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Taiwan
  • Introduction :: TAIWAN

  • First inhabited by Austronesian people, Taiwan became home to Han immigrants beginning in the late Ming Dynasty (17th century). In 1895, military defeat forced China's Qing Dynasty to cede Taiwan to Japan, which governed Taiwan for 50 years. Taiwan came under Chinese Nationalist control after World War II. In the four years leading to the communist victory on the mainland in 1949, 2 million Nationalists fled to Taiwan and established a government under the 1947 constitution drawn up for all of China. The Nationalist government established authoritarian rule under martial law in 1948. Beginning in the late 1970s, the ruling authorities gradually democratized and incorporated the local population within the governing structure. This process expanded rapidly in the 1980s, with the founding of the first opposition party (the Democratic Progressive Party or DPP) in 1986 and the lifting of martial law in 1987. Taiwan held its first direct presidential election in 1996. In 2000, Taiwan underwent its first peaceful transfer of power from the Nationalist Party (Kuomintang or KMT) to the DPP. Throughout this period, the island prospered and became one of East Asia's economic "Tigers." The dominant political issues continue to be management of sensitive relations between Taiwan and China - specifically the question of Taiwan's eventual status - as well as domestic priorities for economic reform and growth.
  • Geography :: TAIWAN

  • Eastern Asia, islands bordering the East China Sea, Philippine Sea, South China Sea, and Taiwan Strait, north of the Philippines, off the southeastern coast of China
    23 30 N, 121 00 E
    Southeast Asia
    total: 35,980 sq km
    land: 32,260 sq km
    water: 3,720 sq km
    note: includes the Pescadores, Matsu, and Quemoy islands
    country comparison to the world: 139
    slightly smaller than Maryland and Delaware combined
    0 km
    1,566.3 km
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    tropical; marine; rainy season during southwest monsoon (June to August); persistent and extensive cloudiness all year
    eastern two-thirds mostly rugged mountains; flat to gently rolling plains in west
    mean elevation: 1,150 m
    elevation extremes: lowest point: South China Sea 0 m
    highest point: Yu Shan 3,952 m
    small deposits of coal, natural gas, limestone, marble, asbestos, arable land
    agricultural land: 22.7%
    arable land 16.9%; permanent crops 5.8%; permanent pasture NA
    forest: NA
    other: 77.3% (2011 est.)
    3,820 sq km (2012)
    67 cu km (2011)
    earthquakes; typhoons
    volcanism: Kueishantao Island (elev. 401 m), east of Taiwan, is its only historically active volcano, although it has not erupted in centuries
    air pollution; water pollution from industrial emissions, raw sewage; contamination of drinking water supplies; trade in endangered species; low-level radioactive waste disposal
    party to: none of the selected agreements because of Taiwan's international status
    strategic location adjacent to both the Taiwan Strait and the Luzon Strait
  • People and Society :: TAIWAN

  • noun: Taiwan (singular and plural)
    note: example - he or she is from Taiwan; they are from Taiwan
    adjective: Taiwan (or Taiwanese)
    Taiwanese (including Hakka) 84%, mainland Chinese 14%, indigenous 2%
    Mandarin Chinese (official), Taiwanese (Min), Hakka dialects
    mixture of Buddhist and Taoist 93%, Christian 4.5%, other 2.5%
    23,415,126 (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 54
    0-14 years: 13.52% (male 1,632,763/female 1,531,895)
    15-24 years: 13.36% (male 1,606,940/female 1,521,617)
    25-54 years: 47.06% (male 5,505,063/female 5,513,395)
    55-64 years: 13.59% (male 1,556,205/female 1,625,436)
    65 years and over: 12.48% (male 1,348,686/female 1,573,126) (2015 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total: 39.7 years
    male: 39 years
    female: 40.4 years (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 49
    0.23% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 181
    8.47 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 216
    7.11 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 129
    0.89 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 65
    TAIPEI (capital) 2.666 million; Kaohsiung 1.523 million; Taichung 1.225 million; Tainan 815,000 (2015)
    at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2015 est.)
    total: 4.44 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 4.84 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 4.01 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 184
    total population: 79.98 years
    male: 76.85 years
    female: 83.33 years (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 40
    1.12 children born/woman (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 222
    NA
    NA
    NA
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 98.5%
    male: 99.7%
    female: 97.3% (2014 est.)
  • Government :: TAIWAN

