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Middle East :: Turkey
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  • Introduction :: TURKEY

  • Modern Turkey was founded in 1923 from the Anatolian remnants of the defeated Ottoman Empire by national hero Mustafa KEMAL, who was later honored with the title Ataturk or "Father of the Turks." Under his leadership, the country adopted wide-ranging social, legal, and political reforms. After a period of one-party rule, an experiment with multi-party politics led to the 1950 election victory of the opposition Democratic Party and the peaceful transfer of power. Since then, Turkish political parties have multiplied, but democracy has been fractured by periods of instability and intermittent military coups (1960, 1971, 1980), which in each case eventually resulted in a return of political power to civilians. In 1997, the military again helped engineer the ouster - popularly dubbed a "post-modern coup" - of the then Islamic-oriented government. Turkey intervened militarily on Cyprus in 1974 to prevent a Greek takeover of the island and has since acted as patron state to the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus," which only Turkey recognizes. A separatist insurgency begun in 1984 by the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) - now known as the Kurdistan People's Congress or Kongra-Gel (KGK) - dominated the Turkish military's attention and claimed more than 30,000 lives. After the capture of the group's leader in 1999, the insurgents largely withdrew from Turkey mainly to northern Iraq. In 2013, the PKK and the Turkish Government agreed to a cease-fire that continues despite slow progress in ongoing peace talks. Turkey joined the UN in 1945 and in 1952 it became a member of NATO. In 1963, Turkey became an associate member of the European Community; it began accession membership talks with the EU in 2005. Over the past decade, economic reforms have contributed to a quickly growing economy.
  • Geography :: TURKEY

  • Southeastern Europe and Southwestern Asia (that portion of Turkey west of the Bosporus is geographically part of Europe), bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Georgia, and bordering the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea, between Greece and Syria
    39 00 N, 35 00 E
    Middle East
    total: 783,562 sq km
    land: 769,632 sq km
    water: 13,930 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 37
    slightly larger than Texas
    Area comparison map:
    total: 2,816 km
    border countries (8): Armenia 311 km, Azerbaijan 17 km, Bulgaria 223 km, Georgia 273 km, Greece 192 km, Iran 534 km, Iraq 367 km, Syria 899 km
    7,200 km
    territorial sea: 6 nm in the Aegean Sea; 12 nm in Black Sea and in Mediterranean Sea
    exclusive economic zone: in Black Sea only: to the maritime boundary agreed upon with the former USSR
    temperate; hot, dry summers with mild, wet winters; harsher in interior
    high central plateau (Anatolia); narrow coastal plain; several mountain ranges
    lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
    highest point: Mount Ararat 5,166 m
    coal, iron ore, copper, chromium, antimony, mercury, gold, barite, borate, celestite (strontium), emery, feldspar, limestone, magnesite, marble, perlite, pumice, pyrites (sulfur), clay, arable land, hydropower
    agricultural land: 49.7%
    arable land 26.7%; permanent crops 4%; permanent pasture 19%
    forest: 14.9%
    other: 35.4% (2011 est.)
    53,400 sq km (2012)
    211.6 cu km (2011)
    total: 40.1 cu km/yr (14%/10%/76%)
    per capita: 572.9 cu m/yr (2008)
    severe earthquakes, especially in northern Turkey, along an arc extending from the Sea of Marmara to Lake Van
    volcanism: limited volcanic activity; its three historically active volcanoes; Ararat, Nemrut Dagi, and Tendurek Dagi have not erupted since the 19th century or earlier
    water pollution from dumping of chemicals and detergents; air pollution, particularly in urban areas; deforestation; concern for oil spills from increasing Bosporus ship traffic
    party to: Air Pollution, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification
    strategic location controlling the Turkish Straits (Bosporus, Sea of Marmara, Dardanelles) that link the Black and Aegean Seas; Mount Ararat, the legendary landing place of Noah's ark, is in the far eastern portion of the country
  • People and Society :: TURKEY

  • noun: Turk(s)
    adjective: Turkish
    Turkish 70-75%, Kurdish 18%, other minorities 7-12% (2008 est.)
