • Transportation :: Turkey
  • National air transport system field listing
    number of registered air carriers: 15 (2015)
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 531 (2015)
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 96,604,665 (2015)
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 2,882,162,000 mt-km (2015)
    Civil aircraft registration country code prefix field listing
    TC (2016)
    Airports field listing
    98 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 58
    Airports - with paved runways field listing
    total: 91 (2013)
    over 3,047 m: 16 (2013)
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 38 (2013)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 17 (2013)
    914 to 1,523 m: 16 (2013)
    under 914 m: 4 (2013)
    Airports - with unpaved runways field listing
    total: 7 (2013)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)
    914 to 1,523 m: 4 (2013)
    under 914 m: 2 (2013)
    Heliports field listing
    20 (2013)
    Pipelines field listing
    12603 km gas, 3038 km oil (2016)
    Railways field listing
    total: 12,008 km (2014)
    standard gauge: 12,008 km 1.435-m gauge (3,216 km electrified) (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 21
    Roadways field listing
    total: 385,754 km (2012)
    paved: 352,268 km (includes 2,127 km of expressways) (2012)
    unpaved: 33,486 km (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 19
    Waterways field listing
    1,200 km (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 60
    Merchant marine field listing
    total: 1,285 (2017)
    by type: bulk carrier 78, container ship 50, general cargo 432, oil tanker 121, other 604 (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 22
    Ports and terminals field listing
    major seaport(s): Aliaga, Ambarli, Diliskelesi, Eregli, Izmir, Kocaeli (Izmit), Mersin (Icel), Limani, Yarimca
    container port(s) (TEUs): Ambarli (2,803,133), Mersin (Icel) (1,453,000) (2016)
    LNG terminal(s) (import): Izmir Aliaga, Marmara Ereglisi
  • Military and Security :: Turkey
  • Military expenditures field listing
    1.73% of GDP (2016)
    1.85% of GDP (2015)
    1.9% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 64
    Military branches field listing
    Turkish Armed Forces (TSK): Turkish Land Forces (Turk Kara Kuvvetleri), Turkish Naval Forces (Turk Deniz Kuvvetleri; includes naval air and naval infantry), Turkish Air Forces (Turk Hava Kuvvetleri) (2013)
    Military service age and obligation field listing
    21-41 years of age for male compulsory military service (in case of mobilization, up to 65 years of age); 18 years of age for voluntary service; 12-month conscript obligation for non-university graduates, 6-12 months for university graduates (graduates of higher education may perform 6 months of military service as short-term privates, or 12 months as reserve officers); conscripts are called to register at age 20, for service at 21; women serve in the Turkish Armed Forces only as officers; reserve obligation to age 41; Turkish citizens with a residence or work permit who have worked abroad for at least 3 years (1095 days) can be exempt from military service in exchange for 6,000 EUR or its equivalent in foreign currencies; a law passed in December 2014 introduced a one-time payment scheme which exempted Turkish citizens 27 and older from conscription in exchange for a payment of $8,150 (2013)
    Military - note field listing
    the ruling Justice and Development Party (AKP) has actively pursued the goal of asserting civilian control over the military since first taking power in 2002; the Turkish Armed Forces (TSK) role in internal security has been significantly reduced; the TSK leadership continues to be an influential institution within Turkey, but plays a much smaller role in politics; the Turkish military remains focused on the threats emanating from the Syrian civil war, Russia's actions in Ukraine, and the PKK insurgency; primary domestic threats are listed as fundamentalism (with the definition in some dispute with the civilian government), separatism (Kurdish discontent), and the extreme left wing; Ankara strongly opposed establishment of an autonomous Kurdish region in Iraq; an overhaul of the Turkish Land Forces Command (TLFC) taking place under the "Force 2014" program is to produce 20-30% smaller, more highly trained forces characterized by greater mobility and firepower and capable of joint and combined operations; the TLFC has taken on increasing international peacekeeping responsibilities including in Afghanistan; the Turkish Navy is a regional naval power that wants to develop the capability to project power beyond Turkey's coastal waters; the Navy is heavily involved in NATO, multinational, and UN operations; its roles include control of territorial waters and security for sea lines of communications; the Turkish Air Force adopted an "Aerospace and Missile Defense Concept" in 2002 and has initiated project work on an integrated missile defense system; Air Force priorities include attaining a modern deployable, survivable, and sustainable force structure, and establishing a sustainable command and control system; Turkey is a NATO ally and hosts NATO's Land Forces Command in Izmir, as well as the AN/TPY-2 radar as part of NATO Missile Defense (2014)
  • Terrorism :: Turkey
  • Terrorist groups - home based field listing
    Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham (ISIS) networks in Turkey:
    aim(s): replace the Turkish Government with an Islamic state and implement ISIS's strict interpretation of sharia
    area(s) of operation: moves fighters and supplies across the Turkey-Syria border; has periodically conducted attacks against civilian and government security targets (April 2018)
    Revolutionary People's Liberation Party/Front (DHKP/C):
    aim(s): install a Marxist-Leninist government in Turkey
    area(s) of operation: membership centered in Turkey, leadership primarily spread throughout Europe; in recent years has revived its attacks against Turkish Government elements, primarily in Istanbul; outlawed in Turkey (April 2018)
    Terrorist groups - foreign based field listing
    al-Nusrah Front:
    aim(s): overthrow Syrian President Bashar al-ASAD's regime, absorb like-minded Syrian rebel groups, and ultimately, establish a regional Islamic caliphate
    area(s) of operation: some facilitation networks (April 2018)
    al-Qa'ida (AQ):
    aim(s): radicalize the Turkish populace and eventually overthrow the Turkish Government as part of a long-term plan to establish a pan-Islamic caliphate under a strict Salafi Muslim interpretation of sharia
    area(s) of operation: maintains facilitation networks (April 2018)
    Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK):
    aim(s): advance Kurdish autonomy, political, and cultural rights in Turkey, Iran, Iraq, and Syria
    area(s) of operation: operational predominantly in the southeast; the group’s primary targets include government, military, and security personnel and facilities; majority of members inside Turkey are Turkish Kurds, along with Kurds from Iran, Iraq, and Syria; the group is outlawed in Turkey (April 2018)
  • Transnational Issues :: Turkey
  • Disputes - international field listing
    complex maritime, air, and territorial disputes with Greece in the Aegean Seastatus of north Cyprus question remainsTurkey has expressed concern over the status of Kurds in Iraqin 2009, Swiss mediators facilitated an accord reestablishing diplomatic ties between Armenia and Turkey, but neither side has ratified the agreement and the rapprochement effort has falteredTurkish authorities have complained that blasting from quarries in Armenia might be damaging the medieval ruins of Ani, on the other side of the Arpacay valley
    Refugees and internally displaced persons field listing
    refugees (country of origin): 3,594,232 (Syria), 169,000 (Afghanistan), 142,000 (Iraq), 36,000 (Iran), 5,000 (Somalia) (2018)
    IDPs: 1.113 million (displaced from 1984-2005 because of fighting between the Kurdish PKK and Turkish military; most IDPs are Kurds from eastern and southeastern provinces; no information available on persons displaced by development projects) (2017)
    stateless persons: 117 (2017)
    Illicit drugs field listing
    key transit route for Southwest Asian heroin to Western Europe and, to a lesser extent, the US - via air, land, and sea routes; major Turkish and other international trafficking organizations operate out of Istanbul; laboratories to convert imported morphine base into heroin exist in remote regions of Turkey and near Istanbul; government maintains strict controls over areas of legal opium poppy cultivation and over output of poppy straw concentrate; lax enforcement of money-laundering controls