  • conventional long form: none
    conventional short form: Taiwan
    local long form: none
    local short form: Taiwan
    former: Formosa
    etymology: "Tayowan" was the name of the coastal sandbank where the Dutch erected their colonial headquarters on the island in the 17th century; the former name "Formosa" means "beautiful" in Portuguese
    semi-presidential republic
    name: Taipei
    geographic coordinates: 25 02 N, 121 31 E
    time difference: UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    includes main island of Taiwan plus smaller islands nearby and off coast of China's Fujian Province; Taiwan is divided into 13 counties (xian, singular and plural), 3 cities (shi, singular and plural), and 6 special municipalities directly under the jurisdiction of the Executive Yuan
    counties: Changhua, Chiayi, Hsinchu, Hualien, Kinmen, Lienchiang, Miaoli, Nantou, Penghu, Pingtung, Taitung, Yilan, Yunlin
    cities: Chiayi, Hsinchu, Keelung
    special municipalities: Kaohsiung (city), New Taipei (city), Taichung (city), Tainan (city), Taipei (city), Taoyuan (city)
    note: Taiwan uses a variety of romanization systems; while a modified Wade-Giles system still dominates, the city of Taipei has adopted a Pinyin romanization for street and place names within its boundaries; other local authorities use different romanization systems
    Republic Day (Anniversary of the Chinese Revolution), 10 October (1911)
    previous 1912, 1931; latest adopted 25 December 1946, promulgated 1 January 1947, effective 25 December 1947; revised several times, last in 2005 (2016)
    civil law system
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Taiwan
    dual citizenship recognized: yes, except that citizens of Taiwan are not recognized as dual citizens of the People's Republic of China
    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
    20 years of age; universal
    chief of state: President MA Ying-jeou (since 20 May 2008); Vice President WU Den-yih (since 20 May 2012)
    head of government: Premier Simon CHANG San-cheng (President of the Executive Yuan) (since 1 February 2016); Vice Premier Woody DUH Tyzz-jiun, Vice President of the Executive Yuan (since 1 February 2016); note Premier MAO Chi-Kuo stepped down 18 January 2016 and CHANG became Acting Premier
    cabinet: Executive Yuan - ministers appointed by president on recommendation of premier
    elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by simple majority popular vote for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 16 January 2016 (next to be held in 2020); premier appointed by the president; vice premiers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the premier
    election results: TSAI Ing-wen elected president; percent of vote - TSAI Ing-wen (DPP) 56.1%, Eric CHU Li-lun (KMT) 31.0%, James SOONG Chu-yu (PFP) 12.8%; TSAI is the first woman elected President of Taiwan
    description: unicameral Legislative Yuan (113 seats; 73 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 34 directly elected in a single islandwide constituency by proportional representation vote, and 6 directly elected in multi-seat aboriginal constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)
    elections: Legislative Yuan - last held on 16 January 2016 (next to be held in January 2020)
    election results: Legislative Yuan - percent of vote by party - DPP 44.1%, KMT 26.9%, PFP 6.5%, NPP 6.1%, other 16.4%; seats by party - DPP 68, KMT 35, NPP 5, PFP 3, NPSU 1, independent 1
    highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the court president, vice president, and approximately 100 judges organized into 8 civil and 12 criminal divisions, each with a division chief justice and 4 associate justices); Constitutional Court (consists of the court president, vice president, and 13 justices)