    Turkish (official), Kurdish, other minority languages
    Muslim 99.8% (mostly Sunni), other 0.2% (mostly Christians and Jews)
    79,414,269 (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 17
    0-14 years: 25.45% (male 10,339,731/female 9,868,005)
    15-24 years: 16.25% (male 6,587,897/female 6,314,306)
    25-54 years: 43.07% (male 17,323,965/female 16,878,498)
    55-64 years: 8.15% (male 3,216,877/female 3,253,892)
    65 years and over: 7.09% (male 2,498,187/female 3,132,911) (2015 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 49.7%
    youth dependency ratio: 38.4%
    elderly dependency ratio: 11.3%
    potential support ratio: 8.9% (2015 est.)
    total: 30.1 years
    male: 29.7 years
    female: 30.6 years (2015 est.)
    1.26% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 93
    16.33 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 118
    5.88 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 170
    2.16 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 50
    urban population: 73.4% of total population (2015)
    rate of urbanization: 1.97% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    Istanbul 14.164 million; ANKARA (capital) 4.75 million; Izmir 3.04 million; Bursa 1.923 million; Adana 1.83 million; Gaziantep 1.528 million (2015)
    at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female
    total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2015 est.)
    total: 18.87 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 20.13 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 17.55 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 93
    total population: 74.57 years
    male: 72.26 years
    female: 77 years (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 115
    2.05 children born/woman (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 114
    73% (2008)
    5.6% of GDP (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 103
    1.71 physicians/1,000 population (2011)
    2.5 beds/1,000 population (2011)
    urban: 100% of population
    rural: 100% of population
    total: 100% of population
    urban: 0% of population
    rural: 0% of population
    total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
    urban: 98.3% of population
    rural: 85.5% of population
    total: 94.9% of population
    urban: 1.7% of population
    rural: 14.5% of population
    total: 5.1% of population (2015 est.)
    29.4% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 36
    1.9% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 123
    2.9% of GDP (2006)
    country comparison to the world: 142
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 95%
    male: 98.4%
    female: 91.8% (2015 est.)
    total: 15 years
    male: 15 years
    female: 14 years (2012)
    total number: 321,866
    percentage: 3%
    note: data represents children ages 6-14 (2006 est.)
    total: 17.5%
    male: 16.3%
    female: 19.9% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 66
  • Government :: TURKEY

  • conventional long form: Republic of Turkey
    conventional short form: Turkey
    local long form: Turkiye Cumhuriyeti
    local short form: Turkiye
    republican parliamentary democracy
    name: Ankara
    geographic coordinates: 39 56 N, 32 52 E
    time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
    81 provinces (iller, singular - ili); Adana, Adiyaman, Afyonkarahisar, Agri, Aksaray, Amasya, Ankara, Antalya, Ardahan, Artvin, Aydin, Balikesir, Bartin, Batman, Bayburt, Bilecik, Bingol, Bitlis, Bolu, Burdur, Bursa, Canakkale, Cankiri, Corum, Denizli, Diyarbakir, Duzce, Edirne, Elazig, Erzincan, Erzurum, Eskisehir, Gaziantep, Giresun, Gumushane, Hakkari, Hatay, Igdir, Isparta, Istanbul, Izmir (Smyrna), Kahramanmaras, Karabuk, Karaman, Kars, Kastamonu, Kayseri, Kilis, Kirikkale, Kirklareli, Kirsehir, Kocaeli, Konya, Kutahya, Malatya, Manisa, Mardin, Mersin, Mugla, Mus, Nevsehir, Nigde, Ordu, Osmaniye, Rize, Sakarya, Samsun, Sanliurfa, Siirt, Sinop, Sirnak, Sivas, Tekirdag, Tokat, Trabzon (Trebizond), Tunceli, Usak, Van, Yalova, Yozgat, Zonguldak
    29 October 1923 (successor state to the Ottoman Empire)
    Republic Day, 29 October (1923)
    several previous; latest ratified 9 November 1982; amended 2001, 2007, 2010 (2010)
    civil law system based on various European legal systems notably the Swiss civil code
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: President Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN (since 10 August 2014)
    head of government: Prime Minister Ahmet DAVUTOGLU (since 28 August 2014); Deputy Prime Ministers Yalcin AKDOGAN, Bulent ARINC, Ali BABACAN (all since 29 August 2014)
    cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister, appointed by the president
    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); prime minister appointed by the president from among members of parliament; note - a 2007 constitutional amendment changed the presidential electoral process to direct popular vote; prime minister appointed by the president from among members of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey
    election results: Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN elected president; Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN (AKP) 51.8%, Ekmeleddin IHSANOGLU (independent) 38.4%, Selahattin DEMIRTAS (HDP) 9.8%
    description: unicameral Grand National Assembly of Turkey or Turkiye Buyuk Millet Meclisi (550 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms)
    elections: last held on 7 June 2015 (next to be held on 1 November 2015); note - ERDOGAN was unable to form a coalition government and announced on 24 August 2015 that snap elections would be held; DAVUTOGLU will form the interim government
    election results: percent of vote by party - AKP 40.9%, CHP 25.1%, MHP 16.4%, HDP 13.1%, other 4.5%; seats by party - AKP 256, CHP 132, MHP 80, HDP 82; note - only parties surpassing the 10% threshold can win parliamentary seats
    highest court: Constitutional Court or Anayasa Mahkemesi (consists of 17 members); Supreme Court of Appeals (consists of about 390 judges and organized into 15 divisions with 23 civil and 15 criminal chambers); Council of State (organized into 15 divisions - 14 judicial and 1 consultative – each with a division head and at least 5 members)
    judge selection and term of office: Constitutional Court members - 3 appointed by the Grand National Assembly and 14 by the president of the republic from among candidates nominated by the plenary assemblies of the high courts (with the exception of the Court of High Accounts), the Higher Education Council, and from among senior government administrators, lawyers, judges and prosecutors, and Constitutional Court rapporteurs; court president and 2 deputy presidents appointed from among its members for 4-year terms; judges appointed for 12-year, non-renewable terms with mandatory retirement at age 65; Supreme Court of Appeals judges appointed by the Supreme Council of Judges and Public Prosecutors (SCJP), an independent body of judicial officials; judges appointed until retirement at age 65; Council of State members appointed by the SCJP and by the president of the republic; members appointed for renewable, 4-year terms
    subordinate courts: basic (first instance) courts, military courts, specialized courts, including administrative and audit
    Anatolia Party or AnaParti [Emine Ulker TARHAN]
    Center Party [Abdurrahim KARSLI]
    Democratic Left Party or DSP [Masum TURKER]
    Democratic Party or DP [Gultekin UYSAL]
    Democratic Regions Party or DBP [Emine AYNA and Kamuran YUKSEK, co-chairs]
    Electronic Democracy Party or e-Parti [Emrehan HALICI]
    Felicity Party or SP [Mustafa KAMALAK]
    Freedom and Solidarity Party or ODP [Alper TAS and Bilge Seckin CETINKAYA, co-chairs]
    Grand Unity Party or BBP [Mustafa DESTICI]
    Independent Turkey Party or BTP [Haydar BAS]
    Justice and Development Party or AKP [Ahmet DAVUTOGLU]
    Nation and Justice Party or MILAD [Idris Naim SAHIN]
    Nationalist Movement Party or MHP [Devlet BAHCELI]
    People's Democratic Party or HDP [Selahattin DEMIRTAS and Figen YUKSEKDAG, co-chairs]
    Republican People's Party or CHP [Kemal KILICDAROGLU]
    Confederation of Businessmen and Industrialists of Turkey or TUSKON [Rizanur MERAL]
    Confederation of Public Sector Unions or KESK [Lami OZGEN, Sazyie KOSE, co-chairs]
    Confederation of Revolutionary Workers Unions or DISK [Tayfun GORGUN]
    Independent Industrialists' and Businessmen's Association or MUSIAD [Nail OLPAK]