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court justices appointed by the president; Constitutional Court justices appointed by the president with approval of the Legislative Yuan; Supreme Court justices appointed for life; Constitutional Court justices appointed for 8-year terms with half the membership renewed every 4 years
    subordinate courts: high courts; district courts; hierarchy of administrative courts
    Democratic Progressive Party or DPP [TSAI Ing-wen]
    Kuomintang or KMT (Nationalist Party) [Eric Chu Li-lun]
    New Power Party or NPP [HUANG Kuo-chang]
    Non-Partisan Solidarity Union or NPSU [LIN Pin-kuan]
    People First Party or PFP [James SOONG Chu-yu]
    Taiwan Solidarity Union or TSU [HUANG Kun-huei]
    other: environmental groups; independence movement; various business groups
    note: public opinion polls consistently show most Taiwanese support maintaining Taiwan's status quo; advocates of Taiwan independence oppose unification with mainland China; most advocates of eventual unification predicate their goal on the democratic transformation of the mainland
    ADB (Taipei, China), APEC (Chinese Taipei), BCIE, ICC (national committees), IOC, ITUC (NGOs), SICA (observer), WTO (Taipei, China)
    none; commercial and cultural relations with the people in the United States are maintained through an unofficial instrumentality, the Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office in the United States (TECRO), a private nonprofit corporation that performs citizen and consular services similar to those at diplomatic posts
    representative: SHEN Lyu-shun (since 1 April 2014)
    office: 4201 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20016
    telephone: [1] 202 895-1800
    Taipei Economic and Cultural Offices (branch offices): Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Denver (CO), Hagatna (Guam), Houston, Honolulu, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, San Francisco, Seattle
    none; commercial and cultural relations with the people on Taiwan are maintained through an unofficial instrumentality, the American Institute in Taiwan (AIT), a private nonprofit corporation that performs citizen and consular services similar to those at diplomatic posts
    office:
    telephone: [1] [886] (02) 2162-2000
    FAX: [1] [886] (02) 2162-2251
    other offices: Kaohsiung (Branch Office)
    red field with a dark blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner bearing a white sun with 12 triangular rays; the blue and white design of the canton (symbolizing the sun of progress) dates to 1895; it was later adopted as the flag of the Kuomintang Party; blue signifies liberty, justice, and democracy; red stands for fraternity, sacrifice, and nationalism, white represents equality, frankness, and the people's livelihood; the 12 rays of the sun are those of the months and the twelve traditional Chinese hours (each ray equals two hours)
    white, 12-rayed sun on blue field; national colors: blue, white, red
    name: "Zhonghua Minguo guoge" (National Anthem of the Republic of China)
    lyrics/music: HU Han-min, TAI Chi-t'ao, and LIAO Chung-k'ai/CHENG Mao-Yun
    note: adopted 1930; also the song of the Kuomintang Party; it is informally known as "San Min Chu I" or "San Min Zhu Yi" (Three Principles of the People); because of political pressure from China, "Guo Qi Ge" (National Banner Song) is used at international events rather than the official anthem of Taiwan; the "National Banner Song" has gained popularity in Taiwan and is commonly used during flag raisings
  • Economy :: TAIWAN

  • Taiwan has a dynamic capitalist economy with gradually decreasing government guidance of investment and foreign trade. Exports, led by electronics, machinery, and petrochemicals have provided the primary impetus for economic development. This heavy dependence on exports exposes the economy to fluctuations in world demand. Taiwan's diplomatic isolation, low birth rate, and rapidly aging population are other major long-term challenges.
    Free trade agreements have proliferated in East Asia over the past several years. Following the landmark Economic Cooperation Framework Agreement (ECFA) signed with China in June 2010, Taiwan in July 2013 signed a free trade deal with New Zealand - Taipei’s first-ever with a country with which it does not maintain diplomatic relations - and, in November, inked a trade pact with Singapore. However, follow-on components of the ECFA, including a signed agreement on trade in services and negotiations on trade in goods and dispute resolution, have stalled. In early 2014, the government bowed to public demand and proposed a new law governing the oversight of cross-Strait agreements, before any additional deals with China are implemented; the legislature has yet to vote on such legislation, leaving the future of ECFA up in the air as President MA concludes his second and final term on 20 May 2016. MA has portrayed ECFA as Taiwan’s key to greater participation in East Asia’s free trade networks, and has also expressed interest in Taiwan joining the Trans-Pacific Partnership.
    Taiwan's total fertility rate of just over one child per woman is among the lowest in the world, raising the prospect of future labor shortages, falling domestic demand, and declining tax revenues. Taiwan's population is aging quickly, with the number of people over 65 expected to account for nearly 20% of the island's total population by 2025.
    The island runs a trade surplus, largely because of its surplus with China, and its foreign reserves are the world's fifth largest, behind those of China, Japan, Saudi Arabia, and Switzerland. In 2006 China overtook the US to become Taiwan's second-largest source of imports after Japan. China is also the island's number one destination for foreign direct investment. Taiwan since 2009 has gradually loosened rules governing Chinese investment on the island and has also secured greater market access for its investors in the mainland. In August 2012, the Taiwan Central Bank signed a memorandum of understanding (MOU) on cross-Strait currency settlement with its Chinese counterpart. The MOU allows for the direct settlement of Chinese RMB and the New Taiwan dollar across the Strait, which has helped Taiwan develop into a local RMB hub.
    Closer economic links with the mainland bring opportunities for Taiwan’s economy but also pose challenges as political differences remain unresolved and China’s economic growth is slowing. Domestic economic issues loomed large in public debate ahead of the 16 January 2016 presidential and legislative elections, including concerns about stagnant wages, high housing prices, youth unemployment, job security, and financial security in retirement.
    $1.114 trillion (2015 est.)
    $1.089 trillion (2014 est.)
    $1.05 trillion (2013 est.)
    note: data are in 2015 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 21
    $518.8 billion (2015 est.)
    2.2% (2015 est.)
    3.8% (2014 est.)
    2.2% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 136
    $47,500 (2015 est.)
    $46,500 (2014 est.)
    $44,800 (2013 est.)
    note: data are in 2015 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 28
    33.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
    34.7% of GDP (2014 est.)
    33.4% of GDP (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 8
    household consumption: 53%
    government consumption: 14.1%
    investment in fixed capital: 21.2%
    investment in inventories: 0.3%
    exports of goods and services: 64.7%
    imports of goods and services: -53.3%
    (2015 est.)
    agriculture: 1.9%
    industry: 34.8%
    services: 63.2% (2015 est.)
    rice, vegetables, fruit, tea, flowers; pigs, poultry; fish
    electronics, communications and information technology products, petroleum refining, chemicals, textiles, iron and steel, machinery, cement, food processing, vehicles, consumer products, pharmaceuticals
    1.2% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 138
    11.6 million (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 50
    agriculture: 5%
    industry: 36.1%
    services: 58.9% (2014 est.)
    3.7% (2015 est.)
    4% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 32
    1.5% (2012 est.)
    lowest 10%: 6.4%
    highest 10%: 40.3% (2010)
    33.8 (2012)
    32.6 (2000)
    country comparison to the world: 99
    revenues: $78.36 billion
    expenditures: $83.46 billion (2015 est.)
    15.1% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 191
    -1% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 53
    32.8% of GDP (2015 est.)
    33.4% of GDP (2014 est.)
    note: data for central government
    country comparison to the world: 134
    calendar year
    -0.2% (2015 est.)
    1.2% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 32
    1.88% (31 March 2015)
    1.88% (31 December 2011)
    country comparison to the world: 118
    2.9% (31 December 2015 est.)
    2.88% (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 170
    $467.6 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $451.2 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 12
    $1.249 trillion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $1.186 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 16
    $762.4 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $739.8 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 18
    $831.9 billion (31 December 2012)
    $784.1 billion (31 December 2011)
    $738.3 billion (31 December 2010)
    country comparison to the world: 18
    $64.12 billion (2015 est.)
    $65.42 billion (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 7
    $262.6 billion (2015 est.)
    $311.4 billion (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 21
    semiconductors, petrochemicals, automobile/auto parts, ships, wireless communication equipment, flat display displays, steel, electronics, plastics, computers
    China 27.1%, Hong Kong 13.2%, US 10.3%, Japan 6.4%, Singapore 4.4% (2012 est.)
    $221.2 billion (2015 est.)
    $269.9 billion (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 19
    oil/petroleum, semiconductors, natural gas, coal, steel, computers, wireless communication equipment, automobiles, fine chemicals, textiles
    Japan 17.6%, China 16.1%, US 9.5% (2012 est.)
    $425.3 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $423.9 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 6
    $177.9 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $170.1 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 37
    $69.09 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $66.29 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 51
    $271.9 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $258.6 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 23
    New Taiwan dollars (TWD) per US dollar -
    31.91 (2015 est.)
    30.363 (2014 est.)
    30.363 (2013 est.)
    29.62 (2012 est.)
    29.47 (2011 est.)
  • Energy :: TAIWAN