    Moral Rights Workers Union or Hak-Is [Mahmut ARSLAN]
    Turkish Confederation of Employers' Unions or TISK [Tugrul KUDATGOBILIK]
    Turkish Confederation of Labor or Turk-Is [Ergun ATALAY]
    Turkish Confederation of Tradesmen and Craftsmen or TESK [Bendevi PALANDOKEN]
    Turkish Industrialists' and Businessmen's Association or TUSIAD [Muharrem YILMAZ]
    Turkish Union of Chambers of Commerce and Commodity Exchanges or TOBB [M. Rifat HISARCIKLIOGLU]
    ADB (nonregional member), Australia Group, BIS, BSEC, CBSS (observer), CD, CE, CERN (observer), CICA, CPLP (associate observer), D-8, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, EU (candidate country), FAO, FATF, G-20, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIC, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club (associate), PCA, PIF (partner), SCO (dialogue member), SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
    chief of mission: Ambassador Serdar KILIC (since 21 May 2014)
    chancery: 2525 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 612-6700
    FAX: [1] (202) 612-6744
    consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York
    chief of mission: Ambassador John R. BASS (since 20 October 2014)
    embassy: 110 Ataturk Boulevard, Kavaklidere, 06100 Ankara
    mailing address: PSC 93, Box 5000, APO AE 09823
    telephone: [90] (312) 455-5555
    FAX: [90] (312) 467-0019
    consulate(s) general: Istanbul
    consulate(s): Adana; note - there is a Consular Agent in Izmir
    red with a vertical white crescent moon (the closed portion is toward the hoist side) and white five-pointed star centered just outside the crescent opening; the flag colors and designs closely resemble those on the banner of the Ottoman Empire, which preceded modern-day Turkey; the crescent moon and star serve as insignia for Turkic peoples (the crescent represents the mythical moon god, Ay Ata, and the star the sun goddess, Gun Ana); according to one legend, the flag represents the reflection of the moon and a star in a pool of blood of Turkish warriors
    star and crescent; national colors: red, white
    name: "Istiklal Marsi" (Independence March)
    lyrics/music: Mehmet Akif ERSOY/Zeki UNGOR
    note: lyrics adopted 1921, music adopted 1932; the anthem's original music was adopted in 1924; a new composition was agreed upon in 1932
  • Economy :: TURKEY

  • Turkey's largely free-market economy is increasingly driven by its industry and service sectors, although its traditional agriculture sector still accounts for about 25% of employment. An aggressive privatization program has reduced state involvement in basic industry, banking, transport, and communication, and an emerging cadre of middle-class entrepreneurs is adding dynamism to the economy and expanding production beyond the traditional textiles and clothing sectors. The automotive, construction, and electronics industries are rising in importance and have surpassed textiles within Turkey's export mix.
    Oil began to flow through the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline in May 2006, marking a major milestone that has brought up to 1 million barrels per day from the Caspian region to market. Several gas pipeline projects also are moving forward to help transport Caspian gas to Europe through Turkey, which over the long term will help address Turkey's dependence on imported oil and gas, which currently meets 97% of its energy needs.
    After Turkey experienced a severe financial crisis in 2001, Ankara adopted financial and fiscal reforms as part of an IMF program. The reforms strengthened the country's economic fundamentals and ushered in an era of strong growth averaging more than 6% annually until 2008. Global economic conditions and tighter fiscal policy caused GDP to contract in 2009, but Turkey's well-regulated financial markets and banking system helped the country weather the global financial crisis, and GDP rebounded strongly to around 9% in 2010-11, as exports returned to normal levels following the recession. Two rating agencies upgraded Turkey's debt to investment grade in 2012 and 2013, and Turkey's public sector debt to GDP ratio fell to 33% in 2014. The stock value of Foreign Direct Investment reached nearly $195 billion at year-end 2014.
    Despite these positive trends, GDP growth dropped to 4.4% in 2013 and 2.9% in 2014. Growth slowed considerably in the last quarter of 2014, largely due to lackluster consumer demand both domestically and in Europe, Turkey’s most important export market. High interest rates have also contributed to the slowdown in growth, as Turkey sharply increased interest rates in January 2014 in order to strengthen the country’s currency and reduce inflation. Turkey then cut rates in February 2015 in a bid to spur economic growth.
    The Turkish economy retains significant weaknesses. Specifically, Turkey's relatively high current account deficit, domestic political uncertainty, and turmoil within Turkey's neighborhood leave the economy vulnerable to destabilizing shifts in investor confidence. Turkey also remains dependent on often volatile, short-term investment to finance its large current account deficit.
    $1.508 trillion (2014 est.)
    $1.466 trillion (2013 est.)
    $1.408 trillion (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2014 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 18
    $806.1 billion (2014 est.)
    2.9% (2014 est.)
    4.4% (2013 est.)
    2.1% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 110
    $19,600 (2014 est.)
    $19,100 (2013 est.)
    $18,300 (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2014 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 84
    13.3% of GDP (2014 est.)
    12.8% of GDP (2013 est.)
    14% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 121
    household consumption: 71.4%
    government consumption: 15.7%
    investment in fixed capital: 19.7%
    investment in inventories: 0%
    exports of goods and services: 27.7%
    imports of goods and services: -34.6%
    (2014 est.)
    agriculture: 8.2%
    industry: 26.9%
    services: 64.9% (2014 est.)
    tobacco, cotton, grain, olives, sugar beets, hazelnuts, pulses, citrus; livestock
    textiles, food processing, automobiles, electronics, mining (coal, chromate, copper, boron), steel, petroleum, construction, lumber, paper
    2.8% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 107
    27.56 million
    note: about 1.2 million Turks work abroad (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 24
    agriculture: 25.5%
    industry: 26.2%
    services: 48.4% (2010)
    9.9% (2014 est.)
    9.1% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 106
    16.9% (2010 est.)
    lowest 10%: 2.1%
    highest 10%: 30.3% (2008)
    40.2 (2010)
    43.6 (2003)
    country comparison to the world: 57
    revenues: $189.9 billion
    expenditures: $209.7 billion (2014 est.)
    23.3% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 133
    -2.4% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 94
    36.5% of GDP (2014 est.)
    37.4% of GDP (2013 est.)
    note: data cover central government debt, and excludes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data exclude debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are sold at public auctions
    country comparison to the world: 108
    calendar year
    8.9% (2014 est.)
    7.5% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 209
    5.25% (31 December 2011)
    15% (22 December 2009)
    country comparison to the world: 72
    13.6% (31 December 2014 est.)
    11.06% (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 54
    $118.3 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $107.4 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 35
    $474.7 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $425.1 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 25
    $653 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $576.8 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 22
    $308.8 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    $201.8 billion (31 December 2011)
    $306.7 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 29
    -$45.85 billion (2014 est.)
    -$65.11 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 189
    $176.6 billion (2014 est.)
    $163.6 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 30
    apparel, foodstuffs, textiles, metal manufactures, transport equipment
    Germany 9.6%, Iraq 6.9%, UK 6.3%, Italy 4.5%, France 4.1%, US 4% (2014)
    $240.4 billion (2014 est.)
    $243.4 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 24
    machinery, chemicals, semi-finished goods, fuels, transport equipment
    Russia 10.4%, China 10.3%, Germany 9.2%, US 5.3%, Italy 5%, Iran 4.1% (2014)
    $132 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $131 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 21
    $407.1 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $390 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 29
    $208.6 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $194.6 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 26
    $36.8 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $34.05 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 42
    Turkish liras (TRY) per US dollar -
    2.191 (2014 est.)
    1.9038 (2013 est.)
    1.8 (2012 est.)
    1.675 (2011 est.)
    1.5028 (2010 est.)