  • 233.7 billion kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 20
    224.3 billion kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 17
    0 kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 208
    0 kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 212
    48.48 million kW (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 22
    72.5% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 102
    12.5% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 16
    6.3% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 124
    8.7% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 43
    196 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 99
    0 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 200
    885,000 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 15
    2.38 million bbl (1 January 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 97
    911,800 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 24
    975,400 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 22
    337,200 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 24
    315,700 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 21
    379.4 million cu m (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 72
    16.21 billion cu m (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 40
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 198
    17.69 billion cu m (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 21
    6.229 billion cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 87
    307.1 million Mt (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 21
  • Communications :: TAIWAN

  • total subscriptions: 14.04 million
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 60 (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 18
    total: 30.4 million
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 130 (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 43
    general assessment: provides telecommunications service for every business and private need
    domestic: thoroughly modern; completely digitalized
    international: country code - 886; roughly 15 submarine fiber cables provide links throughout Asia, Australia, the Middle East, Europe, and the US; satellite earth stations - 2 (2011)
    5 nationwide television networks operating roughly 75 TV stations; about 85% of households utilize multi-channel cable TV; national and regional radio networks with about 170 radio stations (2008)
    AM 21, FM 143, shortwave 1 (2008)
    76 (5 television networks with 46 digital and 30 analog stations) (2007)
    .tw
    6.272 million (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 18
    total: 16.1 million
    percent of population: 70.0% (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 36
  • Transportation :: TAIWAN

  • 37 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 107
    total: 35
    over 3,047 m: 8
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 10
    914 to 1,523 m: 8
    under 914 m: 2 (2013)
    total: 2
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
    under 914 m: 1 (2013)
    31 (2013)
    condensate 25 km; gas 802 km; oil 241 km (2013)
    total: 1,597 km
    standard gauge: 345 km 1.435-m gauge (345 km electrified)
    narrow gauge: 1,102 km 1.067-m gauge (692 km electrified); 150 km 0.762-m gauge
    note: the 0.762-gauge track belongs to three entities: the Forestry Bureau, Taiwan Cement, and TaiPower (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 78
    total: 42,520 km
    paved: 42,078 km (includes 1,348 km of highways and 737 km of expressways)
    unpaved: 442 km (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 85
    total: 112
    by type: bulk carrier 35, cargo 20, chemical tanker 1, container 31, passenger/cargo 4, petroleum tanker 12, refrigerated cargo 7, roll on/roll off 2
    foreign-owned: 3 (France 2, Vietnam 1)
    registered in other countries: 579 (Argentina 2, Cambodia 1, Honduras 1, Hong Kong 25, Indonesia 1, Italy 10, Kiribati 2, Liberia 94, Marshall Islands 8, Panama 328, Philippines 1, Sierra Leone 7, Singapore 77, South Korea 1, Thailand 1, UK 11, Vanuatu 1, unknown 8) (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 47
    major seaport(s): Chilung (Keelung), Kaohsiung, Hualian, Taichung
    container port(s) (TEUs): Chilung (Keelung) (1,749,388), Kaohsiung (9,363,289), Taichung (1,383,578)
    LNG terminal (import): Yung An (Kaohsiung), Taichung
  • Military and Security :: TAIWAN

  • Army, Navy (includes Marine Corps), Air Force, Military Police Command, Armed Forces Reserve Command, Coast Guard Administration (2016)
    starting with those born in 1994, men 18-36 years of age may volunteer for military service or must complete four months of compulsory military training (or substitute civil service in some cases); women may enlist; women in Air Force service are restricted to noncombat roles; for men born before December 1993, compulsory service (military or civil) is one year; for
  • Transnational Issues :: TAIWAN

  • involved in complex dispute with Brunei, China, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Vietnam over the Spratly Islands, and with China and the Philippines over Scarborough Reef; the 2002 "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea" has eased tensions but falls short of a legally binding "code of conduct" desired by several of the disputants; Paracel Islands are occupied by China, but claimed by Taiwan and Vietnam; in 2003, China and Taiwan became more vocal in rejecting both Japan's claims to the uninhabited islands of the Senkaku-shoto (Diaoyu Tai) and Japan's unilaterally declared exclusive economic zone in the East China Sea where all parties engage in hydrocarbon prospecting
    regional transit point for heroin, methamphetamine, and precursor chemicals; transshipment point for drugs to Japan; major problem with domestic consumption of methamphetamine and heroin; rising problems with use of ketamine and club drugs
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