  • Energy :: TURKEY

  • 228.1 billion kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 20
    187.1 billion kWh (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 20
    1.236 billion kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 54
    7.425 billion kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 34
    53.86 million kW (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 18
    62.8% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 128
    0% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 192
    31.8% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 71
    5.4% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 54
    47,340 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 60
    0 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 193
    390,300 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 22
    294.8 million bbl (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 56
    486,100 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 33
    728,400 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 28
    107,800 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 42
    423,500 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 15
    537 million cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 68
    45.64 billion cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 22
    654 million cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 40
    45.27 billion cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 9
    6.824 billion cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 84
    296.9 million Mt (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 22
  • Communications :: TURKEY

  • total subscriptions: 12.53 million
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 16 (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 19
    total: 71.9 million
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 92 (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 21
    general assessment: comprehensive telecommunications network undergoing rapid modernization and expansion, especially in mobile-cellular services
    domestic: additional digital exchanges are permitting a rapid increase in subscribers; the construction of a network of technologically advanced intercity trunk lines, using both fiber-optic cable and digital microwave radio relay, is facilitating communication between urban centers; remote areas are reached by a domestic satellite system; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity is roughly 100 telephones per 100 persons
    international: country code - 90; international service is provided by the SEA-ME-WE-3 submarine cable and by submarine fiber-optic cables in the Mediterranean and Black Seas that link Turkey with Italy, Greece, Israel, Bulgaria, Romania, and Russia; satellite earth stations - 12 Intelsat; mobile satellite terminals - 328 in the Inmarsat and Eutelsat systems (2010)
    Turkish Radio and Television Corporation (TRT) operates multiple TV and radio networks and stations; multiple privately owned national television stations and up to 300 private regional and local television stations; multi-channel cable TV subscriptions available; more than 1,000 private radio broadcast stations (2009)
    1,090 (station frequency types NA) (2009)
    251 (2009)
    total: 36.6 million
    percent of population: 46.6% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 19
  • Transportation :: TURKEY

  • 98 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 58
    total: 91
    over 3,047 m: 16
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 38
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 17
    914 to 1,523 m: 16
    under 914 m: 4 (2013)
    total: 7
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
    914 to 1,523 m: 4
    under 914 m:
    2 (2013)
    20 (2013)
    gas 12,603 km; oil 3,038 km (2013)
    total: 12,008 km
    standard gauge: 12,008 km 1.435-m gauge (3,216 km electrified) (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 20
    total: 385,754 km
    paved: 352,268 km (includes 2,127 km of expressways)
    unpaved: 33,486 km (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 18
    1,200 km (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 59
    total: 629
    by type: bulk carrier 102, cargo 281, chemical tanker 80, container 42, liquefied gas 6, passenger 2, passenger/cargo 60, petroleum tanker 25, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 29, specialized tanker 1
    foreign-owned: 1 (Italy 1)
    registered in other countries: 645 (Albania 1, Antigua and Barbuda 7, Azerbaijan 1, Bahamas 3, Barbados 1, Belize 16, Brazil 1, Cambodia 15, Comoros 8, Cook Islands 4, Curacao 5, Cyprus 1, Dominica 1, Georgia 14, Italy 4, Kazakhstan 1, Liberia 16, Malta 233, Marshall Islands 70, Moldova 18, Panama 62, Russia 101, Saint Kitts and Nevis 18, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 13, Sierra Leone 9, Slovakia 1, Tanzania 13, Togo 4, Tuvalu 1, unknown 3) (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 18
    major seaport(s): Aliaga, Ambarli, Diliskelesi, Eregli, Izmir, Kocaeli (Izmit), Mersin (Icel), Limani, Yarimca
    container port(s) (TEUs): Ambarli (2,121,549), Mersin (Icel) (1,126,866)
    LNG terminal (import): Izmir Aliaga, Marmara Ereglisi
  • Military :: TURKEY

  • Turkish Armed Forces (TSK): Turkish Land Forces (Turk Kara Kuvvetleri), Turkish Naval Forces (Turk Deniz Kuvvetleri; includes naval air and naval infantry), Turkish Air Forces (Turk Hava Kuvvetleri) (2013)
    21-41 years of age for male compulsory military service; 18 years of age for voluntary service; 12 months conscript obligation for non-university graduates, 6-12 months for university graduates (graduates of higher education may perform 6 months of military service as short-term privates, or 12 months as reserve officers); conscripts are called to register at age 20, for service at 21; women serve in the Turkish Armed Forces only as officers; reserve obligation to age 41; Turkish citizens with a residence or work permit who have worked abroad for at least 3 years (1095 days) can be exempt from military service in exchange for 6,000 EUR or its equivalent in foreign currencies; a law passed in December 2014 introduced a one-time payment scheme which exempted Turkish citizens 27 and older from conscription in exchange for a payment of $8,150 (2013)
    males age 16-49: 21,079,077
    females age 16-49: 20,558,696 (2010 est.)
    males age 16-49: 17,664,510
    females age 16-49: 17,340,816 (2010 est.)
    male: 700,079
    female: 670,328 (2010 est.)
    2.29% of GDP (2015 forecast)
    2.36% of GDP (2014)
    2.39% of GDP (2013)
    2.31% of GDP (2012)
    2.28% of GDP (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 35
    the ruling Justice and Development Party (AKP) has actively pursued the goal of asserting civilian control over the military since first taking power in 2002; the Turkish Armed Forces (TSK) role in internal security has been significantly reduced; the TSK leadership continues to be an influential institution within Turkey, but plays a much smaller role in politics; the Turkish military remains focused on the threats emanating from the Syrian civil war, Russia's actions in Ukraine, and the PKK insurgency; primary domestic threats are listed as fundamentalism (with the definition in some dispute with the civilian government), separatism (Kurdish discontent), and the extreme left wing; Ankara strongly opposed establishment of an autonomous Kurdish region in Iraq; an overhaul of the Turkish Land Forces Command (TLFC) taking place under the "Force 2014" program is to produce 20-30% smaller, more highly trained forces characterized by greater mobility and firepower and capable of joint and combined operations; the TLFC has taken on increasing international peacekeeping responsibilities including in Afghanistan; the Turkish Navy is a regional naval power that wants to develop the capability to project power beyond Turkey's coastal waters; the Navy is heavily involved in NATO, multinational, and UN operations; its roles include control of territorial waters and security for sea lines of communications; the Turkish Air Force adopted an "Aerospace and Missile Defense Concept" in 2002 and has initiated project work on an integrated missile defense system; Air Force priorities include attaining a modern deployable, survivable, and sustainable force structure, and establishing a sustainable command and control system; Turkey is a NATO ally and hosts NATO's Land Forces Command in Izmir, as well as the AN/TPY-2 radar as part of NATO Missile Defense (2014)
  • Transnational Issues :: TURKEY

  • complex maritime, air, and territorial disputes with Greece in the Aegean Sea; status of north Cyprus question remains; Syria and Iraq protest Turkish hydrological projects to control upper Euphrates waters; Turkey has expressed concern over the status of Kurds in Iraq; in 2009, Swiss mediators facilitated an accord reestablishing diplomatic ties between Armenia and Turkey, but neither side has ratified the agreement and the rapprochement effort has faltered; Turkish authorities have complained that blasting from quarries in Armenia might be damaging the medieval ruins of Ani, on the other side of the Arpacay valley
    refugees (country of origin): at least 103,000 (Iraq) (2014); 1,938,999 (Syria) (2015)
    IDPs: 954,000-1.2 million (displaced from 1984-2005 because of fighting between Kurdish PKK and Turkish military; most IDPs are Kurds from eastern and southeastern provinces; no information available on persons displaced by development projects) (2014)
    stateless persons: 780 (2014)
    key transit route for Southwest Asian heroin to Western Europe and, to a lesser extent, the US - via air, land, and sea routes; major Turkish and other international trafficking organizations operate out of Istanbul; laboratories to convert imported morphine base into heroin exist in remote regions of Turkey and near Istanbul; government maintains strict controls over areas of legal opium poppy cultivation and over output of poppy straw concentrate; lax enforcement of money-laundering controls